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Leadership Trait Theory “ Trait theory of leadership differentiate leaders from nonleaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics”.
Leadership The ‘ Characteristics’ that described leaders are charismatic , enthusiastic , and courageous . The search for personality: social, physical or intellectual attributes that would describe leaders and differentiate them from nonleaders goes back to the earliest stages of leadership research.
Leadership ‘ Ohio State Studies’ The most comprehensive and replicate of the behavioral theories resulted from research that began at Ohio State University in the late 1940s . Researchers at Ohio State University sought to identify independent dimensions of leaders’ behavior. Beginning with over a thousand dimensions, they eventually narrowed the list to two categories that substantially accounted for most of the leadership behavior descried by the employees. They called these two dimensions initiating structure and consideration .
Leadership Initiating structure Initiating structure refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those employees in the search for goal attainment. it includes behavior that attempts to organize work, work relationships and goals.
Leadership Consideration Consideration is described as the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ idea , and regard for their feelings . A leader high in consideration could be described as one who helps employees with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, and treats all employees as equals.
Leadership University of Michigan Studies Leadership studies undertaken at the university of Michigan’s survey Research Center at about the same time as those being done at Ohio State and had similar research objectives; to locate behavioral characteristics of leaders that appeared to be related to measures of performance effectiveness. the Michigan Group also came up with two dimensions of leadership behavior that they labeled ‘ employee-oriented’ and ‘ production–oriented’ .
Leadership The Managerial Grid The graphic portrayal of a two dimensional view of leadership style developed by Blake and Mouton ,. They proposed a managerial grid (sometimes also known called leadership grid ) based on the style of “ concerned for people ” and concern for production ,” which essentially represent the Ohio State dimensions of consideration and initiating structure or the Michigan dimensions of employee-oriented and production oriented.
Managerial Grid of Leaders Concern for Tasks Concern for People 1 5 9 1 5 9 9.9. Team Management 1.9. Country Club Management 5.5. Middle of the Road Management 9.1. Task Management 1.1. Impoverished Management
Leadership Contingency Theories Leadership styles cannot be fully explained by behavioral models . The situation in which the group is operating also determines the style of leadership which is adopted. Several models exist which attempt to understand the relationship between style and situation, four of which are described here: <ul><li>Fiedler's Contingency Model. </li></ul><ul><li>Hersey-Blanchard Situational Theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Leader-Member Exchange Theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Path-Goal Theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Vroom-Yetton Leadership Model. </li></ul>
Leadership Fiedler's Contingency model Fiedler's model assumes that group performance depends on: Leadership style , described in terms of task motivation and relationship motivation . Situational favorableness, determined by three factors: 1. Leader-member relations - Degree to which a leader is accepted and supported by the group members. 2. Task structure - Extent to which the task is structured and defined, with clear goals and procedures. 3. Position power - The ability of a leader to control subordinates through reward and punishment. High levels of these three factors give the most favourable situation , low levels, the least favourable . Relationship-motivated leaders are most effective in moderately favourable situations. Task-motivated leaders are most effective at either end of the scale. Fiedler suggests that it may be easier for leaders to change their situation to achieve effectiveness, rather than change their leadership style.
Leadership Hersey-Blanchard Situational Theory
Leadership Hersey-Blanchard Situational Theory This theory suggests that leadership style should be matched to the maturity of the subordinates. Maturity is assessed in relation to a specific task and has two parts: Psychological maturity - Their self-confidence and ability and readiness to accept responsibility. Job maturity - Their relevant skills and technical knowledge. As the subordinate maturity increases, leadership should be more relationship-motivated than task-motivated. For four degrees of subordinate maturity, from highly mature to highly immature, leadership can consist of: Delegating to subordinates. Participating with subordinates. Selling ideas to subordinates. Telling subordinates what to do
Jenni, Tiffany, Johnny, & Christina Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Leader-Member Exchange Theory Contends that… <ul><li>leadership is not something that leaders simply “do” toward their subordinates, but is instead a process that is centered on the interactions between leaders and followers </li></ul><ul><li>no “average leadership style” can be applied to all followers given the array of personalities, circumstances, competencies, and degrees of commitment present in a working environment </li></ul>
Schematically speaking… <ul><li>Leader-Member Exchange Theory is predicated on the mutual, dyadic exchanges between leaders and subordinates that culminate in shared vision and teamwork under the best circumstances. </li></ul>Follower Leader Dyadic Relationship L S
<ul><li>The In-Group & the Out-Group </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinates are initiated into one of these two groups based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how well they work with the leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how well the leader works with them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their personalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>role responsibilities they assume </li></ul></ul>Based on these dyads, two groups of subordinates emerge…
Subordinates in the In-Group receive more… Subordinates become part of the in-group by performing activities that go beyond their formal job descriptions. Their willingness to do more illustrates professional pride and organizational commitment, and their leaders consequently are willing to do more for them. Information Influence Confidence Concern Respect Trust Challenging Work Independence Egalitarianism Opportunities for leadership
Subordinates in the ‘ Out-Group ’ Rule bound Contractual Lower Quality relationship Hierarchical Built on Compliance Self-Interested Individualistic, not group oriented Subordinates in the Out-Group may be new to an organization and feel more confident working from prescribed roles, or could be those individuals who are not highly committed to the organization. Leaders must offer subordinates opportunities for leadership, role expansion, and familiarity, while subordinates must exhibit initiative, innovation, and dedication to both leader and organization. Less Communicative Less Involved Less Dependable
The Organizational Benefits of Quality Leader-Member Exchanges <ul><li>Less Employee Turnover </li></ul><ul><li>More Positive Performance Evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Frequency of Promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Organizational Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>More Desirable Work Assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Better Job Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>More Attention/Support From Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Faster Career Progress (Over 25 Years) </li></ul>“ When leaders and followers have good exchanges, they feel better, accomplish more, and the organization prospers” ( Northouse, 2004, p. 151).
