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MULTIPLE ALLELES AND BLOOD GROUPING

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BLOOD GROUP ALLELES , BY MR. DINABANDHU BARAD

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MULTIPLE ALLELES AND BLOOD GROUPING

  1. 1. Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  2. 2. MULTIPLE ALLELES & BLOOD GROUPING Presented By: Mr. Dinabandhu Barad MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  3. 3. MULTIPLE ALLELES & BLOOD GROUPING OBJECTIVES: At the end of the class you will be able to: • Define allele and multiple alleles • Explain blood groups • Recall the KARL LANDSTEINER’s law • Identify the genotype of the blood groups • Apply genetics to predict blood group Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  4. 4. ALLELE An Allele is an alternative form of a same gene, located on same locus on the homologous chromosomes. Alleles were first defined by Gregor Mendel in the law of segregation Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  5. 5. MULTIPLE ALLELES • According to Altenburg, “Three or more kinds of gene which occupy the same locus are referred to as multiple alleles.” • Multiple alleles are defined as three or more alternative form of a same gene, located on same locus on the homologous chromosomes, coding for certain characteristic in a population. • EXAMPLE: ABO BLOOD GROUP (Has three alleles) Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  6. 6. BLOOD Blood is a specialized body fluid. It has four main components: 1. Plasma 2. Red blood cells 3. White blood cells 4. Platelets Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  7. 7. ABO BLOOD GROUPS • ABO blood group in Human was discovered by KARL LANDSTEINER in 1901. Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  8. 8. ABO BLOOD GROUPS • Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943), the Austrian-born American immunologist. • He, has been titled as the “father of immunology”. • He discovered the blood groups (ABO) and framed the Landsteiner’s Law by 1904. Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  9. 9. RBC ABO BLOOD GROUPS • The ABO system is characterized by the presence or absence of antigens on the surface of Red Blood Cells. Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  10. 10. RBC ABO BLOOD GROUPS • The ABO system is characterized by the presence or absence of antigens on the surface of Red Blood Cells. Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  11. 11. RBC ABO BLOOD GROUPS • The ABO system is characterized by the presence or absence of antigens on the surface of Red Blood Cells. Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  12. 12. ABO BLOOD GROUPS Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  13. 13. LAWS OF KARL LANDSTEINER 1. If an ANTIGEN is present in the red cells of a blood, the corresponding ANTIBODY must be absent from the plasma. 2. If an ANTIGEN is absent in the red cells of a blood, the corresponding ANTIBODY must be present in the plasma. Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  14. 14. ABO BLOOD GROUPS Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  15. 15. ABO BLOOD GROUPS Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  16. 16. ABO GENOTYPE Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU Blood Group Antigens Present on RBCs Antibody Present in plasma Genotype A A antigen Anti-B IAIA or IAIO B B antigen Anti-A IBIB or IBIO AB A antigen B antigen None IAIB O None Anti-A, anti-B, anti-A,B IOIO
  17. 17. ABO GENOTYPE Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU Blood Group Antigens Present on RBCs Antibody Present in plasma Genotype A A antigen Anti-B IAIA or IAIO B B antigen Anti-A IBIB or IBIO AB A antigen B antigen None IAIB O None Anti-A, anti-B, anti-A,B IOIO
  18. 18. GENETICS OF ABO BLOOD SYSTEM • The ABO blood type is inherited in an Autosomal Co- Dominant fashion. • The ABO locus is located on chromosome 9 at 9q34.1-q34.2 consisting 18 kb of genomic DNA. • The A and B alleles differ from each other by seven nucleotide substitutions • The gene controlling ABO blood type is labeled as I. • The alleles are designated as IA, IB and IO (or i). Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  19. 19. GENETICS OF ABO BLOOD SYSTEM • Where, I → Isoagglutinogen (antigen) • IA → Allele for A antigen • IB → Allele for B antigen • IO → Allele for o antigen • Dominance Hierarchy among alleles; IA = IB > IO • i.e., Alleles IA & IB are dominant over IO • Alleles IA & IB are Co-dominant Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  20. 20. Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU PREDICTING BLOOD GROUP
