• Mass Tourism is a type of tourism that involves group of
many tourist (tens of thousands of people) going to the
same resort/destination often at the same time of year.
• It is the most popular type of tourism as it is often the
cheapest way to holiday, and is often sold as a package
• A package deal is one in which all of the tourists needs
are catered for by one company (Yatra.Com), these
needs include travel/flights, activities, accommodation
and sometimes food (CP, AP or MAP).
• Mass Tourism is organised tourism for large numbers of
• There are many types of mass tourism, including skiing
in the mountains, sunbathing on a beach, visiting a
theme park (e.g. Euro Disney near Paris) or taking a
• Governments and local people often support mass
tourism because it generates a lot of income for local
Mass tourism has both positive and negative
• Brings Money into local
• Creates jobs for local people.
• Increases the income of
industries that supply
tourism e.g. Farming
• A lot of the profit made from tourism
is kept by the large travel companies
rather than going to the local
• Lots of jobs means young
people are more likely to
stay in the area.
• Improved roads,
communications benefit local
• Income from tourism can be
reinvested in local
• The tourism jobs available to locals
are often badly paid and are seasonal.
• Traffic congestion caused by tourists
can inconvenience local people.
• The behaviour of some tourists can
• Income from tourism can be
reinvested in protecting the
• Transporting lots of people long
distances releases greenhouse gasses
that cause global warming.
• Tourism can increase litter and
• Tourism can lead to the destruction
of natural habitats
There are ways to reduce the negative impacts of mass
• Improving Public transport encourages people to use it,
which reduces traffic congestion and pollution.
• Limiting the number of people visiting sensitive
• Providing lots of bins helps reduce litter.
There are ways to make sure tourism is maintained (areas that
rely heavily on tourism need to make sure they keep coming):
• Build new facilities or improve existing ones.
• Reduce any tourist impacts.
• Advertise and market the area to attract new tourists.
• Improve transport infrastructure to make the area quick and
easy to get to.
• Offer new activities.
• Make it cheaper to visit.
VISITING FRIENDS AND RELATIVES (VFR)
• This includes visiting one’s relatives and friends for
• A large number of Americans visit European countries in
order to see their families or because they feel they are visiting
• VFR is very common in India. Many people take time out of
their busy schedules to visit their friends and relatives during
school vacations or during major festivals and attend
weddings and other rituals.
• While visiting friends or relatives, people also visit tourist
attractions in and around the city.
• In India, due to Leave Travel Concession (LTC) facility
and travel allowances by private firms, many people are
now visiting and travel native places in holidays.
– Primary Activities
• Dining in
• Home entertainment
– Secondary Activities
• Dining out
• Physical recreation
• Urban entertainment
• People are always curious to know more about foreign
lands, their people, and their culture.
• Culture is one of the most significant factors, which
attracts tourist to a destination.
• Culture in terms of tourism gives the tourist an insight
- Way of life or lifestyle of the people which one can
- Dress, jewellery, dance, music, architecture and
- Customs and beliefs, fairs and festivals and religion
practised in the region.
• Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas,
particularly historic or large cities and their cultural
facilities such as museums and theatres.
• It can also include tourism in rural areas showcasing the
traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e.
festivals, rituals), and their values and lifestyle.
• Cultural Tourism includes widening one’s knowledge
about other places and people, their ways of life, their
culture and includes journeys to places of art and
heredity treasures, religious shrines and other
civilizations, interest in religion, philosophy, history etc
to participate in cultural events such as art festivals and
celebrations-music, theatre, dance, folklore, festivals etc
such as Ellora festival, Elephant festival, Khajuraho
festival, Malaysia festival, Dubai festival etc.
Features of Cultural Tourism
• Builds on and markets cultural strengths.
• Emphasizes the quality and authenticity of the visitor’s
• Aims not simply to describe, but to convey meaning and
understanding of broad contexts.
• Meets the visitor’s demand for knowledge.
• Conveys the richness and diversity of a place or culture.
• It is active and involving for both visitors and host
• It can create new tourism product from people - it does not
depend on high levels of new capital investment.
• It recognizes the dynamic and changing nature of culture.
• It develops visitor and site management programs.
• It develops interpretation programs designed to inform,
educate and interest visitors.
• It can minimize the environmental degradation and cultural
exploitation which accompany some forms of tourism.
• It is carefully targeted to meet the interests of particular
Cultural Tourism in India
• Culture Tourism has a special place in India because of
its past civilization as India has been considered the land
of ancient history, heritage, and culture.
• Historical and archaeological monuments continue to be
the biggest draw in attracting international tourists.
• This fact has been confirmed by a survey undertaken by
the pacific area travel association (PATA).
• The government of India has set up the Ministry of
Tourism and Culture to boost cultural tourism in India.
• The ministry launched the ‘Incredible India!’ campaign
and this has led to the growth of culture tourism in
• The most popular states in India for cultural tourism are
Kerala, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh,
• Religious Tourism is also known as pilgrimage or
spiritual tourism or faith tourism.
• The evolution of tourism could also be attributed to
journeys undertaken since ancient times to places
considered as sacred.
• People travelled singly or in groups for the purpose of
spiritual benefit for to attain salvation or moksha.
• Religious Tourism is a journey, undertaken for the sake
of worship and or to pay respect to a site of special
• In India, since time immemorial, tourism has been
associated with places of religious significance. These
destinations are scattered all over the country.
• Varanasi in UP is amongst the oldest living cities in the
world. It is also the holiest of Hindu pilgrimages.
• Another important city of religious importance is
Haridwar which is also known as the Gateway of the
• Haridwar stands as the gateway to the four pilgrimages
of Uttrakhand also known as the Char Dhams of
Uttrakhand - Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath and
• Another important Indian Hindu pilgrimage is visiting
the Char Dhams of India which were founded by
• Rameshwaram, Puri, Dwarka and Badrinath.
• Vaishnodevi Temple and Amarnath Caves in J&K,
Mathura in U.P, the 12 Jyotirlingas, 52 Shaktipeeths,
Balaji Temple at Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh, Shri Sai
Baba temple at Shirdi etc.
• A visit to Mecca is sacred.
