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Logic model pp presentation_final_for sharing

Introductory Presentation about Using Logic Models for Program, Project, and Evaluation Design

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Logic model pp presentation_final_for sharing

  1. 1. Introduction to Logic Models for Program, Project, and Evaluation Design
  2. 2. Session Overview O Introduction to logic modeling O Purposes of logic modeling O Different types of models O Logic Model, Theory of Change, Theory of Action O Developing a logic model
  3. 3. Systematic Inquiry Cycle Planning and Design Protecting Participant Rights Developing/ Modifying Instruments Data Collection and Processing Data Analysis and Reporting
  4. 4. What is a Logic Model? A program logic model is a picture of how your program works – the theory and assumptions underlying the program. ...This model provides a road map of your program, highlighting how it is expected to work, what activities need to come before others, and how desired outcomes are achieved (p. 35). W.K. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Handbook (1998)
  5. 5. History of Logic Modeling O 35+ year history O Clear identification of goals (outcomes) O First attempt to standardize a depiction of program components so that activities align with outcomes O United Way provided the first widely- accepted model
  6. 6. Key Features of Logic Models O Systematic O Visual O Sequential but not necessarily linear O Typically have 5 components O Shows “What” and “How” O May show “Why”
  7. 7. Basic Logic Model W.K. Kellogg Foundation (January 2004)
  8. 8. Basic Logic Model Components PLANNED WORK O Resources: human, financial, organizational, community resources a program has available to do the work (i.e., Inputs) O Activities: processes, tools, events, technology, and actions that are an intentional part of program implementation.
  9. 9. Basic Logic Model Components INTENDED RESULTS O Outputs: direct products of program activities O Outcomes: specific changes in program participants’ behavior, knowledge, skills, status Short-term 1 to 3 years Longer-term 4 to 6 years O Impact: fundamental intended or unintended change as a result of program (7 to 10 years)
  10. 10. Logic Model Logic Certain resources are needed to operate your program If . . . Then . . . you have access to them, you can use them to accomplish your planned activities. you accomplish your planned activities, you will deliver the amount of product/service that you intended. you accomplish your planned activities to the extent intended, your participants will benefit in specific ways. these benefits are achieved, certain changes might occur under specified conditions.
  11. 11. Why Use Logic Modeling? 1. Planning and Design 2. Implementation and Management 3. Evaluation and Communication
  12. 12. Systematic Inquiry Cycle Planning and Design Protecting Participant Rights Developing/ Modifying Instruments Data Collection and Processing Data Analysis and Reporting Determine purpose(s), resources, activities, and anticipated outcomes
  13. 13. Using Logic Models for Planning and Design Logic Model Outcomes and Impact Resources and Activities Purpose and Questions
  14. 14. Planning and Design O Provides a road map O Describes sequence of events O Connects the need for the program with desired results Most of the value in a logic model is in the process of creating, validating, and modifying the model …The clarity of thinking that occurs from building the model is critical to the overall success of the program (p. 43). W.K. Kellogg Foundation (January 2004)
  15. 15. Systematic Inquiry Cycle Planning and Design Protecting Participant Rights Developing/ Modifying Instruments Data Collection and Processing Data Analysis and Reporting Manage, monitor and modify activities to improve progress and final outcomes
  16. 16. Implementation and Management O Helps visualize and understand how investments contribute to achieving intended program goals O Monitors incremental progress toward outcomes O Facilitates program improvements Program logic modeling is a learning and management tool that can be used throughout a program’s life . . . result(ing) in effective programming and offering greater learning opportunities (p. 1) W.K. Kellogg Foundation (January 2004)
  17. 17. Systematic Inquiry Cycle Planning and Design Protecting Participant Rights Developing/ Modifying Instruments Data Collection and Processing Data Analysis and Reporting Document outcomes and share knowledge with others
  18. 18. Evaluation and Communication O Documentation of outcomes O Shared knowledge about what works and why O Improves likelihood of sustaining a program over time through continuation of funding and/or stakeholder buy-in. A program is a theory and an evaluation is its test. . . to organize the evaluation to provide a responsible test, the evaluator needs to understand the theoretical premises on which the program is based (p. 55). Carol Weiss (1998)
  19. 19. How Logic Models Better Position Programs For Success Program Elements Criteria for Program Success Benefits of Program Logic Models Planning and Design Program goals and objectives, and important side effects are well defined ahead of time. Finds “gaps” in the theory or logic of a program and work to resolve them. Program goals and objectives are both plausible and possible. Builds a shared understanding of what the program is all about and how the parts work together. Program Implementation and Management Relevant, credible, and useful performance data can be obtained. Focuses attention of management on the most important connections between action and results. Evaluation, Communication, and Marketing The intended users of the evaluation results have agreed on how they will use the information. Provides a way to involve and engage stakeholders in the design, processes, and use of evaluation. W.K. Kellogg Foundation (January 2004) p.6
  20. 20. Sidebar 1 O There is no “Best” Logic Model - Choose the model that fits your program best and provides information you need in the format that is most helpful. O Practice using logic models - Experiment with logic model design to determine what works best for your program. O Don’t worry if your model doesn’t look like others but DO worry if you cannot explain your model to others
  21. 21. More Key Features of Logic Models OFlexible OShow areas of strength, weakness, and gaps ODynamic OPromotes strategic management
  22. 22. Forms of Logic Modeling O Typically logic models use table and flow chart formats with text and arrows or a graphic representation of program ideas. O A logic model does not have to be linear. Concept maps or other visuals may better describe complex program concepts.