Leadership Making <ul><li>Graen & Uhl Bien (1995) believe that “a leader should develop high-quality exchanges with all of her or his subordinates, rather than just a few…[so that] every subordinate feels as if he or she is part of the in-group ” (In Northouse, 2004, p. 151). </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Making develops progressively over time in three phases: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Stranger Phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Acquaintance Phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Mature Partnership Phase </li></ul></ul></ul>
Phases in Leadership Making High Quality Phase 3 illustrates an extremely effective working relationship that is transformational, producing “positive outcomes for both themselves (leaders & subordinates) and the organization” Group Self/Other Self Interests Medium Quality Low Quality Exchanges Reciprocal Mixed One Way Influences Negotiated Tested Scripted Roles Phase 3: Partner Phase 2: Acquaintance Phase 1: Stranger
LMX Theory describes & prescribes leadership… <ul><li>LMX theory describes leadership by recognizing “the existence of in-groups and out-groups within a group or organization” . </li></ul><ul><li>LMX theory prescribes leadership by helping leaders “look for ways to build trust and respect with all of their subordinates, thus making the entire work unit an in-group” . </li></ul><ul><li>When the relationships between leaders and subordinates are all high-quality, “the goals of the leader, the followers, and the organization are all advanced” . </li></ul>
Strengths of LMX Theory <ul><li>It accurately describes the leadership process and the presence of in-groups and out-groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Some contribute more and receive more; others contribute less and get less” . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LMX is the only leadership approach to consider the dyadic relationship of leader and follower and the exchanges that determine organizational effectiveness. </li></ul>
<ul><li>LMX theory highlights communication as the “vehicle through which leaders and subordinates create, nurture, and sustain useful exchanges” and achieve a working environment characterized by “mutual trust, respect, and commitment”. Expansive research supports LMX’s claims to positive organizational outcomes such as innovation, empowerment, positive job climate, and organizational citizenship behavior. </li></ul>Strength of LMX Theory
Criticisms <ul><li>LMX theory contradicts our sense of equity </li></ul><ul><li>“ Because LMX theory divides the work unit into two groups and one group receives special attention, it gives the appearance of discrimination against the out-group” </li></ul><ul><li>No mention is given to subordinates’ perceptions of fairness, nor are strategies developed to help subordinates gain in-group recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>LMX theory is not fully developed as it fails to explain how high-quality leader-member exchanges are created. How are trust and respect gained? </li></ul>
Criticisms cont… <ul><li>There is no truly definitive measurement instrument for leader-member exchanges. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally these scales lack content validity and therefore may not actually be measuring what they set out to measure! </li></ul>Yikes!!
Application <ul><li>LMX theory serves to make both leaders and subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>cognizant of the many ways in which they shape their working environments, for better or worse. Beyond simply achieving harmony or efficiency, values such as respect , organizational commitment, and personal excellence should be the goals of any truly effective organization. </li></ul><ul><li>LMX theory likewise reinforces the value and uniqueness of each employee while encouraging leaders to tap the talents of their subordinates and help them grow professionally. </li></ul><ul><li>LMX theory is a powerful reminder of the divisions that can arise in an institution and the necessity of building strong interpersonal relationships with all employees. </li></ul>
Leadership Path-Goal Theory Evans and House suggest that the performance, satisfaction and motivation of a group can be affected by the leader in a number of ways: Offering rewards for the achievement of performance goals. Clarifying paths towards these goals. Removing performance obstacles. A person may do these by adopting a certain leadership style, according to the situation: Directive leadership - Specific advice is given to the group and ground rules are established. Supportive leadership - Good relations exist with the group and sensitivity to subordinates' needs is shown. Participative leadership - Decision making is based on group consultation and information is shared with the group. Achievement-oriented leadership - Challenging goals are set and high performance is encouraged while showing confidence in the groups' ability. Supportive behaviour increases group satisfaction, particularly in stressful situations, while directive behaviour is suited to ambiguous situations. It is also suggested that leaders who have influence upon their superiors can increase group satisfaction and performance.
