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Muscular System

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Anatomy and physiology for nurses

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Muscular System

  1. 1. TNDONS AND LIGAMENTS
  2. 2. FACIAL MUSCLES There are 5 facial muscles: 1. Frontalis. The frontalis, which covers the frontal bone, runs from the cranial aponeurosis to the skin of the eyebrows, where it inserts; this muscle allows you to raise your eyebrows and wrinkle your forehead; at the posterior end of the cranial aponeurosis is the small occipitalis muscle.
  3. 3. FACIAL MUSCLES There are 5 facial muscles: 2. Orbicularis occuli. The orbicularis oculi has fibers that run in circles around the eyes; it allows you to close your eyes, squint, blink, and wink
  4. 4. FACIAL MUSCLES There are 5 facial muscles: 3. Orbicularis oris. The orbicularis oris is the circular muscle of the lips; because it closes the mouth and protrudes the lips, it is often called the “kissing” muscle.
  5. 5. FACIAL MUSCLES There are 5 facial muscles: 4. Buccinator. The fleshy buccinator muscle runs horizontally across the cheek and inserts into the orbicularis oris..
  6. 6. FACIAL MUSCLES There are 5 facial muscles: 5. Zygomaticus. The zygomaticus extends from the corner of the mouth to the cheekbone; it is often referred to as the “smiling” muscle because it raises the corners of the mouth upward
  7. 7. CHEWING MUSCLES The buccinator muscle, which is a member of this group, is described with the facial muscles. MASSETER: As it runs from the zygomatic process of the temporal bone to the mandible, the masseter covers the angle of the lower jaw; this muscle closes the jaw by elevating the mandible.
  8. 8. CHEWING MUSCLES TEMPORALIS. The temporalis is a fan-shaped muscle overlying the temporal bone; it inserts into the mandible and acts as a synergist of the masseter in closing the jaw.
  9. 9. NECK MUSCLES PLATYSMA. The platysma is a single, sheetlike muscle that covers the anterolateral neck; its action is to pull the corners of the mouth inferiorly, producing a downward sag of the mouth
  10. 10. NECK MUSCLES STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID. The paired sternocleidomastoid muscles are two-headed muscles, one found on each side of the neck; when both sternocleidomastoid contract together, they flex your neck.
  11. 11. TRUNK MUSCLES The trunk muscles include (1) Those that move the vertebral column; (2) Anterior thorax muscles, which move the ribs, head, and arms (3) Muscles of the abdominal wall
  12. 12. ANTERIOR TRUNK MUSCLES PECTORALIS MAJOR. The pectoralis major is a large, fan-shaped muscle covering the upper part of the chest; this muscle forms the anterior wall of the axilla and acts to adduct and flex the arm.
  13. 13. ANTERIOR TRUNK MUSCLES PECTORALIS MINOR. The pectoralis minor is a thin, triangular muscle, situated at the upper part of the chest, beneath the pectoralis major in the human body. The pectoralis minor depresses the point of the shoulder, drawing the scapula superior, towards the thorax
  14. 14. ANTERIOR TRUNK MUSCLES INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES. The intercostal muscles are found between the ribs; the external intercostals are important in breathing because they help you to raise the rib cage when you inhale; the internal intercostals, which lie deep to the external intercostals, depress the rib cage, which helps to move air out of the lungs when you exhale forcibly.
  15. 15. ANTERIOR TRUNK MUSCLES INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES. The intercostal muscles are found between the ribs; the external intercostals are important in breathing because they help you to raise the rib cage when you inhale; the internal intercostals, which lie deep to the external intercostals, depress the rib cage, which helps to move air out of the lungs when you exhale forcibly.
  16. 16. ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL MUSCLES
  17. 17. P0STERIOR TRUNK MUSCLES TRAPEZIUS. The trapezius muscles are the most superficial muscles of the posterior neck and upper trunk; the trapezius muscles extend the head; they also can elevate, depress, adduct, and stabilize the scapula.
  18. 18. P0STERIOR TRUNK MUSCLES LATISSIMUS DORSI. The latissimus dorsi muscles are the two large, flat muscles that cover the lower back; these are very important muscles when the arm must be brought down in a power stroke
  19. 19. P0STERIOR TRUNK MUSCLES ERECTOR SPINAE. The erector spinae group is the prime mover of back extension; these muscles not only act as powerful back extensors but also provide resistance that helps control the action of bending over at the waist
