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GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 1 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 2 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 3 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 4 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 5 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 6 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 7 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 8 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 9 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 10 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 11 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 12 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 13 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 14 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 15 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 16 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 17 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 18 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 19 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 20 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 21 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 22 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 23 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 24 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 25 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 26 GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS Slide 27
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GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS

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MENDELE'S EXPERIMNENT AND TERMINOLOGY, BY MR. DINABANDHU BARAD, MSC TUTOR, DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRIC, SUM NURSING COLLEGE, SIKSHA 'O' ANUSANDHAN DEEMED TO BE UNIVERSITY

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GENETIC TERMINOLOGY AND MENDELIAN GENETICS

  1. 1. 1 MENDELELIAN GENETICS copyright cmassengale Prepared By: Mr. Dinabandhu Barad MSc Tutor, Department of Paediatric. SUM Nursing College, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan Deemed to be University
  2. 2. Gregor Johann Mendel • Gregor Mendel, known as the "father of modern genetics," was born in Austria in 1822. • A monk, Mendel discovered the basic principles of heredity through experiments in his monastery's garden. • His experiments showed that the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants follows particular patterns, subsequently becoming the foundation of modern genetics and leading to the study of heredity
  3. 3. GENETIC TERMINOLOGY • Trait: Trait is a specific characteristic of an individual that can be passed from parent to offspring. For example, their hair color or their blood type. • Heredity: The process of passing of traits from one generation to another. • Genetics: According to WHO “ the study of heredity is called genetics.
  4. 4. GENETIC TERMINOLOGY • Hybrid: an offspring resulting from the mating between individuals of two different genetic constitutions • Mono hybrid cross: A cross between two individuals differing in one characteristic • Di hybrid cross: A cross between two individuals differing in two characteristics. • Alleles: the alternative form of gene is called alleles 4
  5. 5. GENETIC TERMINOLOGY Genotype : the genetic make-up of an individual Phenotype : the outward expression of genotype is called phenotype Example: In case of a tall plant where genetic constituent can be (TT or Tt) Phenotype= tallness of the plant which is expressed or visible Genotype = TT /Tt 5
  6. 6. GENETIC TERMINOLOGY • Locus: The location of allelic genes on the chromosome, e.g., A, B, and O genes occur at the ABO locus. (Plural = loci) • Homozygous: Possessing a pair of identical alleles for a particular locus (TT / tt) • Heterozygous: possessing a pair of different alleles for a particular locus (Tt) 6
  7. 7. GENETIC TERMINOLOGY Dominant:an allele that is always expressed when present, regardless of whether the organism is homozygous or heterozygous for that gene Recessive: an allele that is only expressed when the organism is homozygous for that allele and not expressed when heterozygous (when paired with a dominant allele) 7
  8. 8. MENDEL’S EXPERIMENTS
  9. 9. MONOHYBRID CROSS Mendel investigated the pairs of pea plants with one contrasting trait. Mendel studied on the following seven characters with contrasting traits: 1. Flower colour: Violet/white 2. Flower position: Axial/terminal 3. Pod colour: Green/yellow 4. Pod shape: Inflated/constricted 5. Seed colour: Yellow/green 6. Seed shape: Round/wrinkled 7. Stem height: Tall/dwarf