<ul><li>Path-Goal Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States that the leader’s job is to assist his or her followers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support to ensure their goals are compatible with organizational goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders assume different leadership styles at different times depending on the situation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directive leader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive leader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participative leader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement oriented leader </li></ul></ul></ul>
Leadership Inspirational approaches to leadership
Leadership Charismatic Leadership Charisma (from the Greek for ‘gift’) as a certain quality of an individual personality, by virtue of which he or she is set apart from ordinary people and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. This are not accessible to the ordinary person, but are regarded as of divine origin or as exemplary, and on the basis of them the individual concerned is treated as a leader.
Leadership The first researcher to consider charismatic leadership in terms of OB eas Robert House . According of House’s charismatic leadership theory , followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors. There have been a number of studies that have attempted to identify the characteristics of the charismatic leader. One of the best reviews of the literature has documented four: they have a vision, they are willing to take personal risks to achieve that vision, they are sensitive to followers needs, and they exhibit behaviours that are out of the ordinary.
Leadership How Charismatic leaders influence followers <ul><li>There are four steps in influencing followers: </li></ul><ul><li>Vision . </li></ul><ul><li>Vision statement . </li></ul><ul><li>Expresses confidence in followers. </li></ul><ul><li>The leader coveys through words an actions a new set of values and by his behavior sets an examples for followers to imitate. </li></ul>
Leadership Does effective charismatic leadership depend on the situation The effectiveness of charismatic leadership is greatly depends of the situations. Charisma appears to be most successful when the followers task has an ideological component or when the environment involves a high degree of stress and uncertainty. Its more likely to be in politics religion, wartime or when a business firm is in its infancy or facing a life threatening crises.
Leadership Unfortunately, charismatic leaders who are larger than life don’t necessarily act in the best interests of their organizations. Many of these leaders used their power to remake their companies in their own image. These leaders often completely blurred the boundary separating their personal interests from their organization’s interests. At its worst , the peril of thid ego-driven charisma are leaders who allow their self-interest and personal goals to override the goals of the organization. They surround themselves with yes-people who are rewarded for pleasing the leader and create a climate where people are afraid to question or challenge the ‘king’ or queen’ when they think he or she is making a mistake. The results of companies such as Enron, Tyco, worldcom, and Healthsouth were leaders who recklessly used organizational resurces for their personal benefit and executives who broke laws and crossed ethical lines to generate financial numbers that temporarily inflated stock prices and allowed leaders to cash in millions of dollars in stock options. The dark side of charismatic leadership
Contents <ul><li>Six Trait of Effective Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial Grid of Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Contingency Model of Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of High Performing Leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader as Vision Creator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader as Team Builder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader as Task Allocator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader as People Developer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader as Motivation Stimulator </li></ul></ul>
What is Leadership ? A leader articulates and embodies a vision and goals, and enables others to share and achieve them Leadership is a state of mind….leadership is about vision, spirit, and character; getting diverse individuals to work together as a team
Six Traits of Leaders Drive Desire to Lead Integrity Self-Confidence Intelligence Job-relevant Knowledge
Six Traits of Leaders Drive Leaders exhibit a high effort level. They have a relatively high desire for achievement, have a lot of energy, show initiative, and they’re persistent in their activities Desire to Lead Leaders have a strong desire to influence and lead others, they demonstrate the willingness to take responsibility
Six Traits of Leaders Integrity Leaders build trusting relationship between themselves and followers by being truthful and by showing consistency between word and deed Self-Confidence Followers look to leaders for an absence of self-doubt. Leaders, therefore, need to show self-confidence in order to convince followers of the rightness of goals and decisions
Six Traits of Leaders Intelligence Leaders need to be intelligent enough to gather, synthesize, and interpret large amounts of information; and to be able create visions, solve problem, and make correct decisions Job-Relevant Knowledge Effective leaders have a high degree of knowledge about the company, industry, and technical matters. In-depth knowledge allows leaders to make well-informed decisions and to understand the implications of those decisions.