  23. 23. Three Approaches to Logic Modeling O Theory approach model (conceptual) O Outcome approach model O Activities approach model (applied) O A program may use all three types of logic models for different purposes.
  24. 24. Theory Approach Models O Emphasize the theory of change influencing design and plan for the program O Explain how and why your program will work O May have additional parts (e.g., describe problem or issue addressed by program, connect strategies to activities)
  25. 25. Theory Model W.K. Kellogg Foundation (January 2004)
  26. 26. Theory and Practice
  27. 27. Why use a Theory-based Approach? O Demonstrates that program implementers have deep understanding of program aspects O Allows consideration of context and other mutable variables O Funders like, and often, require them O Facilitates program improvement and evaluation
  28. 28. Keeping it Simple O Theories of Change (ToC) and Theories of Action (ToA) are simply extensions of Logic Modeling O ToC and ToA emphasize different components of a logic model O Both ToC and ToA represent theory- based programs and are often used together to represent complex initiatives
  29. 29. How ToC and ToA Extend Logic Models Logic Models Theories of Change and Theories of Action O 1970s O Representation O List of Components O Descriptive – WHAT and HOW O 1990s O Justification O Pathway of Change O Explanatory – HOW and WHY
  30. 30. How are ToC and ToA Different Theory of Change Theory of Action O Represents an understanding of how a social, political, economic, cultural change happens O Complex O Contextual O Outcomes-based O Explains how a particular initiative contributes to the change process, and is informed by the broader ToC O Sequential O Specific O Activities-based
  31. 31. Theory of Change Model
  32. 32. Theory of Change Model
  33. 33. Theory of Action Model
  34. 34. Program Theory – ToC and ToA Model
  35. 35. Outcomes Approach Models O Focus on during early aspects of program planning O More clearly connect resources and/or activities with desired results O Subdivide outcomes and impact that may result from a given set of activities over time (i.e., short-term, long-term, impact)
  36. 36. Outcomes Model W.K. Kellogg Foundation (January 2004)
  37. 37. Why use an Outcomes- based Approach? O Demonstrates that program implementers have understanding of anticipated results O Explicitly considers time as a variable O Stakeholders like them O Facilitates program summative evaluation O Can use when program theory is underdeveloped – but not UNdeveloped
  38. 38. Activities Approach Models O Focus on program implementation process O Clearly link activities to each other to map implementation O Provide more detail about steps and sequence of program implementation
  39. 39. Activities Model W.K. Kellogg Foundation (January 2004)
  40. 40. Why use an Activities-based Approach? O Demonstrates that program implementers have understanding of relationships among program activities O Allows for studying interactions of activities O Facilitates program monitoring, management O Participants like them because they show what you will actually do. O Facilitates program formative or process evaluation
  41. 41. Sidebar 2 O Logic Model, Theory of Change, Theory of Action are often used interchangeably and are not clearly defined in the literature O Funders’ often request “logic model” when they expect a representation or model of theory
  42. 42. Basic Logic Model
  43. 43. Another Example
  44. 44. And Another . . .
  45. 45. Building a Logic Model Conceptualize Program Describe Assumptions Add Program Components What are your intended outcomes? What do you know (or assume) to be true? How will you produce outcomes?