• The Sufi Saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti’s dargah at
Ajmer, Haji Ali at Mumbai etc.
For the Christians
• A visit to Jerusalem and Bethlehem is considered very
• Rome is recognized as the holy city for the tombs of St
Peter and St Paul.
• In India, the Church of Basilica of Bom Jesus at Goa and
the church at Velankanni, TN are considered holy.
• Sarnath, Bodhgaya, Rajgir, Sravasti and Nalanda places
connected with events of the life of Buddha.
• Dilwara Temples at Mount Abu, Girnar Temples in
Gujarat, Shravanbelagola are auspicious places.
• The Golden Temple at Amritsar in Punjab is the most
sacred place for Sikhs.
• Travel is not always undertaken for pleasure or leisure.
• The business traveller's main motive for travel is work.
• He/She visits a particular destination for various
reasons pertaining to his or her work such as attending a
business meeting, conference, convention, trade fair,
selling products, meetings clients etc.
• About 80-85% or all air travel is business related.
• Business Travel recognized as the most important
segment for revenues for the hotel industry.
• More than 50% of occupancy of a large majority of hotels
in many countries comes from the business travel
• The business traveller is the lifeline of the tourism
• According to the Federation of Hotel and Restaurant
Association of India, 60 % of all guests in the Indian
hotel industry comprises of business guests.
• The airline and hotel industry have recognized the
monetary worth of business travellers.
• A business traveller looks for the best and not the
cheapest, as he/she is not worried about the cost, for
most travel expenses of the business traveller are borne
by his/her company, which he/she is representing.
• Sometimes a business traveller decides his/her trip at
the last minute.
• Unlike the leisure traveller, the business traveller does
not choose his/her destination.
• Business trips are also shorter in duration.
Meetings, Incentives, Conventions and Exhibitions (MICE)
• Business Tourism involves meetings, conferences and
conventions where information is exchanged, lavish
events are organized to launch new products, incentive
travel is offered or motivate or reward staffs, exhibitions
are organized to promote corporations etc.
• This is popularly called Meetings, Incentives,
Conventions and Exhibitions/Expositions or MICE
• The four most important aspects of Business Tourism.
- Coming together of a number of people in one place,
to confer or carry out a particular activity or
- It is a tool for motivating people involved in an
organization success – Employees, Dealers,
Distributors, Sales people, consultants, & last but
not least, even key customers, it is also means of
rewarding them for a job well done or excellent sale
- Conventions are generally largely meetings with
some form of exposition or trade show.
- A number of Associations have one or more
conventions per year.
- These conventions raise a large part of the
- Events at which products & services are displayed.
- An exhibitions may simply be a few table - top
booths designed to display goods & services.
Importance of MICE Tourism
• Economic growth of the region as a whole gets a boost.
• Development of better infrastructure, mainly in
transportation, accommodation and air services.
• The elements of relaxation, shopping and sightseeing are
usually included in MICE trips.
• Hence, most MICE travelers can be converted into leisure
travelers who would spend money on sightseeing and
• It is quite common for delegates to bring along a
• MICE events increase awareness of the host country,
create employment and income.
• MICE tourism strengthens the brand value and profile of
the country as an international tourist destination.
MICE Tourism in India
• India ranks a distant 28 in the MICE chart and gets just
0.92% of total 10,000 conferences and meetings held
globally every year.
• MICE is new trend of tourism in India and growing at
the rate of 15 to 29% annually.
• India is fast gaining its pace in the competition to
become an ideal MICE destination.
• With the advanced technology and facilities, warm
hospitality, personalized services coupled with immense
natural beauty and rich cultural heritage, the goal seems
to be not very far.
• In terms of infrastructure, India provides an impressive
combination of accommodation and other conference
support facilities to hold a successful Conference.
• India is combination of old world charm and tradition
interlaced with modern cosmopolitan sophistication.
• India offers an educated manpower base where fluency
in English and other official international languages can
• The India Convention Promotion Bureau (ICPB)
sponsored by the Ministry of Tourism, the Government
of India aims at promoting India as a competent and
credible MICE destination.
• The capital city New Delhi has been the favorite MICE
• The numerous charm of the city varies from ancient
monuments to excellent shopping options making the
business meeting and conference here an absolute pleasure.
• The Ashok, New Delhi, has been hosting meetings and
conventions on the international scale for more than four
decades and favorite venue for the top businessmen and
• Other venues of the capital are Pragati Maidan, the Habitat
World Convention Centre, Vigyan Bhawan and a number of
hotels with excellent convention facilities including Taj Palace,
Maurya Sheraton, Le Meridien, etc.
• Situated on the outskirt of New Delhi, Noida is fast
growing as one of the most modern cities of India.
• The city flaunts a number of venues catering multiple
opportunities of business tourism.
• Expo Centre is a smart venue to hold exhibitions,
conferences, seminars and banquets.
• India Expo Centre in Greater Noida is another centre
offering an impressive international business
environment ideal for product launches, seminars,
dealer meets, exhibitions and corporate functions.
• The pearl city Hyderabad is fast becoming an
information and technology hub of India.
• Studded with numerous heritage monuments, the
heritage city Hyderabad has come up with a
sophisticated business venue, Hyderabad International
Convention Centre – HICC.
• The centre has already hosted a number of prestigious
international and national meets in a short period of
time and has been appreciated by the organizers
• Rich with the lustrous beaches and emerald backwaters,
Kerala is an ideal leisure destination.
• After fascinating the whole world with its breathtaking
beauty, Kerala now finds itself as an inevitable
destination in the business tourism itinerary.
• Le Meridien, Cochin boasts of a number of well
equipped conference and banquet halls.
• Ayurveda is the major attraction here amongst the
business delegates and their family.
• People have been travelling for centuries to improve and
rebuild their health and stamina.
• Health Tourism refers to travel to facilities and
destinations for obtaining health-care services or health-
• It is a rapidly-growing practice of traveling to another
country to obtain health care.
• People all over the world are seeking good health
through the various techniques offered by yoga and the
other alternative therapies.
• Wellness is generally used to mean a healthy balance of
the mind, body and spirit that results in an overall
feeling of well-being.
