Say, "I seek refuge in the
Lord of mankind,
The Sovereign of
The God of mankind,
From the evil of the
Who whispers [evil] into
the breasts of mankind -
From among the jinn and
SEEKING REFUGE OF ALLAH WITH HIS 3 BEAUTIFUL ATTRIBUTES
• 1- Rabb-un-nas, i.e. Sustainer, Providence
• 2-Malik-un-nas, Master of all mankind;
• 3-Ilah-un-nas, Real Deity of all mankind,
1-He alone is Sustainer, King and Deity, therefore we call him alone
2- He has full power and capability to provide the refuge we need.
SAY, "I SEEK REFUGE IN THE LORD OF MANKIND
ِاسَّنال ِبَرِب ُذُوعَأ ْلُق
The refuge (isti’ādha) being sought in this verse is connected to the Lordship of Allah
We recognize and believe that He is the Lord of people.
Refuge is only taken with one who has lordship (rubūbīyyah), one who can manage your
affairs and take care of you.
A child takes refuge in his or her mother because she takes care of the baby’s affairs.
Likewise, we take refuge in the Lord of people, because He is the one who manages our
This is irrespective of whether we are depressed, sad, scared, vulnerable, weak, or ignorant –
we take refuge in someone who can save us and take us out from our troubled conditions.
ِاسَّنال ِكِلَم-114:2 THE KING OF MANKIND
Sovereignty (mulk) is a reference to authority and power.
You take refuge with someone who has power and ownership of everything;
everything is in their hands.
You take refuge in someone who is stronger than you,
One who can do something for you.
You do not take refuge in someone weaker than yourself because they
cannot help you or do anything for you.
إِاسَّنال ِهََٰل-114:3 THE GOD OF MANKIND
You take refuge in God, who you submit to,
Someone whom you listen to when He asks you to do
You trust Him,
You worship him
You have faith in him
WHAT DOES AL-NĀS REALLY MEAN?
It could have three possible meanings:
1. All of humanity: this is the opinion of the majority of scholars
2. It is general and inclusive of both humans and jinns: proponents say this is because in the
last two verses God makes this distinction himself.
3. A specific group of humans who are not complete in their faith and piety
A-First for the one who is
practically being worshiped
although it or he is not
entitled to worship;
B- Second, for Him Who is ' entitled
to worship, Who is in fact the Deity
whether the people worship Him or
not, wherever this word is used for
Allah; it has been used in the second
ِاسَّنَخْال ِاس َوْس َوْال َِرش نِم-114:4 FROM THE EVIL OF THE RETREATING
What is Waswās? Waswās means any quiet whisper or conversation
What is the difference between waswās and wiswās?
Waswās- (whispering) is a hyperbolic noun (al-ism al-mubālagha) for the active participle (al-ism al-
fā’il) muwaswis (one who whispers),
Wiswās- has the same meaning as the noun waswasah (whispering or tempting) and it does not need to be
related with anything or anyone.
The addition of the word evil (sharr) to waswās opens up two possible interpretations:
1) If by “evil of the waswās” we mean evil of the muwaswis (evil of one who whispers), then we are seeking
refuge from the whispering of Satan and that is it.
2) If by “evil of the waswās” we mean evil of Satan – by suggesting waswās as a description is being used
as a noun for Satan– then this does not mean we are seeking refuge from Satan’s whispers only, because
that is not the only evil Satan does. His evil can be his whispering, but also anything else by which he
WHAT IS KHANNĀS?
Khannās originates from the noun khunūs and is also a hyperbolic noun (al-ism al-mubālagha).
Khunūs is someone or something that secretly comes out and when they get what they want, they go
back into hiding.
Khannās is someone who does this repeatedly.
Satan is being described as a khannās because he comes out secretly to do what he wants to do and
as soon as he sees that you have done what he wanted you to do, he runs away into hiding.
You, on the other hand, end up wondering how you fell into Satan’s deception.
Satan sees an opportunity, he comes out and does his whispering, but runs away the moment there is
an obstacle or barrier for him – like the remembrance of Allah.
As such, Satan is not always present neither is he always in hiding – khannās is a very precise
description of him.