  46. 46. Basic Logic Model Template Resources Activities Outputs Outcomes Impact In order to accomplish our set of activities we will need the following: In order to address our problem or asset we will conduct the following activities: We expect that once completed or under way these activities will produce the following evidence of service delivery: We expect that if completed or ongoing these activities will lead to the following changes in 1– 3 then 4–6 years: We expect that if completed these activities will lead to the following changes in 7–10 years:
  47. 47. Sidebar 3 O Grantees usually know what they want to do – “activity focused” O Make explicit connections between program activities and related “best practice” literature – “why will your approach work?” O Practitioner wisdom also counts -- but not as much as it used to
  48. 48. Basic Logic Model Template Resources Activities Outputs Outcomes Impact In order to accomplish our set of activities we will need the following: In order to address our problem or asset we will conduct the following activities: We expect that once completed or under way these activities will produce the following evidence of service delivery: We expect that if completed or ongoing these activities will lead to the following changes in 1– 3 then 4–6 years: We expect that if completed these activities will lead to the following changes in 7–10 years:
  49. 49. Outputs or Outcomes? Outputs Outcomes O Direct results of program activities (e.g., # of meetings, students enrolled) O Results you expect to achieve over time as a result of implementing activities Conducting an activity is not the same as achieving results from accomplishing that activity.
  50. 50. Outcomes SMART GOALS O Specific O Measurable O Action-oriented O Realistic O Timed Outcomes are specific changes in attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, skills, status, or level of functioning expected to result from program activities, most often at an individual or group level.
  51. 51. Basic Logic Model Template Resources Activities Outputs Outcomes Impact In order to accomplish our set of activities we will need the following: In order to address our problem or asset we will conduct the following activities: We expect that once completed or under way these activities will produce the following evidence of service delivery: We expect that if completed or ongoing these activities will lead to the following changes in 1– 3 then 4–6 years: We expect that if completed these activities will lead to the following changes in 7–10 years:
  52. 52. Impacts O Long-term (7-10 years) O Improved conditions O Increased capacity O Policy changes Impacts are collective organizational, community, and/or system level changes expected to result from program activities.
  53. 53. Basic Logic Model Template Resources Activities Outputs Outcomes Impact In order to accomplish our set of activities we will need the following: In order to address our problem or asset we will conduct the following activities: We expect that once completed or under way these activities will produce the following evidence of service delivery: We expect that if completed or ongoing these activities will lead to the following changes in 1– 3 then 4–6 years: We expect that if completed these activities will lead to the following changes in 7–10 years:
  54. 54. Resources – Available and Limiting Resources and/or barriers, which potentially enable or limit program effectiveness. O Enabling: funding, existing organizations, collaborating partners, staff, time, equipment, supplies O Limiting: attitudes, lack of resources, policies, laws, regulations, geography
  55. 55. Activities Activities are processes, tools, techniques, events, technology, and actions used to bring about desired results. O Products: promotional materials, educational curricula O Services: education, training O Infrastructure: structure, relationships, capacity
  56. 56. Basic Logic Model Template Resources Activities Outputs Outcomes Impact In order to accomplish our set of activities we will need the following: In order to address our problem or asset we will conduct the following activities: We expect that once completed or under way these activities will produce the following evidence of service delivery: We expect that if completed or ongoing these activities will lead to the following changes in 1– 3 then 4–6 years: We expect that if completed these activities will lead to the following changes in 7–10 years:
  57. 57. Outputs O Size and/or scope of services/products delivered O Number of classes taught, meetings held, or materials produced O Participation rates and demography Outputs are the direct results of program activities. They indicate if a program was delivered to the intended audiences as planned.
  58. 58. References O W.K. Kellogg Foundation. (January 2004). Using Logic Models to Bring Together Planning, Evaluation, and Action: Logic Model Development Guide. Battle Creek, Michigan. O Chen, H. T. (1990). Theory driven evaluations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. O Weiss, C. H. (1998). Evaluation: Methods for studying programs and policies. (2nd Ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  59. 59. Resources Resources for Logic Model Development O The Evaluation Forum (1999). Outcomes for success. O Targeting Outcomes of Programs. http://deal.unl.edu/TOP/synopsis.htm O Innovation Network, Inc. electronic logic model development tool http://www.inetwork.org
  60. 60. Resources Related Planning and Evaluation Resources O W.K. Kellogg Foundation, http://www.wkkf.org O Taking Stock. http://www.horizon-research.org O The Evaluation Forum (1994). A field guide to outcome-based program evaluation. O Rossi, P. H., Freeman, H. E., & Lipsey, M. W. (1999). Evaluation: A systematic approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. O Patton, M. Q. (1997). Utilization-focused evaluation: The new century text. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  61. 61. Contact & Location Information Discovery Center for Evaluation, Research, and Professional Learning 210 E. Spring St. 408 McGuffey Hall Phone: (513) 529-1686 Email: discoverycenter@MiamiOH.edu Updates to Discovery Center Website coming soon.

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