Wilms Tumor and
Hamzeh Halawani M.D.
American University of Beirut
• AKA: Nephroblastoma
• the most common intra-abdominal cancer in
• peak incidence is 2 to 3 years of age
• somatic mutations restricted to tumor tissue
(Majority of Cases)
• germline mutations
Almost 97% of Wilms' tumors
Earlier age and the disease is frequently bilateral
• WT1 was originally considered to be a classic tumor
suppressor gene, and the loss of both copies or
mutations of this gene would lead to Wilms tumor
development (Rauscher, 1993). Although this may be
the case for some tumors, only 20% of patients with
Wilms tumor have a mutation in the germline or in
• WT2 gene has been linked to the BWS ; excess growth
at the cellular, organ (macroglossia, nephromegaly,
hepatomegaly), or body segment (hemihypertrophy)
• WTX was found to be inactivated in up to one third of
Wilms tumors (Rivera et al, 2007).
• A palpable smooth abdominal mass often discovered incidentally.
• Abdominal pain
• Hypertension elevated plasma renin levels
• Rupture of the tumor with hemorrhage into the free peritoneal
cavity can result in the occasional presentation of an acute
• Extension of Wilms tumor into the renal vein and IVC can cause a
varicocele, hepatomegaly due to hepatic vein obstruction, ascites,
and congestive heart failure. less than 10% of patients with
intracaval or atrial tumor extension
• assess for signs of associated Wilms tumor syndromes, such as
aniridia, hemihypertrophy, and genitourinary anomalies.
• U/S as initial test
– helpful in excluding intracaval tumor extension
( 4% of Wilms )
• CT scan or MRI (Chest, abdomen, pelvis)
– detect local extension of tumor beyond the renal
capsule or into regional lymph nodes
• PET no value
Is there a need for exploration of the
• The conclusion was that routine exploration
is not necessary provided preoperative
imaging with thin slices on multidetector
helical CT scanners or MRI is performed.
• A review of NWTS-4 patients with bilateral Wilms tumor found that 7% of
lesions were missed preoperatively (Ritchey et al, 1995b)
• The most important determinants of outcome
in children with Wilms tumor are the
histopathology and tumor stage.
• Any tumor spill is now a criterion for stage III
designation, due to the increased risk for
local tumor recurrence
• The initial therapy for most children with Wilms tumor
is radical nephrectomy. Nephrectomy should be done
by a Transperitoneal approach.
• Thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity is
necessary to exclude local tumor extension, liver and
nodal metastases, or peritoneal seeding.
• The renal vein and IVC are palpated to exclude
intravascular tumor extension prior to vessel ligation.
• Selective sampling of suspicious nodes is an essential
component of local tumor staging. Formal
retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is not
• risk factors for local tumor recurrence
– Tumor spillage
– unfavorable histology
– incomplete tumor removal
– absence of any lymph node sampling.
• The 2-year survival after abdominal recurrence was
43%, emphasizing the importance of the surgeon in
performing careful and complete tumor resection.
– (Shamberger et al, 1999)
• National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWTSG)
in North America
• the International Society of Paediatric
Oncology (SIOP), mainly in European
– Significant differences in guidelines however,
overall survival rates are no different for patients
treated using the NWTSG and SIOP approaches.
International Society of Paediatric
• Neoadjuvent chemotherapy
– Tumor shrinkage
– reducing the risk of intraoperative rupture or
– Decrease morbidity by omitting XRT ex.post-
chemotherapy stage I
National Wilms Tumor Study Group
• Surgery followed by Chemotherapy
Bilateral Wilms Tumors
• 5% to 7% of children with Wilms
• Preoperative chemotherapy with the goal of
• Renal-sparing nephrectomy.
• Arise from cells of the neural crest that form the
adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia.
• Tumors may occur anywhere along the sympathetic
chain within the neck, thorax, retroperitoneum, or
pelvis, or in the adrenal gland.
• 75% arise in the retroperitoneum, 50% in the adrenal,
and 25% in the paravertebral ganglia.
• wide range of clinical presentations
• Can undergo spontaneous regression, differentiate to
benign neoplasms, or exhibit extremely malignant
• Neuroblastoma accounts for 8% to 10% of all
• It is the most common malignant tumor of
• peak incidence is 2 years of age
• Amplification of the N-MYC oncogene seen in
roughly 20% of primary tumors is an adverse
• Children 1 year old or younger have a better
survival rate than older children.
• 20% of patients with familial neuroblastoma
• adrenal or multifocal primary tumors, which
are quite unusual in spontaneous cases.
• Asymptomatic abdominal mass. may cross the midline
• Abdominal pain
• Signs of metastatic disease. 70% of patients at diagnosis
– Pain from the tumor mass or from bony metastases.
– Proptosis and periorbital ecchymosis retrobulbar metastasis.
– Compression the spinal cord, causing muscle weakness or
– Catecholamine release may mimic symptoms seen in
pheochromocytoma: paroxysmal hypertension, palpitations,
flushing, and headache.
– Vasoactive intestinal peptide severe watery diarrhea and
– Paraneoplastic neurologic findings, including cerebellar ataxia or
• Metabolites of catecholamines,
Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic
acid (HVA), are found in 90% to 95% of
• Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy.
• CT or MRI
(MIBG) scans for
Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS)
• The treatment modalities primarily used in the
management of neuroblastoma are surgery,
chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
• The goals of surgery are to establish the
diagnosis, stage the tumor, excise the tumor (if
localized), and provide tissue for biologic studies.
– Children with stage I neuroblastoma have a disease-
free survival rate of greater than 90% with surgical
excision alone (O’Neillet al, 1985; Nitschke et al, 1988;
DeBernardi et al, 1995). Chemotherapy is indicated
only in the event of recurrence unless the child has N-
MYC amplification and unfavorable histology