Managerial Grid of Leaders Concern for Tasks Concern for People 1 5 9 1 5 9 9.9. Team Management 1.9. Country Club Management 5.5. Middle of the Road Management 9.1. Task Management 1.1. Impoverished Management
Managerial Grid of Leaders 1.9. Country Club Management 9.1. Task Management The leaders focuses on being supportive and considerate of employee to the exclusion of concern for task efficiency The leaders concentrates on task efficiency but shows little concern for the development and morale of employee
Managerial Grid of Leaders 9.9. Team Management 1.1. Impoverished Management The leader facilitates task efficiency and high morale by coordinating and integrating work-related activities The leaders exerts minimum of effort to accomplish the work
Contingency Model of Leadership <ul><li>Leader Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive </li></ul><ul><li>Participative </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement Oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Contingency Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Task Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Authority System </li></ul><ul><li>Work Group </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Contingency Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Locus of Control </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Ability </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul>
Contingency Model of Leadership <ul><li>Lead to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous and stressful than when they’re highly structured and well laid out </li></ul><ul><li>Will lead to higher employee satisfaction when there’s substantive conflict within work group </li></ul><ul><li>Will satisfy employees with an external locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Are likely to be perceived as redundant among employees with high perceived ability or with considerable experience </li></ul>Directive Leaders
Contingency Model of Leadership <ul><li>Creates high employee performance and satisfaction when employees are performing structured tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Are needed when the formal authority relationships are clear and bureaucratic </li></ul>Supportive Leaders
Contingency Model of Leadership <ul><li>Will satisfy employees with internal locus of control (those who believe they can control their own destiny) </li></ul>Participative Leaders <ul><li>Will increase employees’ expectancies that effort will lead to high performance when tasks are ambiguously structured </li></ul>Achievement Oriented Leaders
Elements of High Performing Leadership Leader as Vision Creator Leader as Tasks Allocator Leader as Team Builder Leader as Motivation Stimulator Leader as People Developer High Performing Leadership
Leader as Vision Creator Creating Vision Setting Goals Developing Action Plan Monitoring Action Plan Execution
Leader as Vision Creator Creating Vision Analysis of external opportunities and threats Analysis of internal capabilities and areas for improvement <ul><ul><li>"What is our vision for the team/organization — where should the team be headed, what kind of team/organization do we want to become?" </li></ul></ul>
Leader as Vision Creator Setting Goals <ul><li>The purpose of setting goals is to convert managerial statements of team vision into specific performance targets — results and outcomes the team wants to achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>Setting objectives and then measuring whether they are achieved or not help managers track an team's progress. </li></ul>
Four Characteristics of Goal Setting Goal Difficulty Goal Specifity <ul><li>Increasing your employees' goal difficulty increases their challenges and enhances the amount of effort expended to achieve them </li></ul><ul><li>The more difficult goals lead to increased performance if they seem feasible </li></ul><ul><li>When given specific goals, employees tend to perform higher </li></ul><ul><li>Telling them to do their best or giving no guidance increases ambiguity about what is expected </li></ul>
Four Characteristics of Goal Setting Feedback Participation in Goal Setting <ul><li>Providing feedback enhances the effects of goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Performance feedback keeps their behavior directed on the right target and encourages them to work harder to achieve the goal </li></ul><ul><li>Employees who participate in the process, generally set higher goals than if the goals were set for them </li></ul><ul><li>It also affects their belief that the goals are obtainable and increases their motivation to achieve them </li></ul>
Leader as Vision Creator Developing Action Plan <ul><li>Action plan are the means for accomplishing objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Action plan must be concrete, measurable events that must occur </li></ul><ul><li>Plan also establishes a priority for the tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Since many tasks must be accomplished before another can begin, establishing priorities helps your team to determine the order in which the tasks must be accomplished and by what date. </li></ul>
Leader as Vision Creator Monitoring Action Plan Execution <ul><li>The final step is to follow up, measure, and check to see if the team is doing what is required. </li></ul><ul><li>This kind of leader involvement validates that the stated priorities are worthy of action. </li></ul><ul><li>For the leader it demonstrates her commitment to see the matter through to a successful conclusion. </li></ul>
Great Team Leader as Team Builder <ul><li>Clear Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Clear measures of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Clear job roles </li></ul><ul><li>Team identity and spirit </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of fun and enjoyment </li></ul><ul><li>Open and honest communication </li></ul>Task People Effective Leaders develop and nurture……
Leader as Team Builder Cultivate a cohesive team Promote team problem solving Be loyal to your members Help your members to manage and learn from their challenges Care about your members Leader as Team Builder
Leader as Team Builder Cultivate a cohesive team <ul><li>Know when to step in and when to stay out of team conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan occasional team events that let people get together without the pressures of work. </li></ul>
Leader as Team Builder Promote team problem solving <ul><li>Be accessible for consultation with your employees if problems arise, but don't micromanage. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a guideline that whenever employees bring you a problem, they are expected to also bring you at least one possible solution. </li></ul>
Leader as Team Builder Be loyal to your team member <ul><li>Be the voice of your team at the management table. </li></ul><ul><li>Share the credit with your team for its achievements and ensure that those above you know about its successes. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't publicly point a finger when something goes wrong. </li></ul>
Leader as Team Builder Help your members to manage and learn from their challenges <ul><li>Find out what gets in the way of their doing their best. </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate, but don't abdicate. </li></ul>
Leader as Team Builder Care about your members <ul><li>Make small talk with your employees when the opportunity presents itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Greet employees by name when you make first contact each day. </li></ul><ul><li>Be a positive, encouraging force. </li></ul>
Leader as Tasks Allocator Leaders get things done through people…….. Leaders Tasks People Result Effective leaders, therefore, need to understand the value of allocating tasks or delegating and know how to do it
Leader as Tasks Allocator Delegation <ul><li>The assignment of authority to another person to carry out specific activities. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows a employee to make decisions – that is, it’s a shift of decision making authority from one organizational level to another lower one. </li></ul>