  21. 21. PREDICTING BLOOD GROUP QUESTION NO: 1 A father of blood type A and a mother of blood type B. What blood types are possible in their subsequent children? SOLUTION Father’s blood group A : alleles- IAIA or IAIO Mother’s blood group B: alleles- IBIB or IBIO Possible combinations: 1. father has IAIA and mother has IBIB 2. Father has IAIA and mother has IBIO 3. Father has IAIO and mother has IBIB 4. Father has IAIO and mother has IBIO Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  22. 22. PREDICTING BLOOD GROUP QUESTION NO: 1 A father of blood type A and a mother of blood type B. What blood types are possible in their subsequent children? 1. father has IAIA and mother has IBIB Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU F/M IB IB IA IAIB (AB group) IAIB (AB group) IA IAIB (AB group) IAIB (AB group)
  23. 23. PREDICTING BLOOD GROUP QUESTION NO: 1 A father of blood type A and a mother of blood type B. What blood types are possible in their subsequent children? 2. Father has IAIA and mother has IBIO Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU F/M IB Io IA IAIB (AB group) IAIo (A group) IA IAIB (AB group) IAIo (A group)
  24. 24. PREDICTING BLOOD GROUP QUESTION NO: 1 A father of blood type A and a mother of blood type B. What blood types are possible in their subsequent children? 3. Father has IAIO and mother has IBIB Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU F/M IB IB IA IAIB (AB group) IAIB (AB group) Io IOIB (B group) IOIB (B group)
  25. 25. PREDICTING BLOOD GROUP QUESTION NO: 1 A father of blood type A and a mother of blood type B. What blood types are possible in their subsequent children? 4. Father has IAIO and mother has IBIO Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU F/M IB IO IA IAIB (AB group) IAIO (A group) Io IOIB (B group) IOIO (O group)
  26. 26. PREDICTING BLOOD GROUP QUESTION NO: 1 A father of blood type A and a mother of blood type B. What blood types are possible in their subsequent children? SOLUTION: Father’s blood group A : alleles- IAIA or IAIO Mother’s blood group B: alleles- IBIB or IBIO ANSWER: A,B,AB,O Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  27. 27. PREDICTING BLOOD GROUP QUESTION NO: 1 A father of blood type A and a mother of blood type B. What blood types are possible in their subsequent children? SOLUTION: Father’s blood group A : alleles- IAIA or IAIO Mother’s blood group B: alleles- IBIB or IBIO ANSWER: A,B,AB,O Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  28. 28. PREDICTING BLOOD GROUP QUESTION NO: 2 A father of blood type AB and a mother of blood type O. What blood types are possible in their subsequent children? SOLUTION: Father’s blood group AB : alleles- IAIB Mother’s blood group O: alleles- IOIO Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  29. 29. PREDICTING BLOOD GROUP QUESTION NO: 2 A father of blood type AB and a mother of blood type O. What blood types are possible in their subsequent children? Father has IAIB and mother has IOIO Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU F/M IO IO IA IAIO (A group) IAIO (A group) IB IBIO (B group) IBIO (B group)
  30. 30. PREDICTING BLOOD GROUP QUESTION NO: 2 A father of blood type AB and a mother of blood type O. What blood types are possible in their subsequent children? SOLUTION: Father’s blood group AB : alleles- IAIB Mother’s blood group O: alleles- IOIO ANSWER: A,B Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  31. 31. ASSIGNMENT QUESTION NO: 3 A father of blood type AB and a mother of blood type A. What blood types are possible in their subsequent children? QUESTION NO: 4 A father of blood type AB and a mother of blood type AB. What blood types are possible in their subsequent children? QUESTION NO: 5 A father of blood type B and a mother of blood type B. What blood types are possible in their subsequent children? Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU
  32. 32. THANK YOU Mr. Dinabandhu Barad, MSc Tutor, SNC, SOA, DTU

BLOOD GROUP ALLELES , BY MR. DINABANDHU BARAD

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