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Surah adiyat

This slide program explains Surah Adiyat of Holy Quran

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Surah adiyat

  2. 2. SURAH ADIYAT • By the racers, panting, • And the producers of sparks [when] striking • And the chargers at dawn, • Stirring up thereby [clouds of] dust • Arriving thereby in the center collectively • Indeed mankind, to his Lord, is ungrateful. • And indeed, he is to that a witness • And indeed he is, in love of wealth, intense. • But does he not know that when the contents of the graves are scattered • And that within the breasts is obtained • Indeed, their Lord with them, that Day, is [fully] Acquainted.
  3. 3. 5 oaths by Allah • The object of the oath always has something to do with the subject (especially in the Quran). • So doing an oath implies;- the speaker is serious.- to grab your attention(especially if the listener does not usually listen) • Talk about something they [the audience] like. • First 5 ayat are to get the attention of the Arabs who - care about; o honor, oself-respect, otheir blood, otheir modes of transport (horses), oaction i.e. Battles, etc
  4. 4. MEANING OF ADIYAT • Allah is swearing by;'Aadiyat (Adiy- to have animosity). • This word implies someone running forward in battle in animosity. • They don’t look left or right – they charge ahead, aiming to attack the one in direct focus. • AAT (feminine)= female war horses less than 10 racing in a group pack). • These were preferred by the Arabs in warfare because they are quicker and more agile
  5. 5. MEANING OF ‘Dabhan’ • Al Baydawi: wrote that the it indicates panting of the war horse in its aggression when the horse is going as fast as it can towards the enemy • Dabhan - being used at the end as an emphasis without the horse taking a break. • The linguists say that dabh is not normally used for horses, its secondarily used for horses • It is originally used for wolves. • So the image is of wolf styled war horses racing in a grouped pack to overpower an enemy to devour them, with a certainty that it will destroy them • Since wolves only hunt that which they are sure they can overpower.
  6. 6. By the racers, panting, • Scholars have disputed as to what is implied by "those who run“ • One group of the Companions and their immediate successors has been to think that it implies the horses; • Another group says that it implies the camels. • Imam Razi says: "The words of these verses proclaim that horses are meant here • Sound of dabh (panting breath) is only produced by the horses, • The act of striking sparks of fire with the hoofs too is associated with the horses, • Likewise, mounting of a raid early at. dawn is easier by means of the horses than by other animals."
  7. 7. And the producers of sparks [when] striking Mooriyaat comes from ‘Eeraa'- adjective - causing sparks to flyDashing off sparks" indicates that the horses run in the dead of night Sparks struck by their hoofs become conspicuous only at night.
  8. 8. ‫ﻓ‬ َ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ْ ‫ﻤ‬ ُ ‫ﻐ‬ ِ ‫ﯿ‬ ‫ﺮ‬ َ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ِ ‫ﺻ‬ ُ ‫ﺒ‬ ْ ‫ﺤ‬ ً ‫ﺎ‬ – And the producers of sparks [when] striking100:3 • The practice among the Arabs was that they planned to mount a raid on an enemy in the following manner • They would march out in the night so as to take the enemy by surprise; • Then they would launch a sudden attack early. in the morning so that everything became visible in the light of day • At that time it did not become so bright that the victim could notice their movement from a distance • They would not give chance to the enemy to be ready to meet the offensive.
  9. 9. ‫ﻓ‬ َ ‫ﺄ‬ َ‫ﺛ‬ َ ‫ﺮ‬ ْ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ﺑ‬ ِ ‫ﮫ‬ ِ ‫ﻧ‬ َ ‫ﻘ‬ ْ ‫ﻌ‬ ً ‫ﺎ‬ – Stirring up thereby [clouds of] dust,100:4 • The horses (aadiyAAT) cause Athar (to rise).Naq’a (dust.) • 3 words are used for Dust in the Qur'an. • - Naq'a- Ghabara- Habaa [al manthoorah] • Naq’a (when something moves fast, and a trail of dust is left behind in the air.) • The battle enrages and there is dust floating around everywhere so nothing can be seen there except bihi (the dust) - even though its wet,(wet) dust still rises due to the intensity of attack andcombat.Abu Ubaydah's opinion - • Naq’ also means to elevate your voice, screams and shouts in battle. • When dust is every where and you can't be seen, you raise your voice, so your presence is shown.