• Wellness tourism is travel for the purpose of promoting
health and well-being through physical, psychological,
or spiritual activities.
• Wellness tourism puts your health and well-being at the very
center of your travel experience...!
• Trips organized around the principle of wellness tourism
should include healthy food, exercise, spa treatments, and
opportunities to experience or expand your spirituality and
• Wellness travellers pursue diverse services, including
physical fitness and sports; beauty treatments; healthy diet
and weight management; relaxation and stress relief;
meditation; yoga; and health-related education.
• Wellness travellers may seek procedures or treatments using
conventional, alternative, complementary, herbal, or
Spas in India provide specialized treatments and
• Meditation and
• Other relaxing massages to heal the mind and body.
The luxury spas in India are :
Ananda in the Himalayas, Uttarakhand
Udai Vilas in Udaipur,
Rajvilas in Jaipur,
Wildflower Hall in Shimla,
Park Hyatt Sereno Spa in Goa,
Oberoi Amar Vilas, Agra
• The most recent trend in privatisation of health services
is Medical Tourism, which gaining prominence in
• The movement of people for the purpose of Medical
treatment is called Medical Tourism.
• Such services typically include elective procedures as
well as complex specialized surgeries such as Joint
Replacement (knee/hip), Cancer and Brain Treatment,
Cardiac Surgery, Dental Surgery and Cosmetic
• The concept of Medical Tourism is not a new one. The
first recorded instance of Medical Tourism dates back
thousands of years back with Greek.
• Epidauria became the original travel destination for
• The factors that have led to the recent increase in
popularity of medical travel includes:
- The high cost of health care or wait times for procedures
in industrialized nations.
- Improvements in technology and standards of care.
- E.g. the time spent waiting for a procedure such a hip
replacement can be a year or more in Britain and
Canada; however, in Singapore, Hong Kong, Thailand,
Cuba, Colombia, Philippines or India, a patient could
feasibly have an operation the day after their arrival.
• Medical tourists can come from anywhere in the world,
including Europe, the UK, Middle East, Japan, US and
- This is because of their large populations,
comparatively high wealth, the high expense of
health care or lack of health care options locally, and
high expectations of their populations with respect
to health care.
• Though many countries are boosting in Medical Tourism
like Greece, South Africa, Jordan, India, Malaysia,
Philippines, Thailand, Costa Rica, Singapore etc.
• The current estimated of 1.32 million medical tourists come to
Asia from all corner’s of the world including US and Europe.
• Asia continues to be the top medical destination in medical
• Asian medical destinations continue to offer more and better
medical procedures and care than most other medical
• Several hospitals in Asia have carved such outstanding
reputations for themselves that medical tourism has become a
• In countries such as Singapore and Thailand, government
agencies have been set up to help market their expertise
• The Indian government has removed many visa
restrictions and introduced a visa-on-arrival scheme for
medical tourists from selected countries; this allows
foreign nationals to stay in India for 30 days for medical
reasons and can even get a visa of up to 1 year
depending upon treatment requirements.
• Special medical travel agencies have sprung up around
the world, and top Asian hospitals routinely have special
“international” desks and services to assist overseas
patients with everything from doctors’ appointments to
• There are three major hubs and three minor hubs that
should be considered for Medical Tourism in the world.
Three major hubs are:
2. Singapore and
1. Thailand: -
• Thailand is the largest Medical Tourism hub in total
volume and in both high-end and low-end procedures.
• Thailand’s two largest Medical Tourism targets are the
Bumrungrad and Bangkok Hospital, which annually treat
4, 00, 000 approx foreign patients.
• Thailand’s prices are about 20% higher than India’s on
average, with the main advantages being a better
tourist experience overall and more bundling of
• Thailand has more experienced doctors, better
equipment and lower prices.
• Thailand regular medical tourists, who fly to Thailand
annually for a comprehensive physical exam, dental
work and any minor procedure along with a week on
the beach at Phuket is cheaper and more enjoyable
option than staying at home.
• Thailand accounts for maximum share of
the Asia medical tourism market, being followed
by India and Singapore.
• Singapore has a well–deserved reputation as a high-
tech, clean and orderly city-state.
• With medical costs about half those of the US,
Singapore is considerably more expensive than India or
Thailand and in line with the minor hubs.
• The quality of medical facilities is on par with the main
medical centres in Thailand and India.
• The Singaporean government has recently made a
significant effort to expand its biotechnology sector,
mostly with large financial grants to lure researchers
from other countries.
• India is an ideal stop for medical treatment because it
has world class hospitals, state-of-the-art technology,
competent doctors, professional management, top
quality nursing and paramedical staff.
• All this is on offer at comparatively lower prices
making it economical to the tourists as well.
• India deals with a higher proportion of major and
• In India, the cost of treatment is between one sixth to
one tenth of the cost incurred in the USA or Europe.
• Visitors from western countries find medical treatment
in India cost-effective and less time consuming as
compared to their own homeland.
• For instance, the heart surgery that costs about Rs. 20
lakhs abroad would cost Rs. 2 lakh (approx) even if it is
performed in the topmost hospitals in India.
• Some hospitals are far out of the reach of most Indians
and cater specifically to foreign tourists for very specific
needs – for example some centres will focus strongly on
heart surgery while others deal with join replacements.
• India is a good choice for major surgery.
• The travellers can choose from various systems of
alternative medicine too, such as acupuncture, aroma
therapy, meditation, ayurveda, unani medicine, mud
therapy, physico therapy, reiki etc.
• In addition most hotels and resorts in India have their
own spas and ayurvedic centres that further
encourage such alternative form of tourism.
• To ensure standardization in health care it is
necessary that hospitals offering medical tourism
need accreditation from the Confederation of Indian
Industry (CII) and National Accreditation Board for
• South Korea stands at the fourth spot in the year 2016
and is likely to almost double its market share by the
year 2022, while Malaysia is holding the last spot in the
The Top 5 Countries covered are:
• India (64 Countries Covered)
• Malaysia (20 Countries Covered)
• Singapore(16 Countries Covered)
• Thailand (15 Countries Covered)
• South Korea (14 Countries Covered)
Three minor hubs are:
• South Africa
• Costa Rica and
1. South Africa:
• The hospitals are a first world standards.