Leader as Tasks Allocator What to delegate <ul><li>Recurring and routine tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks that would increase or develop an employee’s skills or knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Occasional duties or tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks I do that are in someone’s area of expertise or interest </li></ul>
Leader as Tasks Allocator Who to delegate to <ul><li>A person who is already able and willing to take on responsibility for doing a task </li></ul><ul><li>A person who wants to learn the task in order to develop or extend their skills </li></ul><ul><li>A person who wants to make their job more interesting and challenging </li></ul>
Steps to Delegate Effectively Clarify the Assignment Specify the Employee’s Range of Discretion Allow the Employee to Participate Inform Others that Delegation has Occurred Monitor Results
Steps to Delegate Effectively Clarify the Assignment <ul><li>It’s your responsibility to provide clear information on what is being delegated, the results you expect, and any time or performance expectations you hold. </li></ul>
Steps to Delegate Effectively Specify the employee’s Range of Discretion <ul><li>Every act of delegation comes with constrains. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to specify what those parameters are so that employees know, in no uncertain terms, the range of their discretion. </li></ul>
Steps to Delegate Effectively Allow the employee to Participate <ul><li>One of the best way to decide how much authority will be necessary to accomplish a task is to allow the employee to participate in that decision. </li></ul>
Steps to Delegate Effectively Inform Others that Delegation has Occurred <ul><li>You need to inform the employee’s colleagues, other supervisors, or senior managers, that you have delegated a particular task or duty to someone else. </li></ul><ul><li>Let them know, too, that you have complete confidence in the employee’s ability to succeed in the task. </li></ul>
Steps to Delegate Effectively Monitor Results <ul><li>Monitoring allows you to make any necessary adjustments to the way the task is being done. </li></ul>
Leader as People Developer Leadership is about developing leaders, not followers Leadership is about creating a legacy, one that will propel the organization to new levels of success even when the leader has moved on
Leader as People Developer Leader Employee Employee Development and Learning Plan
Leader as People Developer <ul><li>An Employee Development and Learning Plan is a formal contract between a leader and an employee that identifies specific development activities that link the employee's interests and skills to organizational needs. </li></ul>Employee Development and Learning Plan
Leader as People Developer Employee Development and Learning Plan <ul><li>The plan is the outcome of one or more discussion sessions that address: </li></ul><ul><li>the employee's and manager's perspective on the employee's effectiveness in her current role </li></ul><ul><li>mutual suggestions for increasing impact in the current role </li></ul>
Leader as People Developer Employee Development and Learning Plan <ul><li>Things to consider in designing Development Plan : </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the core competencies for every level of employee in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Understands that each person learns differently and that employees need to have tailored learning plans that suit their learning styles. </li></ul>
Leader as People Developer Employee Development and Learning Plan <ul><li>Employees benefit because they can : </li></ul><ul><li>reflect on and communicate their own interests, skills, and achievements to their managers </li></ul><ul><li>volunteer for participation in satisfying assignments, special projects, and learning activities </li></ul><ul><li>relate personal goals to the bigger picture of the organization's long-term business plan </li></ul><ul><li>seek feedback about specific development needs and interests </li></ul>
Leader as People Developer Employee Development and Learning Plan <ul><ul><li>Managers benefit because they can: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>share the responsibility for developmental planning with employees rather than assuming full responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>get a clearer picture of employees' interests and goals and relate those interests to new tasks and assignments </li></ul><ul><li>energize and retain employees by providing new challenges in their current roles as well as preparing them for other roles </li></ul>
Leader as Motivation Stimulator Leaders establish the vision for the future and set the strategy for getting there; they motivate and inspire others to go in the right direction Motivation = the willingness to exert high level of effort to reach organizational goals
Leader as Motivation Stimulator Three C’s of Motivation Collaboration Content Choice
Leader as Motivation Stimulator Collaboration Content Choice People feel more motivated to work hard when they’re inspired to cooperate, when they have an opportunity to help one another succeed People feel more motivated to work hard when they understand how their work add value to the organization People feel more motivated to work hard when they feel empowered to make decisions about their work
Leader as Motivation Stimulator Leader as Motivation Stimulator Inspire by Example Create and communicate a clear vision of the goals
Leader as Motivation Stimulator Inspire by Example <ul><li>Be clear and enthusiastic about your own life purpose and goals. </li></ul><ul><li>The most inspiring leaders are themselves inspired and excited about the purpose of their lives or their missions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing your excitement is often a catalyst for others to join in the pursuit of that mission or to find their own, equally inspiring purposes. </li></ul>
Leader as Motivation Stimulator Inspire by Example <ul><li>Share stories from your own experience. </li></ul><ul><li>People who capture the hearts of others and leave them feeling uplifted often do so by sharing stories about their own struggles, mistakes, and life lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>Be willing to share the human, fallible side of your life experience rather than trying to maintain the image of a perfect leader who never has doubts or struggles. </li></ul>
Leader as Motivation Stimulator Inspire by Example <ul><li>Focus on the dreams and goals of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Get to know your employees and other people with whom you regularly interact. Find out what they want to achieve. </li></ul>
Leader as Motivation Stimulator Create and communicate a clear vision of the goals <ul><li>Ensure that you are clear about the goals that have been assigned to your team by management above you. Communicate these goals to your people and listen carefully to their feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the team develop plans for achieving these goals. Ensure that everyone has an opportunity to participate and contribute to the plan, which will encourage buy-in by all members. </li></ul>
Leader as Motivation Stimulator Create and communicate a clear vision of the goals <ul><li>Help others to bring out the best in themselves. Identify the unique talents and abilities of your employees and ensure that they understand how they can contribute to the overall plan and vision. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the vision front and center. When things seem to be going off track and people are losing their focus, remind the team of what they are working toward. </li></ul>
Recommended Further Readings: <ul><li>Stephen Robbins and Mary Coultar, Management , Prentice Hall International </li></ul><ul><li>Bryn Hughes, The Leader's Tool Kit: Hundreds of Tips and Techniques for Developing the Skills You Need , Kingsway Communications </li></ul>
+ Leaders or Managers Supporting website Leaders or Managers What is the difference?
