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Business studies +2 Unit 7


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Business studies +2

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Business studies +2 Unit 7

  1. 1. UNIT - 7 DIRECTING
  2. 2. TOPICS COVERED Directing Concept Importance Elements of Directing Supervision - Concept and Functions of Supervisor Motivation - Concept, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Financial and Non Financial Incentives Leadership – Concept and Style Communication - Concept, Formal and Informal communication, Barriers to effective Communication and how to overcome the Barriers
  3. 3. DIRECTING Instructing, Guiding, Communicating and Inspiring people in the Organization Also known “ Management- in- Action”
  4. 4. “Directing is the executive function of guiding and observing subordinates”. - Koontz and O’Donnell
  5. 5. FEATURES OF DIRECTING Initiates Action Takes placeat everyLevel of Management Continuous Process Flows fromToptoBottom
  6. 6. IMPORTANCEOF DIRECTING Initiates Action IntegratesEmployees Efforts Meansof Motivation Facilitates toImplement Changes CreatesbalanceintheOrganization
  7. 7. (3)Leadership (2)Communication(1)Supervision (4)Motivational ELEMENTSOF DIRECTING
  8. 8. SUPERVISION Monitor the process of Routine work of one’s subordinates and guiding them properly
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPERVISION Universal Activity Important part of DirectingFunction Continuous Process Faceto FaceContact Requiredlevel of Performance OptimumUtilization Special importancefor Lower Level Managers
  10. 10. Responsible for putting the Plans of Action of Management into Action Acts as a link between Higher Level Management and the Workers Providing Solutions related to the Problems of Human Behaviour As a Key Man As a Mediat or As a Human Resource Specialist ROLEOF SUPERVISOR
  11. 11. FUNCTIONS OF A SUPERVISOR EnsureIssuingInstructions Facilitates Control OptimumUtilizationof Resources Maintenanceof Discipline Feedback ImprovesCommunication ImprovesMotivation
  12. 12. MOTIVATION It refers to that process which excites people to work for attainment of a desired Objective.
  13. 13. CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATION It is aInternal Feeling Produces Goal DirectedBehaviour It canbeeither Positiveor Negative Complex Process
  14. 14. MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY • First time Abraham Maslow categorized the countless needs in five different human needs on the Basis of Priority with following Assumptions:  People’s behavior is affected by their needs  Needs can be Prioritized  After satisfaction of one need, next higher need will serve as motivator  People will only move to other need only when lower need is satisfied
  16. 16. HIERARCHY OF INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATION RELATEDNEEDS IndividualNeedHierarchy 5. Self Fulfilment 4. Status 3. Friendship 2. Stabilityof Income 1. Hunger OrganizationNeedHierarchy 5. Achievement of Goals 4. JobTitle 3. Cordial RelationwithColleagues 2. PensionPlan 1. Basic Salary
  17. 17. INCENTIVES: FINANCIAL It refers to incentives which are in direct monetary form or measurable in monetary terms. Pay and Allowances Productivity linked Wage Incentive Bonus Profit Sharing Co- Partnership Retirement Benefits Perquisites
  18. 18. INCENTIVES: FINANCIAL It refers to incentives which are in direct monetary form or measurable in monetary terms. Pay and Allowances Productivity linked Wage Incentive Bonus Profit Sharing Co- Partnership Retirement Benefits Perquisites
  19. 19. INCENTIVES: NON FINANCIAL It referstoincentives whicharenot directlyrelatedwithmoney.  Status  Organizational Climate  Career Advancement Opportunity  JobEnrichment  EmployeeRecognitionPrograms  JobSecurity  Employees Participation  EmployeeEnrichment
  20. 20. LEADERSHIP Influencing others in such a manner to do work what the leader wants them to do.
  21. 21. CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP InfluencingProcess Behaviour changing process Interpersonal Relations betweenLeader andfollowers Common Goals Achieving Continuous Process
  22. 22. MANAGERSHIP V/S LEADERSHIP Basis of Difference Managership Leadership 1. Basis of Existence Organized Form Unorganized Form 2. Focus Attainment of Organizational Objectives Satisfaction of Expectations and Aspirations of followers 3. Authority Formal Authority Informal Authority 4. Scope Widespread Limited
  23. 23. IMPORTANCEOF LEADERSHIP ExpectancyThroughLeadership NormalExpectancy CapabilityUtilization 40% 60% InducedbyLeadership Social Pressure Need for a Job Authority of Superior InducedbyLeadership
  24. 24. LEADERSHIP STYLES Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. The three major styles of leadership are Autocratic Leadership Democratic Leadership Laissez Faire Leadership
  25. 25. AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE It refers to that leadership style in which the leader tends to run the show all by himself. I Want Both of You to
  26. 26. CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP CentralizedAuthority SingleManDecisions WrongBelief regardingEmployees OnlyDownwardCommunication