• The majority of SA Medical tourists are after cosmetic
surgery, with breast augmentations as the number
• SA prices hover around 40-60% of those in the US,
making them one of the more expensive Medical
• Recently, however, crime has become a major
problem in SA cities and many hotels not allow guests
out at night except in a hotel car, which further limits
exposure to the local culture.
2. Costa Rica:
• CRs main selling point is that it doesn’t require a Trans-
Pacific flight for US tourists to get there.
• As with many smaller hubs, the focus is on cosmetic
surgery and dental work.
• Prices are approximately 40-50 % of the US.
• Like Costa Rica, Hungary offers cheap but reliable
dental and cosmetic surgery.
• The major draw is the Hungary is convenient to
European tourist by air or train.
• Price are 40-50% of the US, though almost all patients
that go there are Europeans with heavily state-supported
health care systems.
• Alternative Tourism is a combination of tourist products
or individual tourist services.
• In simple words, it can be described as people touring
places and things other than usual tourist attractions.
• Thus, it involves uncrowded locations and non-peak
• It is characterized by individual activities and tourists’
desire to experience local culture and environment.
• Alternative Tourism aims at seeking a transition from
impersonal, traditional mass tourism to establishing
cordial rapport between visitors and the local hosts.
• These tourists normally avoid the services that are used
by tourists such as accommodation, transport, and other
• They prefer to use or share the services of the local
• Their main motive is to experience and get an insight
into their way of living.
• Alternative Tourism is nowadays regarded as a key to
• While mass tourism can have a negative impact on a
destination, alternative tourism promotes a balanced
growth form, more in line with local environmental and
• Many of the western travellers have expressed their
dissatisfaction towards the sun based holidays.
• In fact many of the tourists are looking for a change.
A Quick Comparison between Mass
and Alternative Tourism
Mass Tourism Alternative Tourism
large groups singles, families, friends
traditional recent trend
fixed program spontaneous decisions
focus on “sights” focus on “experiences”
little or no background research careful preparation and research
desire for souvenirs desire for memories / knowledge
purchase items while there bring items to give away
may involve loud social activities quiet, low impact
snapshots and postcards photography and painting
no language preparation learn local language
• The tourists want tour packages comprising of wildlife,
cultural sites, local tribes, whitewater rafting etc.
• This interest in alternative tourism has, thus, led to the
emergence of travel agents and tour operators who
specialized in these different interests of the tourists.
• Alternative tourism is not a type of tourism but is rather
a guiding principle involving ecotourism, heritage
tourism, cultural tourism etc.
• Sustainable Tourism is defined as “tourism that respects
both local people and the traveller, cultural heritage and
• It seeks to provide people with an exciting and
educational holiday that is also of benefit to the people
of the host country.
• It is tourism that truly benefits those who are on the
receiving end and that does not exploit and degrade the
environment in which they live and from which they
must earn a living after the last tourist has flown back
• ST is tourism dev that avoids damage to the
environment, economy and cultures of the locations
where it takes place.
• ST is a form of tourism that follows the principles of
• ST development meets the needs of present tourists and
host regions while protecting and enhancing
opportunity for the future.
- UNWTO, 1995 (Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry).
• ST is responsible tourism intending to generate
employment and income along with alleviating any
deeper impact on environment and local culture.
• When we refer to “ST” activities we mean any activity
that can be carried out in the same or similar way for an
indefinite future (sustainable in time) in three main
a. Environmentally: The activity minimizes any
damage to the environment, i.e plants, animals,
water, soils, energy use etc and provides a benefit
to the environment through protection and
b. Socially and culturally: The activity does not
harm, and may revitalize, the social structure or
culture of the community where it is located.
c. Economically: The activity can sustain itself
economically; it continues to contribute to the
economic well being of the local community
through local ownership, employment, buying local
etc. A sustainable business should benefit its
owners, its employees, and neighbours.
• When we take these three aspects into account, this is
called the “triple bottom-line”. Sometimes it is referred
to as “doing well by doing good”.
• In 2004 the World Tourism Organization
added: ”Achieving sustainable tourism is a continuous
process and it requires constant monitoring of impacts,
introducing the necessary preventive and/or corrective
measures whenever necessary.”
Principles of Sustainable Tourism
1. Using resources sustainably:
• The conservation and sustainable use of resources
(natural, social, cultural is crucial and makes long
term business sense).
2. Reducing over consumption and waste:
• Reduction of over-consumption and waste avoids
the costs of restoring long-term environmental
damage and contributes to the quality of tourism.
3. Maintaining Biodiversity:
• Maintaining and promoting natural, social and
cultural diversity is essential for long – term ST and
creates a resilient base for the industry.
4. Integrating tourism into planning:
• Tourism dev which is integrated into a national and
local strategic planning framework and which
under takes environmental impact assessments;
increase the long-term viability of tourism.
5. Supporting local economies:
• Tourism that supports a wide range of local
economic activities and which takes environmental
costs and values into account both protects these
economies and avoids environmental damage.
6. Involving local communities:
• The full involvement of local communities in the
tourism sector not only benefits them and the
environment but also improves the quality of the
7. Training Staff:
• Staff training which integrates ST into world
practices, along with recruitment of a personnel at
all levels, improves the quality of tourism product.
8. Marketing Tourism Responsibility:
• Marketing that provides tourist with full and
responsible information increases respect for the
natural, social and cultural environments of
destination areas and enhances customer
9. Undertaking Research:
• On going research and monitoring by the industry
using effective data collection and analysis is
essential to help solve problems and bring benefits
to destinations, the industry and customers.
• Responsible tourism is like sustainable tourism, however
as often the word sustainability is often overused and not
understood, responsible tourism has been adopted as a
term used by industry.
• Responsible tourism is any form of tourism that can be
consumed in a more responsible way.
• Travel that takes into consideration the natural, socio-
cultural, economic and political contexts of a dest. in the
search to increase benefits and minimize negative
• Protect the Environment: Its flora, fauna and
• Respect Local Cultures: Traditions, religions and built
• Benefit Local Communities: Both economically and
• Conserve Natural Resources: From office to destination.
• Minimise pollution – through noise, waste disposal and
• T -Travel to eco friendly destinations largely.