  10. 10. ‫ﻓ‬ َ ‫ﻮ‬ َ ‫ﺳ‬ َ ‫ﻄ‬ ْ ‫ﻦ‬ َ ‫ﺑ‬ ِ ‫ﮫ‬ ِ ‫ﺟ‬ َ ‫ﻤ‬ ْ ‫ﻌ‬ ً ‫ﺎ‬ – Arriving thereby in the center collectively100:5 • Wasatna (Feminine plural) = penetrate through the middle. • So in this ambush – the fighters are taking advantage of this rising dust which is blinding-through which they penetrate through the center to attack • Why is this so powerful and full of risks? • 1 –Those who are about to be attacked, they get ready with their spears to fight back. So attackers don't fear - they pierce through anyway. • 2 - They all go into the heart of the enemy. None of them stayed behind. Jama’a means altogether • 3 –They target the enemy, whilst everyone is in a state of temporary blindness
  11. 11. Meaning of Kanood • Kanood is similar to Kafoor which means ungrateful to the favors of Allah • Allah has given humans so much ability,intellect and favors, that everything on Earth can be used by them for their benefit, including such loyal animals. • But with all these favors - they have to be thankful and obey their own Master. • Yet what are people with such high rank and potential doing? Stealing from the enemy?Being ungrateful in disobedience. • Ash-Shawkani wrote that Kanood means to separate, disassociate. I.e. The human disassociates himself from his Master The horse did not
  12. 12. Further explanation of Kanood • Kanood is different to Kafoor. • Kanoodis mentioned only once in the Qur'an and Kafoor is mentioned many times. • So why is Kanood specifically spoken in this surah? • Kanood means extremely ungrateful.- • TheKanood character mentions the problems in his life but is never thankful or mentions favors.( He may have 10 different foods at home, but he gets angry that the one he wanted isn't there!)- • This person is extremely ungrateful, and disloyal • Kanood also implies disloyalty especially to his Master
  13. 13. ‫إ‬ ِ ‫ن‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻹ‬ ْ ِ ‫ﻧ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ َ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ﻟ‬ِ ‫ﺮ‬ َ ‫ﺑ‬ ِّ ‫ﮫ‬ ِ ‫ﻟ‬ َ ‫ﻜ‬ َ ‫ﻨ‬ ُ ‫ﻮ‬ ‫د‬ ٌ – Indeed mankind, to his Lord, is ungrateful.100:6 • Qaths sworn in the first five verses of this Sarah, refer, in fact, to the general bloodshed, loot and plunder prevalent in Arabia at that time. • In the pre-Islamic days of ignorance the night was a very dreadful thing: • In it the people of every tribe and settlement apprehended the danger of a sudden attack by some unknown enemy, and • When the light of day appeared, they would heave a sigh of relief that the night had passed in peace.
  14. 14. Kinds of wars prevalent in Arabia before Islam • The tribes did not fight only retaliatory wars, but different tribes also raided others in order to deprive them of their worldly goods and herds and to capture their women and children to be made slaves. • This kind of tyranny and plunder was carried opt mostly by means of the horses, which Allah is presenting here as an argument for the fact that man is ungrateful to his Lord. • That is the powers which man is employing for fighting, shedding blood and plundering had not been given him by God for this purpose. • Therefore this indeed is sheer ingratitude that the resources granted by Allah and the power given by Him should be used for causing chaos and corruption to spread in the earth. which Allah abhors.
  15. 15. ‫و‬ َ ‫إ‬ ِ ‫ﻧ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﮫ‬ ُ ‫ﻋ‬ َ ‫ﻠ‬ َ ‫ﻰ‬ ٰ ‫ذ‬ َٰ ‫ﻟ‬ِ ‫ﻚ‬ َ ‫ﻟ‬ َ ‫ﺸ‬ َ ‫ﮭ‬ ِ ‫ﯿ‬ ‫ﺪ‬ ٌ – And indeed, he is to that a witness.100:7 • Shaahid means witnessing all the time. • Man is a witness that he is ungrateful to Allah all the time. • So man is the biggest proof against himself. • Rather, man, against himself, will be a witness, [al Qiyamah 75;14] • This is why mans body will witness against its own self on Judgment Day. • Since when we sin, we know we've been ungrateful and disloyal. • Some will try to ignore it but it still lingers in our minds and hearts.That is his own conscience, and his own deeds are a witness to it; • Then there are many disbelievers also who by their own tongue express their ingratitude openly • They do not even believe that God exists • They do not acknowledge His blessings for which they may have to render gratitude to Him.
  16. 16. ‫و‬ َ ‫إ‬ ِ ‫ﻧ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﮫ‬ ُ ‫ﻟ‬ِ ‫ﺤ‬ ُ ‫ﺐ‬ ِّ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻟ‬ْ ‫ﺨ‬ َ ‫ﯿ‬ ْ ‫ﺮ‬ ِ ‫ﻟ‬ َ ‫ﺸ‬ َ ‫ﺪ‬ ِ ‫ﯾ‬ ‫ﺪ‬ ٌ – And indeed he is, in love of wealth, intense100:8 • word khair is not only used for goodness and virtue in Arabic but also for worldly wealth. • In Surah Baqarah: 180, khair has been used in the meaning of worldly wealth. The context itself shows where khair has been used in the sense of goodness and where in that of worldly goods. • The context of this verse clearly shows that here khair means worldly wealth and not virtue and goodness. • For about the man who is ungrateful to his Lord and who by his conduct is himself testifying to his ingratitude it cannot be said that he is very ardent in the love of goodness and virtue.