  20. 20. ERECTOR SPINAE
  21. 21. P0STERIOR TRUNK MUSCLES QUADRATUS LUMBORUM. The fleshy quadratus lumborum muscles form part of the posterior abdominal wall; acting separately, each muscle of the pair flexes the spine laterally; acting together, they extend the lumbar spine
  22. 22. P0STERIOR TRUNK MUSCLES DELTOID. The deltoids are fleshy, triangle-shaped muscles that form the rounded shape of the shoulders; the deltoids are the prime movers of arm abduction
  23. 23. UPPER LIMB MUSCLES BICEPS BRACHII. The biceps brachii is the most familiar muscle of the arm because it bulges when the elbow is flexed; this muscle is the powerful prime mover for flexion of the forearm and acts to supinate the forearm.
  24. 24. UPPER LIMB MUSCLES BRACHIALIS. The brachialis lies deep to the biceps muscle and is as important as the biceps in the elbow portion; the brachialis lifts the ulna as as the biceps lift the radius.
  25. 25. UPPER LIMB MUSCLES BRACHIORADIALIS. The brachioradialis is a fairly weak muscle that arises on the humerus and inserts into the distal forearm.
  26. 26. UPPER LIMB MUSCLES TRICEPS BRACHII. The triceps brachii is the only muscle fleshing out the posterior humerus; being the powerful prime mover of elbow extension, it is the antagonist of biceps brachii.
  27. 27. LOWER LIMB MUSCLES Muscles that act on the lower limb cause movement at the hip, knee and foot joints. They are among the largest and strongest muscle in the body and are specialized for walking and balancing the body.
  28. 28. LOWER LIMB MUSCLES GLUTEUS MAXIMUS. The gluteus maximus is a superficial muscle of the hip that forms most of the flesh of the buttock; it is a powerful hip extensor that acts to bring the thigh in a straight line with the pelvis.
  29. 29. LOWER LIMB MUSCLES GLUTEUS MEDIUS. The gluteus medius runs from the iliac to the femur, beneath the gluteus maximus for most of its length; the gluteus medius is a hip abductor and is important in steadying the pelvis during walking.
  30. 30. LOWER LIMB MUSCLES ILIOPSOAS. The iliopsoas is a fused muscle composed of two muscles, the iliacus and the psoas major; it is a prime mover of hip flexion and also acts to keep the upper body from falling backward when we are standing erect
  31. 31. LOWER LIMB MUSCLES ADDUCTOR MUSCLES. The muscles of the adductor group form the muscle mass at the medial side of each thigh; as their name indicates, they adduct, or press, the thighs together.
  32. 32. LOWER LIMB MUSCLES HAMSTRING GROUP. The muscles forming the muscle mass of the posterior thigh are the hamstrings; the group consists of three muscles, the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus, which originate on the ischial tuberosity and run down the thigh to insert on both sides of the proximal tibia
  33. 33. LOWER LIMB MUSCLES SARTORIUS. It is the most superficial muscle of the thigh; it acts as a synergist to bring about the cross-legged position.
  34. 34. LOWER LIMB MUSCLES QUADRICEPS GROUP. The quadriceps group consists of four muscles- the rectus femoris muscle and three vastus muscles– that flesh out the anterior thigh; the group as a whole acts to extend the knee powerfully.
  35. 35. LOWER LIMB MUSCLES Muscles Causing Movement at the Ankle and Foot There are 5 muscles that cause movement at the ankle and foot:
  36. 36. LOWER LIMB MUSCLES TIBIALIS ANTERIOR. The tibialis anterior is a superficial muscle on the anterior leg; it arises from the upper tibia and then parallels the anterior crest as it runs to the tarsal bones.
  37. 37. LOWER LIMB MUSCLES EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS. Lateral to the tibialis anterior, the extensor digitorum longus muscle arises from the lateral tibial condyle and proximal radius; it is a prime mover of toe extension and a dorsiflexor of the foo
  38. 38. LOWER LIMB MUSCLES FIBULARIS MUSCLES. The three fibularis muscles- longus, brevis, and tertius- are found on the lateral part of the leg; the group as a whole plantar flexes and everts the foot.
  39. 39. LOWER LIMB MUSCLES GASTROCNEMIUS. The gastrocnemius muscle is a two-bellied muscle that forms the curved half of the posterior leg; it is a prime mover for plantar flexion of the foot.
  40. 40. LOWER LIMB MUSCLES SOLEUS. Deep to the gastrocnemius is the fleshy soleus muscle; because it arises from the tibia and fibula, it does not affect knee movement.
  41. 41. THANK YOU
  • PriyaJaswin

    May. 24, 2021
  • ALiALi1337

    Mar. 3, 2021

Anatomy and physiology for nurses

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