• R -Recreation with responsibility.
• U -Use only reusable items.
• S -Support the effort through possible means.
• T -Try and teach Responsible tourism.
SPECIAL INTEREST TOURISM
• Specialised tourism involves group or individual tours
by people who wish to develop certain interests and visit
sites and places connected with a specific subject.
• Generally speaking, the people concerned exercise the
same profession or have a common hobby.
,World Tourism Organisation (WTO) 1985
• Special Interest Tourism (SIT) is the provision of
customised tourism activities that caters to the specific
interests of groups and individuals.
SIT consists of four main experiences:
- Adventuresome Experiences
- Learning Experiences.
Classification of Special Interest Tourism:
• Active: Sports, cycling, hiking, skiing, sailing
• Social: Youth tours, clubbing, singles trips
• Educational: Cooking, language schools
• Discovery: Antarctic exploring, Galapagos expeditions
• Hobbies: Wine tasting, garden tours, flower shows
• Challenge/excitement: Climbing Everest, trekking
• Relaxation: Cruising, canal boats, camping
• Health & Therapy: Spa holiday to Thailand, medical tours
NATURAL AREA TOURISM
• Tourism in natural settings.
Natural Area Tourism is characterised as:
• Tourism in the Env. : - E.g. Adventure Tourism.
• Tourism about the Env. : - E.g. NBT and WT.
• Tourism for the Env. : - Ecotourism.
Natural – Based Tourism
• Tourism about the env.
• Occurs in natural settings but has the added emphasis of
fostering, understanding and conservation of the natural
• In which viewing nature is the primary objective.
• This focus is usually upon the study and/or observation of the
abiotic (non-living) part of the env.
- E.g. The rocks and landforms.
• The biotic (living) component of it.
– E.g. Flora and Flora.
• It is a form of tourism underpinned by the ecocentric
philosophy so that the natural environment provides the
platform for environmental understanding and
• NBT also embraces the sustainable approach and fosters
• It differs from Wildlife tourism; NBT has a broader focus
than purely viewing wildlife.
• In NBT the whole landscape and surrounds is the primary
focus for tours and it is more holistic in its embrace of the
• Wildlife tourism can be broadly defined as trips to
destinations with the main purpose of visit being to
observe the local fauna.
• This therefore implies that wildlife tourism includes
other niche markets such as bird, tiger, rhino
• Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a
type of tourism that appeals to the ecologically and
socially conscious individuals.
• Eco-Tourism is considered the fastest growing
market in the tourism industry, according to the
UNWTO with an annual growth rate of 5%
worldwide and representing 6% of the world gross
• It is a purposeful travel to natural areas to understand
the cultural and natural history of env., taking care not
to alter the integrity of the ecosystem, while producing
economic opportunities that make conservation of
natural resources beneficial to local people.
• The Intl. Eco-Tourism Society (TIES, 1990) defines
“Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the
environment and improves the well-being of local
In short, Ecotourism can be conceptualized as any
Tourism Programme that is:
• Natural Based.
• Ecologically Sustainable.
• Where education and interpretation is a major component
and where local people are benefited.
• If it does not satisfy anyone of these components then it
cannot be called real ecotourism venture.
Some basic Do’s and Don’ts of Eco-Tourism are:
• Carry back all non-degradable litter such as empty
bottles, tins, plastic bags etc.
• These must not litter the environment or be buried.
They must be disposed in municipal dustbins only.
• Observe the sanctity of holy sites, temples and local
• Cut noise pollution. Do not blare aloud radios, tape
recorders or other electronic entertainment equipment
in nature resorts, sanctuaries and wildlife parks.
• In case temporary toilets are set-up near campsites, after
defecation, cover with mud or sand. Make sure that the
spot is at least 30 meters away from the water source.
• Respect people's privacy while taking photographs. Ask
for prior permission before taking a photograph.
• Do not take away flora and fauna in the forms of
cuttings, seeds or roots. It is illegal, especially in the
• The environment is really delicate in this region and the
bio-diversity of diversity of the region has to be
protected at all costs.
• Do not use pollutants such as detergent, in streams or
springs while washing and bathing.
• Do not use wood as fuel to cook food at the campsite.
• Do not leave cigarettes butts or make open fires in the
• Do not consume aerated drinks, alcohol, drugs or any
other intoxicant and throw bottles in the wild.
• Do not tempt the locals, especially children by offering
them foodstuff or sweets. Respect local traditions.
• Polythene and plastics are non biodegradable and
unhealthy for the environment and must not be used
• Staying on trails, packing up your trash, and remaining
set distances away from wildlife are a few ways to
minimize your impact in sensitive areas.
• Seek out and support locally owned businesses. Support
local businesses during your eco-travels to ensure
maximum community and conservation benefit from
Eco-Tourism in India
• Ecotourism developments have already begun in India
but still there are miles to go and plenty of resources are
yet to be tapped. Many states are also working for it.
• Tourism Deptt., Govt. of Kerala has taken steps to give
focused attention to ecotourism in the state.
• A separate ecotourism wing has been created to give
policy support for the development of ecotourism
destination in the state.
• Accordingly, a project for the first planned ecotourism
destination (Thenmala Ecotourism Project) has been
formulated in and around Shenduruney Wildlife
Sanctuary with cooperation of deptt. Such as forest,
Irrigation and Tourism.
• A separate society, the Thenmala Ecotourism Promotion
Society (TEPS) has been constitute.
• The major objectives of this project are:
- To develop Thenmala dam and its
surroundings as a major tourist destination.
- To promote Ecotourism on the basis of sound
principles of ecological sustainability in the
• To have a well planned tourism destination with
emphasis on sustainable tourism development so as to
become a model for other destination development
• Thenmala is the first Eco-Tourism destination in India.
• Located about 72 kms from Thiruvananthapuram.
• Thenmala is a small village at the foothills of Western
Ghats and predominantly a forest area and having the
radius of 50 kms.
• The famous Shenduruney Wildlife Sanctuary is the
most important ecotourism resources of Thenmala
• Thenmala: “Then + Mala”. i.e in local language “Then”
means honey and “Mala” means hillock. i.e. it means
There are total four zones. They are:
• Cultural Zone.