<ul><li>The biggest difference is the way leaders or managers motivate others </li></ul>
Leader <ul><li>has followers </li></ul><ul><li>has vision </li></ul><ul><li>sets direction </li></ul><ul><li>takes new roads </li></ul><ul><li>is responsible for change </li></ul><ul><li>is passionate </li></ul><ul><li>sells ideas </li></ul><ul><li>builds structure </li></ul>
Manager <ul><li>has subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>objectives to follow </li></ul><ul><li>follows existing roads </li></ul><ul><li>plans the details </li></ul><ul><li>is responsible for stability </li></ul><ul><li>keeps control </li></ul><ul><li>tells ideas </li></ul><ul><li>maintains the structure </li></ul>
Is it possible to be both a leader and a manager? <ul><ul><li>The short answer is yes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While they are quite different roles, a person can be both </li></ul></ul>
Lets take a closer look at Leadership… <ul><li>Leadership can be learned </li></ul>
Traits of a leader <ul><li>Need for achievement –likes responsibility and works hard to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence – have good reasoning, thinking capacity and judgement </li></ul><ul><li>Decisiveness – makes difficult decisions without hesitation </li></ul><ul><li>Self Confidence – having a positive self image </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative – getting jobs done with minimal supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisory ability – gets the job done through others </li></ul>
Traits of a leader <ul><ul><li>Need for achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self Confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisory ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate yourselves from 1-10 on the above traits, (10 being excellent 1 being pretty bad) then add all the numbers together to get an over all score </li></ul></ul>
Now check your score as an effective leader: <ul><li>54-60 Outstanding </li></ul><ul><li>42-53 Very Good </li></ul><ul><li>30-41 Good </li></ul><ul><li>6-29 Needs a bit of work </li></ul>
Four Styles of Leadership <ul><li>Autocratic </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez Faire </li></ul><ul><li>Charismatic </li></ul>
Autocratic <ul><li>dominates team members </li></ul><ul><li>makes decisions on their own </li></ul><ul><li>quick to praise or punish </li></ul>
Democratic <ul><li>consults team members for decision making </li></ul><ul><li>values team members </li></ul><ul><li>Empowers people to direct themselves </li></ul>
Laissez faire <ul><li>minimum leadership </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate when the team are all highly skilled & have proven performance </li></ul><ul><li>allows visionary workers to excel </li></ul>
Charismatic <ul><li>Good listeners & information gatherers </li></ul><ul><li>create a sense of purpose that is motivating and inspiring </li></ul><ul><li>makes everyone feel important </li></ul>
Choosing the right style <ul><li>Styles are influenced by a leaders experience </li></ul><ul><li>One size does not fit all </li></ul><ul><li>Style depends on qualities of leader, characteristics of audience, and nature of situation </li></ul>
Laissez Faire – Democratic – Autocratic <ul><li>Decisions of minor consequence or Major consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Few environmental dangers or many environmental dangers </li></ul><ul><li>Competent individuals or Incompetent individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Proficient Leadership within or Deficient leadership within group </li></ul><ul><li>Unified group or Divided group </li></ul>
In summary an effective leader is: <ul><li>A director and a motivator </li></ul><ul><li>An implementer and an innovator </li></ul><ul><li>A mentor and a team builder </li></ul><ul><li>An expert and a moral force </li></ul><ul><li>An organizer and a developer of people </li></ul><ul><li>These are the great challenges of an expert leader… </li></ul>
General Colin Powell Chairman (Ret), Joint Chiefs of Staff A Leadership Primer
LESSON 1 "Being responsible sometimes means pissing people off." Good leadership involves responsibility to the welfare of the group, which means that some people will get angry at your actions and decisions. It's inevitable, if you're honorable. Trying to get everyone to like you is a sign of mediocrity: you'll avoid the tough decisions, you'll avoid confronting the people who need to be confronted, and you'll avoid offering differential rewards based on differential performance because some people might get upset. Ironically, by procrastinating on the difficult choices, by trying not to get anyone mad, and by treating everyone equally "nicely" regardless of their contributions, you'll simply ensure that the only people you'll wind up angering are the most creative and productive people in the organization.