ONE WHO WHISPERS AGAIN AND AGAIN
Waswasa means to whisper into someone's heart an evil suggestion over and over
One who is being inspired may not feel thr whispering of an evil suggestion into his
Waswasah suggests repetition just as zalzalah contains the meaning of repetitive
Man may not be tempted by one attempt so effort has to be made over and over
again to seduce him. This attempt is called waswasah and the tempter waswas.
Khannas, is derived from khunus, which means to hide after appearing and to
retreat after coming into view.
The combination of these two words by gives the meaning that after whispering
once he retreats and then again returns over and over again to repeat the act of
EVERYONE HAS AN ASSIGNED DEVIL
The Prophet (SAW) said:
ُني ِرَق ِهِب َلِكُو ْدَق ََّّلِإ ٍدَحَأ ْنِم ْمُكْنِم اَمُه»
There is not a single one of you except that his companion (a devil) has been
assigned to him.)
The Companions) asked, "What about you, O Messenger of Allah'' He replied,
«َلْسَأَف ِهْيَلَع يِنَنَاعَأ َهللا َّنَأ ََّّلِإ ،ْمَعَنٍرْيَخِب ََّّلِإ يِنُرُمْأَي ََلَف ،َم»
Yes. However, Allah has helped me against him and he has accepted Islam.
Thus, he only commands me to do good.)
SHAYTAN CIRCULATES IN THE HUMANS
Anas, who reported the story of Safiyyah when she came to visit the Prophet while he was
performing I`tikaf, that he went out with her during the night to walk her back to her house.
So, two men from the Ansar met him (on the way). When they saw the Prophet , they began
walking swiftly. So, the Messenger of Allah said,
«َيَيُح ُتْنِب ُةَّيِفَص اَهَّنِإ ،اَمُكِلْس ِر ىَلَع»
Slow down! This is Safiyyah bint Huyay! They said, "Glory be to Allah, O Messenger of Allah!''
«َخ يِنِإَو ،َّمدال ىَرْجَم َمَدآ ِنْبا ِنِم ي ِرْجَي َانَطْيَّشال َّنِإَش اَمُكِبوُلُق يِف َفِذْقَي ْنَأ ُيتِشَلاَق ْوَأ ،ًائْي:
(Verily, Shaytan runs in the Son of Adam like the running of the blood. And verily, I feared
that he might cast something into your hearts -- or he said -- evil.)
SHAITAN INSPIRE ADORNED SPEECH AS A DELUSION
This is similar to Allah's saying,
﴿ُِلكِل اَنْلَعَج َكِلَذَكَوٍىِبِنًاُودَعَينِـطَيَشِسْنِاإلُز ٍضْعَب ىَلِإ ْمُهُضْعَب ى ِوحُي ِن ِجْلاَوِل ْوَقْلا َفُرْخ
And so We have appointed for every Prophet enemies -- Shayatin among mankind and Jinn, inspiring
one another with adorned speech as a delusion. (6:112)
Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "A man came to the Prophet and said, `O Messenger of
Allah! Sometimes I say things to myself that I would rather fall from the sky than say (aloud openly). '
The Prophet said,
«َلِإ ُهَدْيَك َّدَر يِذَّلا ِهلل ُدْمَحْلا ٌرَبْكَأ ُهللا ،ُرَبْكَأ ُهللاِةَسَوْسَوْلا ى»
Allah is Most Great! Allah is Most Great! All praise is due to Allah Who sent his (Shaytan's) plot back as
only a whisper.)'' Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i also recorded this Hadith
SHAYTAN IS COVERS THE HEART OF HUMANS
Sa`id bin Jubayr reported that Ibn `Abbas said concerning Allah's statement,
The whisperer (Al-Waswas) who withdraws.) "The devil who is squatting (perched) upon the heart
of the Son of Adam. So when he becomes absent-minded and heedless he whispers. Then, when
he remembers Allah he withdraws.'' Mujahid and Qatadah also said this.
Al-Mu`tamir bin Sulayman reported that his father said, "It has been mentioned to me that
Shaytan is Al-Waswas. He blows into the heart of the Son of Adam when he is sad and when he is
happy. But when he (man) remembers Allah, Shaytan withdraws.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn
The whisperer. "He is Shaytan. He whispers and then when he is obeyed, he withdraws
SEEKING REFUGE OF ALLAH FROM THE EVIL.
One meaning is that one seeks God's refuge from satan lest it should whisper some evil suggestion
into his heart.