- This zone accommodates various activities, which
favors Eco-friendly general tourism.
Restaurant, Shop court, Amphitheatre etc help the
tourists understand the Kerala’s cuisines, crafts, arts,
natural wealth, culture etc.
- An open air Musical dancing foundation is
another major attraction here.
- This zone caters to the needs of tourist exploring the
inherent qualities of the zone-the drastic level changes,
favorable views etc.
- The boardwalk and the sway bridge explore potential
- The Sculpture Garden is the main attraction of this zone.
The theme of the garden is MAN and NATURE. It
endeavors to depict the relationship of Man and his
culture with Nature, in the serene backdrop of green
• Adventure Zone
- The activities in this zone favor adventure
- The attractions in this area are the elevated
walkway, the mountain biking, rock climbing,
river crossing, nature trails, resting spots, short
• Boating (Battery powered road vehicles) in the
Schenduruney Wildlife Sanctuary and one can view
animals like elephants, unique scenic beauty and lush
evergreen forests etc.
• Deer rehabilitation center.
• Palaruvi Falls
• Rural Tourism is essentially an activity which takes place
in the country side.
• Tourism that showcases the rural life, art culture and
heritage at rural location, thereby benefiting the local
community economically and socially as well as enabling
interaction between the tourists and locals for a more
enriching tourism exp. Can be termed as R.T.
• In developed countries, this has resulted in a new style of
tourism of visiting village settings to experience and live
a relaxed and healthy lifestyle.
• The stresses of Urban lifestyles have led to a
‘counter-urbanization’ syndrome. This has lead to
growing interest in the rural areas.
Besides, there are other factors are:
- Increasing levels of awareness.
- Growing interest in heritage and culture and
- Environmental consciousness.
• It is multi-faceted and may entail Farm/Agriculture
Tourism, Cultural Tourism, Nature Tourism, Adv.
Tourism and Eco-Tourism.
• Rural Tourism has certain typical characteristics like: -
- The locations are sparsely populated; it is
predominantly in natural env.
- It meshes with seasonality and local events and is
based on preservation of culture, heritage and
Rural Tourism in India
• Rural Tourism is definitely useful for a country like
India, where almost 74% of the popu. resides in its 7
• Rural India has much to offer to the world.
• Rich traditions of arts, crafts and culture rural India can
emerge as important tourist spots.
• Thousand of foreign tourists visit rural area in
Rajasthan, Gujarat and South India every year.
• The tenth Plan has identified tourism as one of the
major sources of generating employment and
promoting sustainable livelihoods.
• The Union Ministry of Tourism in collaboration with
UNDP has launched the Tourism Project linked to the
existing rural tourism scheme of the government.
• UNDP has committed $ 2.5 million for the project.
• UNDP will help in areas of: -
- Capacity Building
- Involvement of NGOs
- Local Communities and Artisans.
- Forge Strong Community – private and public
• The govt. has decided to develop necessary infra. for
facilitating Rural Tourism.
• So far the govt. has identified 31 villages across the
country as tourist spots.
Sl. No. Village/District State
1 - Pochampalli in Nalgonda
- Srikalahasti in Chittor
2 - Durgapur in Golaghat
- Sulakuchi Kamrup
3 - Nepura in Nalanda Bihar
4 - Chitrakota and Nagarnar in
5 - Hodka in Kachh Gujarat
6 - Jyotisar in Kurukshetra Haryana
7 - Naggar in Kullu Himachal Pradesh
8 - Banavasi in Uttar Kannada Karnataka
9 - Aranmulla in
- Kumbalanghi in Kochi
10 - Chaugan in Mandla
- Pranpur in Ashok Nagar
11 - Sulibhanjankhultabad in
12 - Pipili and Raghurajpur in Puri Orissa
13 - Rajasansi in Amritsar Punjab
14 - Neemrana in Alwar
- Samode in Jaipur
- Haldighati in Rafamand
15 - Lachen in Mangan Sikkim
16 - Karaikudi in Sivaganga
- Kazhugumalai in Thoothukudi
17 - Kamlasagar in West Tripura
18 - Bhaguwala in Saharanpur Uttar Pradesh
19 - Jageshwar in Almora
- Mana in Chamoli
20 - Ballabhpur Danga in Birbhum
- Mukutmanipur in Bankura
• Temporary movement onto a farm of people looking to
enjoy a rural env. as part of their leisure, pleasure,
recreation and business activities.
• Includes accommodation, attraction etc.
• Can contribute to the overall income, cash flow and
profitability of farm based business.
• Alternative source of income from the produce you sell
from the farm (milk, cattle, poultry etc)
• Possible financial rewards
• Personal satisfaction
• Control of direction
• Contact with a wide range of people.
• High level of responsibility.
• High financial risk
• Long working hours
• Lack of time away
• Close contact with people who may have different
attitudes, habits and beliefs.
• Need to be friendly all the time.
• Pressure on self and family relationship.
• Golf is a sport in which a player, using several types of
clubs, has the objective of getting a ball into each hole on
the golf course in the lowest number of strokes.
• Golf is one of the few ball games that do not use a
standardized playing area; rather, the game is played on
golf “courses”, each one of which has a unique design
and typically consists of either 9 or 18 separate holes.
• Golf is defined in the Rules of Golf as “playing a ball
with a club from the teeing ground into the hole by a
stroke or successive strokes in accordance with Rules”.
Golf Tourism in India
• In India one can play golf almost anywhere like hills,
metropolitan cities and in small towns, by lakes and
forests or surrounded by tea estates, out in the desert.
• India was the first country outside of Great Britain to
take up the game of golf.
• The Royal Calcutta Golf Club, established in 1829 is the
oldest golf club in India and first outside Great Britain.
• With the growing influence of the British in the Indian
empire, the eighteenth century saw a mushrooming of
new Golf Club in India.
• Wherever land was available and grass grew, golf found
a new home. Some e.g. Nowdefunct Royal Bombay Golf
Club in 1842, the Banglore Golf Club in 1876 and the
Shillong Golf Club incorporated a Golf Course in 1886.