  17. 17. Hubbul Khayr explained • Li hubal khayr= for the love of wealth. • Hub- when you see something you find good for you - you go to get that. And when you persist in getting that =hub/love.So it consists of two things; • 1 –You think its good for you. • 2 –You do whatever you can to get it • Hub al khayr = good. (the good is being referred to is wealth) • But why is khayr (good) mentioned and not Maal (wealth)? • Ibn Zayd; Allah named wealth as good in this ayah/verse. • Why? Can't wealth be used for bad too? • Allah is translating the mentality/psyche of the disbeliever who thinks all wealth is good and there is nothing better than it
  18. 18. ‫أ‬ َ ‫ﻓ‬ َ ‫ﻼ‬ َ ‫ﯾ‬ َ ‫ﻌ‬ ْ ‫ﻠ‬ َ ‫ﻢ‬ ُ ‫إ‬ ِ ‫ذ‬ َ‫ا‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ُ ‫ﻌ‬ ْ ‫ﺜ‬ ِ ‫ﺮ‬ َ ‫ﻣ‬ َ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ِ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻟ‬ْ ‫ﻘ‬ ُ ‫ﺒ‬ ُ ‫ﻮ‬ ‫ر‬ ِ – But does he not know that when the contents of the graves are scattered100:9 • Bu'thira-ba'thara- means when you pull something out i.e. out of a box which contained a lot of other things too. • Raghib al Isfahani wrote that Bu'thira comes from two words -ba’tha and a'thara combined, to make the 4-letter word Ba'thara. • So you will be pulled out of the earth and be brought forward on Judgment Day. • Does man not know that when everything in the graves [maa fil kuboor] will be pulled/come out? Why didn't Allah mention the person [singular] specifically? • When the bandits and robbers and murderers and war criminals kill someone - they cover them in the earth, so they are hidden from the public or passers by or human rights groups. • So Allah is saying that everything and everyone in the graves will be taken out (in court) on that Day of Judgment and all will be revealed
  19. 19. ‫و‬ َ ‫ﺣ‬ ُ ‫ﺼ‬ ّ ِ ‫ﻞ‬ َ ‫ﻣ‬ َ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ِ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﱡ‬ ‫ﺪ‬ ُ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ِ – And that within the breasts is obtained,100:10 • intentions aims and objects, ideas and thoughts and the motives behind acts and deeds that lie hidden in the hearts will be exposed and examined in order to sort out the good from the evil. • Judgment will not be passed only on the apparent action, but the secrets hidden in the hearts will be brought out to see what were the intentions and motives under which a man did what he did. • If one considers this truth, then one can realize that the complete justice cannot be done anywhere except in the Court of God. • Secular laws of the world also accept in principle that a person should not be punished merely on the basis of his apparent act but his motive also should be seen and examined.
  20. 20. And that within the breasts is obtained, 100:10 • But no court of the world has the means by which it may accurately ascertain the motive and intention. This can be done only by God: • on Resurrection Day these secrets will be exposed and after a thorough scrutiny in the Court it will be shown what was the good in it and what was the evil. That is why the words hussila ma fis-sudur have been used. • Tahsil means to bring out something in the open, and to sort out different things from one another. • This same theme has been expressed in Surah At-Tariq, thus: "The Day the hidden secrets are held to scrutiny.
  21. 21. ‫إ‬ ِ ‫ن‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ر‬ َ ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﮭ‬ ُ ‫ﻢ‬ ‫ﺑ‬ ِ ‫ﮭ‬ ِ ‫ﻢ‬ ْ ‫ﯾ‬ َ ‫ﻮ‬ ْ ‫ﻣ‬ َ ‫ﺌ‬ ِ ‫ﺬ‬ ٍ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ َ ‫ﺒ‬ ِ ‫ﯿ‬ ‫ﺮ‬ ٌ – Indeed, their Lord with them, that Day, is [fully] Acquainted100:11 • That is, He will be knowing full well who is who, and what punishment or reward he deserves • The disbeliever think to himself - who's going to know my intent? If I've hidden the murdered, who's going to find out? Only i know my crimes and they're hidden from everyone else. I'll get away with it. • Bihim is placed early in the sentence structure to signify - • Especially Their master - especially in regard to them.. • Yawma idhin meaning on that Day • Khabeer and Aleem could have been used, but Khabeer is more powerful which means fully aware of their inside and outside deeds.
  22. 22. Beginning of Surah Aadiyaat's Relation to its End • The beginning was about carelessness of the disbeliever, • He thinks he is free in his corruption and oppression against others while in a state of disobedience to his Master. • The end of the Surah concludes;How this sinner's mindset is infact false • Allah the Master will reveal all the crimes that the disbeliever thinks he is hiding and getting away with • Since the Master is fully aware of the inside and outside of His slaves' actions. • And on that Day, He will reveal all