Second meaning is that the caller to Truth seeks God's refuge from the satan who whispers evil
suggestions into the hearts of the people against himself.
It is not in his own power to approach all the people in whose hearts evil suggestions are being
whispered against him and remove the misunderstandings of every person.
It is also not right and proper for him that he should give up his mission of inviting others to Allah and
should devote all his time and energy to remove the misunderstanding created by the whisperer and
to answer their accusations.
It is also below his dignity that he should stoop to the level of his opponents.
Therefore, Allah has instructed the caller to Truth to seek only His refuge from the evil of the wicked
people, and then to attend single-mindedly to his work of invitation and mission.
DOMINO EFFECT OF EVIL SUGGESTION
Evil suggestion is the starting , point of evil act.
When it affects a careless or heedless person, it creates in
him a desire for evil.
Then, further whisperings change the evil desire into an
evil intention and evil purpose.
When the evil suggestion grows in intensity, the intention
becomes a resolution,
It then culminates in the evil act.
Therefore, the meaning of seeking God's refuge from the
evil of the whisperer is that Allah should nip the evil in the
THE WHISPERERS CHAIN OF EVIL WHISPERS
Major Sin Minor sin
piety & do
HOW SATAN DOES WASWĀS? SATAN’S METHODS.
Satan does not have any authority (sulṭanah) over us. He cannot force us to make a decision, he
cannot impose his decisions upon us.
Satan does deceive and fool us into making the decisions he wants us to make through these
1. 1) Beautification (tazyīn): [27:24] …Satan has made their deeds pleasing to them and averted them
from [His] way…
2. 2) He encourages and entices you towards immoralities: [2:268] …and orders you to immorality.
3. 3) Inciting fear (takhwīf): [2:268] Satan frightens you of poverty and prompts you to [commit]
4. 4) Feeling of immunity and promises: [4:120] Satan promises them and arouses desire in them. But
Satan does not promise them except delusion.
5. 5)As we act on Satan’s whispers, we keep drowning to the point he becomes our companion. [43:36]
And whoever is blinded from remembrance of the Most Merciful – We appoint for him a devil, and
he is to him a companion.
SEEK PROTECTION OF ALLAH AGAINST SATAN
ِ َّاّللِب ْذِعَتْساَف ٌغْزَن ِانَطْيَّشال َنِم َكَّنَغَنزَي اَّمِإَوُميِلَعْلا ُايِمَّسال َوَُ ُهَّنِإ ِإ-41:36
And if there comes to you from Satan an evil suggestion, then seek refuge in Allah . Indeed, He is the
Hearing, the Knowing
ِينِاطَيَّشال ِتاَزَمََ ْنِم َكِب ُذُوعَأ ِبَّر لُقَو-23:97
"Say: Lord, I seek refuge with You from the promptings of satans." (Al-Mu'minun: 97);
َّكَذَت ِانَطْيَّشال َنِم ٌفِئاَط ْمُهَّسَم اَذِإ ا ْوَقَّتا َينِذَّلا َّنِإَونُر ِصْبُّم مَُ اَذِإَف واُر-7:201
"The fact is that if ever an evil suggestion from Satan so much as touches those, who are God-fearing
people, they immediately get alerted and clearly see the right course they should adopt." (AI-A`raf: 201).
َع ٍظَح وُذ ََّّلِإ اََاَّقَلُي اَمَو واُرَبَص َينِذَّلا ََّّلِإ اََاَّقَلُي اَمَوٍيمِظ-41:35
And on this very basis about the people who escape from this last attack of Satan Allah says: "None can
attain to this rank except those who are men of great good fortune." (Ha Mim As-Sajdah: 35).
WHISPERING OF NAFS
EviL suggestion is also whispered into the heart of man by the Nafs of man
His own wrong theories misguide his intellect, his own unlawful motives
and desires lead his power of discrimination, will and power of judgment
This same thing has been expressed in the Qur'an, thus:
ْفَن ِهِب ُسِوْسَوُت اَم ُمَلْعَنَو َانَسنِْاإل اَنْقَلَخ ْدَقَلَوِلْبَح ْنِم ِهْيَلِإ ُبَرْقَأ ُنْحَنَو ِإ ُهُسِدي ِرَوْلا-
"and We know the evil suggestions arising from his self." (Qaf : 16).