• Then the course was opened in the USA and Europe in
• Till the 50s, Golf Clubs in India were affiliated to the
Royal Calcutta Golf club, which followed the rules of St.
Andrews in Scotland.
• In Dec 1955, a group of Golfer got together to form the
Indian Golf Union as the controlling body for the game.
• The Indian Golf Union has also set up another body
called the Professional Golfer Association of India
• The most imp annual event in the calendar of the Indian
Golf Union is the Indian Open Golf Championship,
which first played in DEL in 1964 and won by the
Australian Golfer, Peter Thompson.
• The IGU is now affiliated to World Amateur Golf
Council and has done a great deal to promote golfing in
• In 1957, it started its first training camp at the Royal in
Calcutta, where assistant professional and caddies were
bought from all over the country and trained to teach
• In year 1958 is a landmark in the history of Indian
Championship was moved away from the Royal Calcutta
Golf Club to be played alternately at DEL, BOM and
• 1982, DEL was chosen to host the first ever Golf
Competition for the Asian Games.
• The Hero Honda India Open is the oldest International
Golf Tournament in Indian which was played in 1964 at
• The Hero Honda Indian Open Tournament of 2005 was
first Golf Tournament which was broadcasted live on
What makes Golfing in India exciting?
• Not only does it have the oldest Golf Club in the world
outside Great Britain but also the highest at Gulmarg
(2,700 meters) in Kashmir.
• There are Golf Courses in the mountains, plains, deserts
and at beach resorts.
• The environment of each course is unique in its culture
and history, highlighting all that makes India is through
its Golf Courses.
• Most of India’s courses are well connected by road, rail
and air and have excellent accommodation facilities.
Famous Golf Courses of India are: -
The Chandigarh Golf Club: -
• Located in Sector 6 of the city is a pleasure to be at.
• The sprawling 132 acres of land all surrounded with thick
mango, jamun, eucalyptus and kikar orchards.
• It was founded in 1966, open rounded the year and has 18
The Shimla Golf Club: -
• Located at a distance of 23 kms from the British summer
capital at Naldhera.
The Delhi Golf Club: -
• Oldest Golf Club in Delhi, established by the British in
• DGC is perhaps the only one in the world, dotted with
• DGC is also a sanctuary for over 300 species of birds and
200 varieties of tree.
• The other two courses within the city are Army Golf
Course in Dhaula Kuan and Qutab Golf Course
(maintained by Delhi Development Authority) is the only
public Golf Course in the country.
The Calcutta Golf Club: -
• The tital of “Royal” was bestowed on it when the Royal
couple of King Geroge V and Queen Mary visited Calcutta
• The Course comprises of variety if vegetation and water
The Gyamkhana Club Golf Course: -
• Is located in Gindy, Chennai and was brought into being is
• The course lies inside the Gindy racecourse.
The Gyamkhana Club: -
• Located in Ootacamund (Ooty) at a height of 7,600 feet.
The Bangalore Golf Club: -
• Established in 1876 is a great golfing venue with the well
Bombay Presidency Golf Club: -
• Has 110 acre and founded in 1827.
• Was redesigned by Peter Thompson to International Standard.
Major itinerary of Golf Tour: -
DEL – IXC – Shimla – DEL – CCU – MAA – Ooty – BLR - BOM.
• Able to access or reach.
• Intended as the set of services and facilities capable of
allowing persons with specific needs to enjoy a holiday
and their leisure time with no particular barriers or probs.
• Individuals with specific needs could be:
- Elderly people
- Disabled Individuals and
- People with particular diets or allergy probs.
• The definition of tourist covers a large category of
The most relevant probs that emerged are:
- The availability of health facilities and personnel.
- The accessibility of means of transport.
- The accessibility to service.
• “Persons with disabilities" includes all persons who,
owing to the environment being encountered, suffer a
limitation in their relational ability and have special
needs during travel, in accommodations, and other
tourism services, particularly individuals with physical,
sensory and intellectual disabilities or other medical
conditions requiring special care, such as elderly persons
and others in need of temporary assistance
(UNWTO, Dakar, 2005).
• In nut shell, accessible tourism is about making travel
and tourism easy for all people (irrespective of their age,
gender or physical status), it is a set of services and
facilities for individuals with specific needs that may
include the disabled, elderly people, pregnant women,
and people with temporary disabilities.
• United States 19.4
• New Zealand 20.0
• Canada 18.5
• Australia 20.0
• Brazil 14.5
• United Kingdom 12.2
• Spain 15.0
• Austria 14.4
• Sweden 12.1
• México 2.3
• Netherlands 11.6
• Germany 8.4
• India 2.1
• China 5.0
• Italy 5.0
• Egypt 4.4
• One emerging area of special interest has been identified
by Lennon and Foley (2000) as “DARK" tourism.
• Tourism that involves travelling to places associated
with death and suffering.
• This type of tourism involves visits to "dark" sites, such
as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of
genocide, for example: concentration camps.
• Also known as "Tourism of Doom," or "Last Chance
Tourism" this emerging trend involves traveling to
places that are environmentally or otherwise
threatened (the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro, the
melting glaciers of Patagonia, The coral of the Great
Barrier Reef) before it is too late.
• Tourism market where tourists explicitly seek
vanishing landscapes or seascapes, and/or
disappearing natural and/or social heritage”.
• Identified by travel trade magazine Travel Age West
editor-in-chief Kenneth Shapiro in 2007 and later
explored in The New York Times, this type of
tourism is believed to be on the rise.
• Photographic Holidays evolve out of the past time or
hobby of taking photography.
• Shared interest of photography unites members of a tour
group, photography trips are exchanged, tour guides
offer expert advice.
• Tourist Profile - varied level of photography experts,
beginners to experts
• Age Group- 17- 80 yrs, individuals in upper range with
more disposable income and time
• More men than women
• Limited number of tourists
• High ratio of tour guides to tourists is essential in
managing the tour
• Marketing and advertising is limited to periodic
magazines and specialist magazines
Types of Photography Holidays..