LESSON 2 "The day soldiers stop bringing you their problems is the day you have stopped leading them. They have either lost confidence that you can help them or concluded that you do not care. Either case is a failure of leadership." If this were a litmus test, the majority of CEOs would fail. One, they build so many barriers to upward communication that the very idea of someone lower in the hierarchy looking up to the leader for help is ludicrous. Two, the corporate culture they foster often defines asking for help as weakness or failure, so people cover up their gaps, and the organization suffers accordingly. Real leaders make themselves accessible and available. They show concern for the efforts and challenges faced by underlings, even as they demand high standards. Accordingly, they are more likely to create an environment where problem analysis replaces blame.
LESSON 3 "Don't be buffaloed by experts and elites. Experts often possess more data than judgment. Elites can become so inbred that they produce hemophiliacs who bleed to death as soon as they are nicked by the real world." Small companies and start-ups don't have the time for analytically detached experts. They don't have the money to subsidize lofty elites, either. The president answers the phone and drives the truck when necessary; everyone on the payroll visibly produces and contributes to bottom-line results or they're history. But as companies get bigger, they often forget who "brought them to the dance": things like all-hands involvement, egalitarianism, informality, market intimacy, daring, risk, speed, agility. Policies that emanate from ivory towers often have an adverse impact on the people out in the field who are fighting the wars or bringing in the revenues. Real leaders are vigilant, and combative, in the face of these trends.
LESSON 4 "Don't be afraid to challenge the pros, even in their own backyard." Learn from the pros, observe them, seek them out as mentors and partners. But remember that even the pros may have leveled out in terms of their learning and skills. Sometimes even the pros can become complacent and lazy. Leadership does not emerge from blind obedience to anyone. Xerox's Barry Rand was right on target when he warned his people that if you have a yes-man working for you, one of you is redundant. Good leadership encourages everyone's evolution.
LESSON 5 "Never neglect details. When everyone's mind is dulled or distracted the leader must be doubly vigilant." Strategy equals execution. All the great ideas and visions in the world are worthless if they can't be implemented rapidly and efficiently. Good leaders delegate and empower others liberally, but they pay attention to details, every day. (Think about supreme athletic coaches like Jimmy Johnson, Pat Riley and Tony La Russa). Bad ones, even those who fancy themselves as progressive "visionaries," think they're somehow "above" operational details. Paradoxically, good leaders understand something else: an obsessive routine in carrying out the details begets conformity and complacency, which in turn dulls everyone's mind. That is why even as they pay attention to details, they continually encourage people to challenge the process. They implicitly understand the sentiment of CEO leaders like Quad Graphic's Harry Quadracchi, Oticon's Lars Kolind and the late Bill McGowan of MCI, who all independently asserted that the Job of a leader is not to be the chief organizer, but the chief dis-organizer.
LESSON 6 "You don't know what you can get away with until you try." You know the expression, "it's easier to get forgiveness than permission." Well, it's true. Good leaders don't wait for official blessing to try things out. They're prudent, not reckless. But they also realize a fact of life in most organizations: if you ask enough people for permission, you'll inevitably come up against someone who believes his job is to say "no." So the moral is, don't ask. Less effective middle managers endorsed the sentiment, "If I haven't explicitly been told 'yes,' I can't do it," whereas the good ones believed, "If I haven't explicitly been told 'no,' I can." There's a world of difference between these two points of view.
LESSON 7 "Keep looking below surface appearances. Don't shrink from doing so (just) because you might not like what you find." "If it ain't broke, don't fix it" is the slogan of the complacent, the arrogant or the scared. It's an excuse for inaction, a call to non-arms. It's a mind-set that assumes (or hopes) that today's realities will continue tomorrow in a tidy, linear and predictable fashion. Pure fantasy. In this sort of culture, you won't find people who pro-actively take steps to solve problems as they emerge. Here's a little tip: don't invest in these companies.
LESSON 8 "Organization doesn't really accomplish anything. Plans don't accomplish anything, either. Theories of management don't much matter. Endeavors succeed or fail because of the people involved. Only by attracting the best people will you accomplish great deeds." In a brain-based economy, your best assets are people. We've heard this expression so often that it's become trite. But how many leaders really "walk the talk" with this stuff? Too often, people are assumed to be empty chess pieces to be moved around by grand viziers, which may explain why so many top managers immerse their calendar time in deal making, restructuring and the latest management fad. How many immerse themselves in the goal of creating an environment where the best, the brightest, the most creative are attracted, retained and, most importantly, unleashed?
LESSON 9 "Organization charts and fancy titles count for next to nothing." Organization charts are frozen, anachronistic photos in a work place that ought to be as dynamic as the external environment around you. If people really followed organization charts, companies would collapse. In well-run organizations, titles are also pretty meaningless. At best, they advertise some authority, an official status conferring the ability to give orders and induce obedience. But titles mean little in terms of real power, which is the capacity to influence and inspire. Have you ever noticed that people will personally commit to certain individuals who on paper (or on the organization chart) possess little authority, but instead possess pizzazz, drive, expertise, and genuine caring for teammates and products? On the flip side, non-leaders in management may be formally anointed with all the perks and frills associated with high positions, but they have little influence on others, apart from their ability to extract minimal compliance to minimal standards.