On this very basis, the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) in his well-
known Sermon said: "We seek Allah's refuge from the evils of our self."
WHISPERS ARE DIRECTED TO HUMANS AND JINNS
Satan whispers into the hearts of two kinds of people: the jinn and the men.
According to one opinion, word nas would apply to both jinn and men.
The actual meaning of jinn is hidden creation and jinn is called jinn because he is hidden from man's eye.
On the contrary, the words nas and ins are spoken for insan (man) only on the basis that he is manifest
and visible and perceptible. Therefore, nas cannot apply to jinn lexically.
The correct meaning of the verse is: "from the evil of the whisperer who whispers evil into the hearts of
men, whether he be from among the jinn or from the men themselves.”
In other words, whispering of evil is done by devils from among jinn as well as by devils from among
rnen and the prayer in this Surah has been taught to seek refuge from the evil of both.
This meaning is supported by the Qur'an as well as by the Hadith. The Qur'an says:
"And so it has always been that We set against every Prophet enemies from among devils of men and
devils of jinn, who have been inspiring one another with charming things to delude the minds." (Al-
DEVILISH PEOPLE AMONG THE HUMANS
lmam Ahmad, Nasa'i, and Ibn Hibban have related on the authority of
Abu Dharr a tradition, saying:
"I sat before the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace), who was in the
Mosque. He said: Abu Dharr, have you performed the Prayer? I replied in
He said: Arise and perform the Prayer. So, I performed the Prayer.
The Holy Prophet said: O Abu Dharr, seek Allah's refuge from the devils
of men and the devils of jinn.
I asked. are there devils among men also? O Messenger of Allah! He
ِاسَّنال ُِوردُص يِف ُسِوْسَوُي يِذَّلا-114:5 WHO WHISPERS [EVIL] INTO
THE BREASTS OF MANKIND
If SUDUR means the heart, then Satan’s whispers occur in the heart, the place of human emotions,
desires, and what inclines them towards love, hate, anger, stress, anxiety and so on.
Can Satan interfere with our thought process, by interfering with our intellect?
Majority opinion is that intellect cannot make any mistakes in and of itself.
The mistake occurs when one is not using their intellect properly, or part of it is abandoned, or if some
other faculties interfere with the process of intellectualization (such as the faculty of imagination,
estimation, or even mere emotions).
This opinion is held by many Muslim scholars indluding ‘Allāmah Ṭabaṭabā’ī.
One can make their intellect stronger and ensure that a certain part of it is not abandoned or over-
powered and interfered with by any of the other faculties.
Satan work through interfering with the faculties and emotions – and not the intellect’s ability to
rationalize and intellectualize itself.
Who whispers [evil] into the breasts of mankind
ِاسَّنال َو ِةَّن ِجْال َنِم-114:6 FROM AMONG THE JINN AND MANKIND.
Is this verse referring back to the al-nās reiterated in verse 5, or to al-khannās in verse 4? There are a few possibilities:
1) The word “from” (min) is going back to al-waswās al-khannās‘who whisper into the chests of mankind, while they
(who whisper) are from amongst the Jinn and mankind.
Verses such as [25:27-28], [33:67], [34:31-33] depict dialogues between influential individuals in a community with those
who are weak and vulnerable. They will say, we never asked you to stop thinking and abandon your intellect.’ Satan will
say the same thing, ‘I had nothing to do with these humans, I had no control over their intellects.’
2) Others have said that the last verse cannot go back to al-waswās al-khannās, because we said al-khannās is someone
who becomes apparent and then retreats or hides. We can describe the Jinn with this quality, but not humans
3) The al-nās in verse 5 (fī ṣudūr al-nās) is general and inclusive of both Jinn and humans
4) The word is not al-nās (in fī ṣudūr al-nās) rather it is fī ṣudūr al-nāsī – someone who forgets, and, those forgetful
individuals are from the Jinn and humans.
5) The last verse (min al-jinnah wa al-nās) is related to the word sharr (evil) in verse 4. Meaning, ‘I seek refuge from the
evil of the retreating whisper and also from the evil of the humans and Jinns’
6) Last verse is speaking about Jinns and humans from the human species. Some humans in their behavior are like the
Jinn – they are hidden, do not make their whispers apparent, are sly and hard to detect,