• Photography safari
• Guided photo
• Technical tuitions
• Photographic workshops
• Inclusion of professional photographers as team leaders
A Photographic Code of Conduct
• Be sensitive to the situation in which the photograph is being
• Be aware of cultural values
• Avoid religious ceremonies, taking pictures in temples and
other private situations
• Be aware of the intrusion of flashes in some circumstances
Seek Permission It is polite to ask before taking someone’s picture. Remember to
say thank you
• If someone objects, don’t take the photograph
• Some people believe that the camera steals the soul
Local Do’s and
• Read up about the local culture prior to travelling, especially
attitudes towards photography
• In Asia it is rude to touch someone on the head or step over
their legs to get your photograph
• Recognize, support and promote community ownership of tourism.
• Involve community members from the start in every aspect;
• Promote community pride;
• Improve the quality of life;
• Ensure environmental sustainability;
• Preserve the unique character and culture of the local area;
• Foster cross-cultural learning;
• Respect cultural differences and human dignity;
• Distribute benefits fairly among community members;
• Contribute a fixed percentage of income to community projects.
Responsible management of natural
attractions, local culture and the
unique qualities of the
Responsible management of the
environment, natural resources,
social system and culture in
response to the needs of the
3. Tourism Management
4. Tourism Linkages
Emphasizes tourism and the
Emphasizes holistic development
CBT Short Visits
1. Duration of visit:
Adequate time for understanding,
through observation, activities
Short time for observation; Little or no time
for visitors to participate in local activities.
Little or no exchange with the local people
increase cross-cultural understanding.
2. Participation in Community
3. Learning and Cultural Exchange:
4. Pricing and Income:
Set by the community
The community has little control except in
the case of tours that come for the purpose of
purchasing local products from the “One
Tambon One Product” scheme
5. Tourist Understanding of the
Possible through meaningful
observation, conversation and
interaction with the community
members as the result of the
Only possible through an outside resource
person who has knowledge of the local
community and acts as an ‘expert’
Learning comes from the whole
Learning comes mostly from the host family.
Many types can be arranged
including tents, cabins,
homestays or guesthouses
Accommodation in the home of the host family.
3. Learning Process:
Possible through interaction with
many types of people including
host families, local guides and
groups that organize activities
in the community.
Depends on the enthusiasm of both visitors and
the host family.
4. Community Benefits:
Community members of different
status can benefit by taking
various roles in tourism
management such as resource
persons, guided, hosts. Part of
the profits is contributed to
Often only wealthier households have a chance
to provide accommodation and will collect
benefits for themselves, except in the case that
there are rules ensuring part of the profits are
contributed to community projects.
• We prefer the term poverty alleviation tourism over
“Pro Poor Tourism” a clumsy term with noble
• Pro-Poor Tourism is tourism that results in increased
net benefits for poor people.
• PPT is not a specific product or niche sector but an
approach to tourism development and management.
• It enhances the linkages between tourism businesses
and poor people, so that tourism’s contribution to
poverty reduction is increased and poor people are
able to participate more effectively in product
• Links with many different types of ‘the poor’ need to be
considered: staff, neighboring communities, land-
holders, producers of food, fuel and other suppliers,
operators of micro tourism businesses, craft-makers,
other users of tourism infrastructure (roads) and
resources (water) etc.
• There are many types of pro poor tourism strategies,
ranging from increasing local employment to building
mechanism for consultation.
• Any type of company can be involved in pro-poor
tourism-a small lodge, an urban hotel, a tour operator,
an infrastructure developer.
• The critical factor is not the type of company or the type
of tourism, but that an increase in the net benefits that
go to poor people can be demonstrated.
Key principles and strategies
• Pro-poor strategies need to be complemented by the dev
of wider tourism infrastructure.
• Pro-poor principles apply to any tourism segment,
though specific strategies will vary between, for example,
mass tourism and wildlife tourism.
• Focus on expanding benefits, not just minimizing costs to
• Involve business in development initiatives and be
• Do not expect all the poor to benefit equally, particularly
the poorest 20%. Some will lose.
The 7 approaches for Poverty reduction through
• The first way is simply through the employment of
the poor in tourism enterprises.
• The second way is through the supply of goods and
services to tourism enterprises by the poor.
• The third way is through direct sales of goods and
services to visitors by the poor.
• Fourthly, there is the process of supporting the
establishment of tourism enterprises by the poor.
• The fifth way in which tourism can address poverty is
through a tax or levy on tourism income or profits with
proceeds benefiting poverty reduction programmes.
• The sixth way is about voluntary giving by tourism
enterprises and tourists.
• Finally, poor communities can benefit from investment
in infrastructure stimulated by tourism.
1. Boost local
2. Boost local
sources – fees,
1. Capacity building,
3. Address competing
use of natural
4. Improve social,
5. Increase local
1. Create more
participation of the
poor in decision-
3. Build pro-poor
4. Increase flows of
Types of PPT strategies……
Combining National and Local Strategies
• A range of strategies are needed to promote Pro-Poor
Tourism, at the Local Destination, National/Policy level and
the Intl. level.
• A dest. focus is ideal for practical measures to maximize
benefits for the poor within a specific area.
• Pro-active initiatives can bring govt, communities, NGOs
and business together to stimulate economic linkages, local
participation and partnerships.
• However, practical action usually needs to be accompanied
by a supportive policy framework.
• National/policy-level interventions may be needed on
issues ranging from planning and policy objectives,
licensing and registration system, tenure laws, tourism
training, business incentives/regulation and infrastructural
• Development of pro-poor tourism requires a strong
planning framework and government commitment. If this
exists, small changes in rules can have a significant effect on
implementation and impacts.
How is PPT different from other forms of Tourism?
PPT and the sustainable tourism agenda:
• The principles of ST have been widely adopted by the
• There is considerable overlap, and many ST initiatives
include constructive Pro-Poor elements.
• ST focuses mainly on main stream dests, which are mainly in
the North while PPT focuses on the South, where the poor
• In ST, environmental concerns dominate. Socail or local
benefits are usually one of the several elements of
sustainability. Poverty is the core focus of PPT.
• Where ST does include social concerns, practical guidance is
PPT also overlaps with both Ecotourism and Community
• Ecotourism initiatives may provide benefits to people but
they are mainly concerned with the env.
• CBT initiatives aim to increase local people’s involvement in
tourism but PPT involves more than a community focus.