  27. 27. AUTOCRATICLEADERSHIP STYLE advantages of autocratic leadership  Quick andClear Decisions  Satisfactory work  Necessary for Less EducatedEmployees Disadvantages of autocratic leadership  Lack of Motivation  Agitationof Employees  Possibilityof Partiality Suitability of autocratic leadership  Whentheleader isthemost knowledgeableinthegroup  Whenthereislittletimefor decisionmaking  Whensubordinates areuneducatedandunexperienced.
  28. 28. DEMOCRATICLEADERSHIP STYLE It refers to that leadership style in which the leader consults with his subordinates before making any final decision. Lets work together to solve this …
  29. 29. CHARACTERISTICS OF DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP CooperativeRelations Belief inEmployees OpenCommunication
  30. 30. DEMOCRATICLEADERSHIP STYLE advantages of Democraticleadership  HighMorale  Creation of MoreEfficiencyandProductivity  Availability of Sufficient timefor ConstructiveWork Disadvantages of DEMOCRATICleadership  Requirement of Educated Subordinates  Delay inDecisions  Lack of Responsibility inManagers Suitability of DEMOCRATICleadership  Whengroup members areskilled.  Whenplenty of timeisavilablefor decisionmaking  Whenleader wants toinvolvethesubordinates.  Whenroles areclear
  31. 31. LAISSEZ FAIRELEADERSHIP STYLE It refers to that leadership style in which leader allows the employees to make the decisions. You two take care of the problem while I go. . .
  32. 32. CHARACTERISTICSOFLAISSEZFAIRE LEADERSHIP Full FaithinSubordinates Independent DecisionMakingSystem Decentralizationof Authority Self Directed
  33. 33. LAISSEZ FAIRELEADERSHIP STYLE advantages of LaissezFaireleadership  Development of Self ConfidenceinSubordinates  HighLevel Motivation  Helpful inDevelopment andExtension of theEnterprise Disadvantages of LaissezFaireleadership  DifficultyinCooperation  Lack of Importanceof Managerial Post  Suitableonlyfor Highly Educated Employees Suitability of LaissezFaireleadership  Whenfollowers arehighlyskilled,educated andexperienced  Followers aretrustworthy
  34. 34. COMMUNICATION Art of transferring of facts, ideas, feelings, etc. from one person to another and making him understand them.
  35. 35. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNICATION Twoor MorePersons Exchangeof Ideas Mutual Understanding Direct andIndirect Communication Continuous Process Useof Wordsaswell as Symbols
  36. 36. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Formal Communication: Communication within the OfficiallySanctioned Boundaries of the Organization Informal Communication:  Communicationwithin the  Organization which isnot  officiallySanctioned
  37. 37. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION: FORMAL Characteristicsof Formal Communication  WrittenandOral  Formal Relations  Prescribed paths  Organizational Message  DeliberateEfforts
  38. 38. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION: FORMAL Advantages of Formal Communication  Maintenanceof Authority of theOfficers  Clear andEffectiveCommunication  Orderly flowof Information  Easy knowledgeof Sourceof Information
  39. 39. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION: FORMAL Limitationsof Formal Communication  Overload of Work  Distortionof Information  OverlookingbytheOfficers
  40. 40. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION: FORMAL Types of Formal Communication Manager Foreman Worker Manager Foreman VERTICAL COMMUNICATI ON VERTICAL COMMUNICATI ON (Downward Communication ) Horizontal Communication (Upward Communication )
  41. 41. Characteristicsof Informal Communication  FormationthroughSpecial Relations  Two types of Information • About Work • About Individual  Uncertain Path  Possibilityof Rumor andDistortion  Quick Relay TYPES OF COMMUNICATION: INFORMAL
  42. 42. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION: INFORMAL Advantages of Informal Communication Fast and Effective Communication Free Environment Better Human Relationships Problems are Easily Solved Social Needs of the Individual is Satisfied
  43. 43. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION: INFORMAL Limitationsof Informal Communication  Unsystematic Communication  UnreliableInformation
  44. 44. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION: INFORMAL Types of Informal Communication x 1. Single Standard F E D C B D A B C H G 2. Gossip Chain 3. Probability 4. Cluster x 1. Single Standard A A
  45. 45. BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION Semantic Barriers Psychological Barriers Organizational Barriers Personal Barriers
  46. 46. BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION 1. Semantic Barriers:  Badly Expressed messages  Symbols or Words with Different Meanings  Faulty Translation  UnClarifiedAssumptions  Technical Jargon
  47. 47. BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION 3. Organizational Barriers:  Organizational Policies  Rules andRegulations  Complexity inOrganizational Structure  Organizational Facilities
  48. 48. BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION 4. Personal Barriers:  Barriers Related toSupervisors • Fear of Challengeof Authority • Lack of ConfidenceinSubordinates  Barriers Related toSubordinates • Unwillingness toCommunicate • Lack of Proper Incentive
  49. 49. COMMUNICATION Measurestoovercomethebarriersof communication  Communicateaccording totheneedsof theReceiver  Clarify ideas beforeCommunication  Beawareof language,toneandContent  Communicationfor thepresent as well asfuture  Ensureproper feedback  BeaGoodListener
  50. 50. Please be free to write query at: Dr.Ramesh C Sharma +91-94180-45154