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Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma

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Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma

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Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma

  1. 1. Wilms Tumor and Neuroblastoma Hamzeh Halawani M.D. American University of Beirut
  2. 2. Wilm’s Tumor • AKA: Nephroblastoma • the most common intra-abdominal cancer in children. • peak incidence is 2 to 3 years of age
  3. 3. Biology • somatic mutations restricted to tumor tissue (Majority of Cases) • germline mutations Sporadic: Almost 97% of Wilms' tumors Congenital: Earlier age and the disease is frequently bilateral
  4. 4. WT gene • WT1 was originally considered to be a classic tumor suppressor gene, and the loss of both copies or mutations of this gene would lead to Wilms tumor development (Rauscher, 1993). Although this may be the case for some tumors, only 20% of patients with Wilms tumor have a mutation in the germline or in tumor tissue. • WT2 gene has been linked to the BWS ; excess growth at the cellular, organ (macroglossia, nephromegaly, hepatomegaly), or body segment (hemihypertrophy) • WTX was found to be inactivated in up to one third of Wilms tumors (Rivera et al, 2007).
  5. 5. Presentation • A palpable smooth abdominal mass often discovered incidentally. • Abdominal pain • Hematuria • Hypertension  elevated plasma renin levels • Rupture of the tumor with hemorrhage into the free peritoneal cavity can result in the occasional presentation of an acute abdomen. • Extension of Wilms tumor into the renal vein and IVC can cause a varicocele, hepatomegaly due to hepatic vein obstruction, ascites, and congestive heart failure. less than 10% of patients with intracaval or atrial tumor extension • assess for signs of associated Wilms tumor syndromes, such as aniridia, hemihypertrophy, and genitourinary anomalies.
  6. 6. Imaging • U/S as initial test – helpful in excluding intracaval tumor extension ( 4% of Wilms ) • CT scan or MRI (Chest, abdomen, pelvis) – detect local extension of tumor beyond the renal capsule or into regional lymph nodes • PET no value
  7. 7. Is there a need for exploration of the contralateral kidney?? • The conclusion was that routine exploration is not necessary provided preoperative imaging with thin slices on multidetector helical CT scanners or MRI is performed. • A review of NWTS-4 patients with bilateral Wilms tumor found that 7% of lesions were missed preoperatively (Ritchey et al, 1995b)
  8. 8. Staging • The most important determinants of outcome in children with Wilms tumor are the histopathology and tumor stage. • Any tumor spill is now a criterion for stage III designation, due to the increased risk for local tumor recurrence
  9. 9. Treatment • The initial therapy for most children with Wilms tumor is radical nephrectomy. Nephrectomy should be done by a Transperitoneal approach. • Thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity is necessary to exclude local tumor extension, liver and nodal metastases, or peritoneal seeding. • The renal vein and IVC are palpated to exclude intravascular tumor extension prior to vessel ligation. • Selective sampling of suspicious nodes is an essential component of local tumor staging. Formal retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is not recommended.
  10. 10. • risk factors for local tumor recurrence – Tumor spillage – unfavorable histology – incomplete tumor removal – absence of any lymph node sampling. • The 2-year survival after abdominal recurrence was 43%, emphasizing the importance of the surgeon in performing careful and complete tumor resection. – (Shamberger et al, 1999)
  11. 11. Approach? • National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWTSG) in North America • the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP), mainly in European countries. – Significant differences in guidelines however, overall survival rates are no different for patients treated using the NWTSG and SIOP approaches.
  12. 12. International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) • Neoadjuvent chemotherapy – Tumor shrinkage – reducing the risk of intraoperative rupture or spillage – Decrease morbidity by omitting XRT ex.post- chemotherapy stage I
  13. 13. National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWTSG) • Surgery followed by Chemotherapy
  14. 14. Bilateral Wilms Tumors • 5% to 7% of children with Wilms • Preoperative chemotherapy with the goal of tumor shrinkage • Renal-sparing nephrectomy.
  15. 15. Neuroblastoma
  16. 16. Neuroblastoma • Arise from cells of the neural crest that form the adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia. • Tumors may occur anywhere along the sympathetic chain within the neck, thorax, retroperitoneum, or pelvis, or in the adrenal gland. • 75% arise in the retroperitoneum, 50% in the adrenal, and 25% in the paravertebral ganglia. • wide range of clinical presentations • Can undergo spontaneous regression, differentiate to benign neoplasms, or exhibit extremely malignant behavior.
  17. 17. Neuroblastoma • Neuroblastoma accounts for 8% to 10% of all childhood cancers. • It is the most common malignant tumor of infancy. • peak incidence is 2 years of age
  18. 18. • Amplification of the N-MYC oncogene seen in roughly 20% of primary tumors is an adverse prognostic indicator • Children 1 year old or younger have a better survival rate than older children.
  19. 19. • 20% of patients with familial neuroblastoma have bilateral • adrenal or multifocal primary tumors, which are quite unusual in spontaneous cases.
  20. 20. Presentation • Asymptomatic abdominal mass. may cross the midline • Abdominal pain • Signs of metastatic disease. 70% of patients at diagnosis – Pain from the tumor mass or from bony metastases. – Proptosis and periorbital ecchymosis  retrobulbar metastasis. – Compression the spinal cord, causing muscle weakness or sensory changes. – Catecholamine release may mimic symptoms seen in pheochromocytoma: paroxysmal hypertension, palpitations, flushing, and headache. – Vasoactive intestinal peptide  severe watery diarrhea and hypokalemia – Paraneoplastic neurologic findings, including cerebellar ataxia or myoclonus.
  21. 21. Labs • Metabolites of catecholamines, Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), are found in 90% to 95% of patients. • Anemia. • Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy.
  22. 22. Imaging • CT or MRI •Bone scan •Meta- iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scans for stagin
  23. 23. The International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) • Clinical, radiographic, and surgical evaluation of children with neuroblastoma
  24. 24. Treatment • The treatment modalities primarily used in the management of neuroblastoma are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. • The goals of surgery are to establish the diagnosis, stage the tumor, excise the tumor (if localized), and provide tissue for biologic studies. – Children with stage I neuroblastoma have a disease- free survival rate of greater than 90% with surgical excision alone (O’Neillet al, 1985; Nitschke et al, 1988; DeBernardi et al, 1995). Chemotherapy is indicated only in the event of recurrence unless the child has N- MYC amplification and unfavorable histology
  25. 25. Chemotherapy Advanced stage
  26. 26. • Radiotherapy increased local control in children with advanced stage IV or bulky stage III tumors (Matthay et al, 1989; Castleberry 1991; Evans et al, 1996)

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