LESSON 10 "Never let your ego get so close to your position that when your position goes, your ego goes with it." Too often, change is stifled by people who cling to familiar turfs and job descriptions. One reason that even large organizations wither is that managers won't challenge old, comfortable ways of doing things. But real leaders understand that, nowadays, every one of our jobs is becoming obsolete. The proper response is to obsolete our activities before someone else does. Effective leaders create a climate where people’s worth is determined by their willingness to learn new skills and grab new responsibilities, thus perpetually reinventing their jobs. The most important question in performance evaluation becomes not, "How well did you perform your job since the last time we met?" but, "How much did you change it?"
LESSON 11 "Fit no stereotypes. Don't chase the latest management fads. The situation dictates which approach best accomplishes the team's mission." Flitting from fad to fad creates team confusion, reduces the leader's credibility, and drains organizational coffers. Blindly following a particular fad generates rigidity in thought and action. Sometimes speed to market is more important than total quality. Sometimes an unapologetic directive is more appropriate than participatory discussion. Some situations require the leader to hover closely; others require long, loose leashes. Leaders honor their core values, but they are flexible in how they execute them. They understand that management techniques are not magic mantras but simply tools to be reached for at the right times.
LESSON 12 "Perpetual optimism is a force multiplier." The ripple effect of a leader's enthusiasm and optimism is awesome. So is the impact of cynicism and pessimism. Leaders who whine and blame engender those same behaviors among their colleagues. I am not talking about stoically accepting organizational stupidity and performance incompetence with a "what, me worry?" smile. I am talking about a gung-ho attitude that says "we can change things here, we can achieve awesome goals, we can be the best." Spare me the grim litany of the "realist," give me the unrealistic aspirations of the optimist any day.
LESSON 13 "Powell's Rules for Picking People:” Look for intelligence and judgment, and most critically, a capacity to anticipate, to see around corners. Also look for loyalty, integrity, a high energy drive, a balanced ego, and the drive to get things done. How often do our recruitment and hiring processes tap into these attributes? More often than not, we ignore them in favor of length of resume, degrees and prior titles. A string of job descriptions a recruit held yesterday seem to be more important than who one is today, what they can contribute tomorrow, or how well their values mesh with those of the organization. You can train a bright, willing novice in the fundamentals of your business fairly readily, but it's a lot harder to train someone to have integrity, judgment, energy, balance, and the drive to get things done. Good leaders stack the deck in their favor right in the recruitment phase.
LESSON 14 "Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers, who can cut through argument, debate and doubt, to offer a solution everybody can understand." Effective leaders understand the KISS principle, Keep It Simple, Stupid. They articulate vivid, over-arching goals and values, which they use to drive daily behaviors and choices among competing alternatives. Their visions and priorities are lean and compelling, not cluttered and buzzword-laden. Their decisions are crisp and clear, not tentative and ambiguous. They convey an unwavering firmness and consistency in their actions, aligned with the picture of the future they paint. The result: clarity of purpose, credibility of leadership, and integrity in organization.
LESSON 15 Part I: "Use the formula P=40 to 70, in which P stands for the probability of success and the numbers indicate the percentage of information acquired.” Part II: "Once the information is in the 40 to 70 range, go with your gut." Don't take action if you have only enough information to give you less than a 40 percent chance of being right, but don't wait until you have enough facts to be 100 percent sure, because by then it is almost always too late. Today, excessive delays in the name of information-gathering breeds "analysis paralysis." Procrastination in the name of reducing risk actually increases risk.
LESSON 16 "The commander in the field is always right and the rear echelon is wrong, unless proved otherwise." Too often, the reverse defines corporate culture. This is one of the main reasons why leaders like Ken Iverson of Nucor Steel, Percy Barnevik of Asea Brown Boveri, and Richard Branson of Virgin have kept their corporate staffs to a bare-bones minimum - how about fewer than 100 central corporate staffers for global $30 billion-plus ABB? Or around 25 and 3 for multi-billion Nucor and Virgin, respectively? Shift the power and the financial accountability to the folks who are bringing in the beans, not the ones who are counting or analyzing them.
LESSON 17 "Have fun in your command. Don't always run at a breakneck pace. Take leave when you've earned it: Spend time with your families. Corollary: surround yourself with people who take their work seriously, but not themselves, those who work hard and play hard." Herb Kelleher of Southwest Air and Anita Roddick of The Body Shop would agree: seek people who have some balance in their lives, who are fun to hang out with, who like to laugh (at themselves, too) and who have some non-job priorities which they approach with the same passion that they do their work. Spare me the grim workaholic or the pompous pretentious "professional;” I'll help them find jobs with my competitor.
LESSON 18 "Command is lonely." Harry Truman was right. Whether you're a CEO or the temporary head of a project team, the buck stops here. You can encourage participative management and bottom-up employee involvement, but ultimately the essence of leadership is the willingness to make the tough, unambiguous choices that will have an impact on the fate of the organization. I've seen too many non-leaders flinch from this responsibility. Even as you create an informal, open, collaborative corporate culture, prepare to be lonely.
“ Leadership is the art of accomplishing more than the science of management says is possible.”
General Colin Powell Chairman (Ret), Joint Chiefs of Staff A Leadership Primer