  10. 10. MONOHYBRID CROSS • He crossed two homozygous individuals which resulted in heterozygous offspring. This was known as the monohybrid cross. • “A monohybrid cross is the hybrid of two individuals with homozygous genotypes which result in the opposite phenotype for a certain genetic trait.” • “The cross between two monohybrid traits (TT and tt) is called a Monohybrid Cross.”
  11. 11. MONO HYBRID CROSS
  12. 12. MONOHYBRID CROSS • For monohybrid cross, Mendel began with a pair of pea plants with two contrasting traits, i.e., one tall and another dwarf. • The cross-pollination of tall and dwarf plants resulted in tall plants. All the hybrid plants were tall. He called this as a first hybrid generation (F1) and offspring were called Filial1 or F1 progeny. • He conducted an experiment with all seven contrasting pairs and observed that the entire F1 progeny showed one pattern in their behaviour, i.e., they resembled one of the parents. Another parent character was completely absent.
  13. 13. MONOHYBRID CROSS • He continued his experiment with self-pollination of F1 progeny plants. Surprisingly, he observed that one out of four plants were dwarf while the other three were tall. • The tall and the short plants were in the ratio of 3:1. • He also noted that no progeny was in intermediate height, i.e., no blending was observed. • The result was the same for other traits of plants too, and he called them second hybrid generation and the offspring were called Filial2 or F2 progeny.
  14. 14. MONOHYBRID CROSS • Mendel observed that traits which were absent in F1 generation had reappeared in the F2 generation. • He called such suppressed traits as recessive traits and expressed traits as dominant traits. • He also concluded that some ‘factors’ are inherited by offspring from their parent over successive generations. • Later, these ‘factors’ were called genes.
  15. 15. MONOHYBRID CROSS • Genes are responsible for the inheritance of traits from one generation to another. • Genes consist of a pair of alleles which code for different traits. • If a pair of alleles is the same, i.e., TT or tt, such alleles are called homozygous pair while those that are different or non-identical (e.g. Tt) are called heterozygous pair.
  16. 16. DIHYBRID CROSS • A dihybrid cross is a breeding experiment between two organisms which are different in two contrasting traits. • He picked the wrinkled-green seed and round-yellow seed and crossed them. • He obtained only round-yellow seeds in the F1 generation. • This indicated that round shape and yellow colour of seeds are dominant in nature.
  17. 17. DIHYBRID CROSS • Meanwhile, the wrinkled shape and green colour of seeds are recessive traits. • Then, F1 progeny was self-pollinated. • This resulted in four different combinations of seeds in the F2 generation. • They were wrinkled-yellow, round-yellow, wrinkled-green seeds and round-green in the phenotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1.
  18. 18. DIHYBRID CROSS • Consider “Y” for yellow seed colour and “y” for green seed colour, “R” for round shaped seeds and “r” for wrinkled seed shape. Thus, the parental genotype wil be “YYRR” (yellow-round seeds) and “yyrr” (green-wrinkled seeds).
  19. 19. Dihybrid Cross Traits: Seed shape & Seed color Alleles: R round r wrinkled Y yellow y green RrYy x RrYy RY Ry rY ry RY Ry rY ry All possible gamete combinations
  20. 20. Dihybrid Cross RRYY RRYy RrYY RrYy RRYy RRyy RrYy Rryy RrYY RrYy rrYY rrYy RrYy Rryy rrYy rryy Round/Yellow: 9 Round/green: 3 wrinkled/Yellow: 3 wrinkled/green: 1 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio RY Ry rY ry RY Ry rY ry
  21. 21. Dihybrid Cross Round/Yellow: 9 Round/green: 3 wrinkled/Yellow: 3 wrinkled/green: 1 9:3:3:1
  22. 22. Mendel’s Laws copyright cmassengale
  23. 23. LAW OF DOMINANCE • In case of a heterozygote state of alleles (Tt) the trait associated with one of these will be expressed (Called dominant) and the other one will remain supressed.(Called recessive) • Example: • A plant with genotype for height if is in heterozygote state i.e. Tt , then the plant appears to be tall as the characteristics of ‘T’ only expressed.
  24. 24. LAW OF SEGREGATION • During the formation of gametes (eggs or sperm), the two alleles responsible for a trait separate from each other. • Alleles for a trait are then "recombined" at fertilization, producing the genotype for the traits of the offspring.
  25. 25. Applying the Law of Segregation copyright cmassengale
  26. 26. LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT • Mendel's law of independent assortment states that the alleles of two (or more) different genes get sorted into gametes independently of one another
  27. 27. THANK YOU
  • PrachiPanda2

    Oct. 8, 2020
  • NIRUPAMABEHERA6

    Sep. 16, 2020
  • DebarunMukherjee2

    Aug. 28, 2020

MENDELE'S EXPERIMNENT AND TERMINOLOGY, BY MR. DINABANDHU BARAD, MSC TUTOR, DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRIC, SUM NURSING COLLEGE, SIKSHA 'O' ANUSANDHAN DEEMED TO BE UNIVERSITY

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