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Managing Teams

Learn about:
- Groups and the stages of group development
- The major components that determine group performance and satisfaction

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Managing Teams

  1. 1. MANAGING TEAMS Ma. Marenza “Em” D. Dangla MBA major in Entrepreneurship Term 1 SY 2014-2015 Principles of Management & Marketing Prof. Ernesto D. Dimaculangan, PhD Source: Robbins, S. P., & Coulter, M. (2012). Management (11th Edition). New Jersey: Prentice Hall University of Santo Tomas – Graduate School
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes • Define groups and the stages of group development • Describe the major components that determine group performance and satisfaction
  3. 3. Managing teams • A challenge to the managers • Question: How can managers build effective teams? • Understand groups and its behavior
  4. 4. Group • Two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals. • Formal Group • Informal Group
  5. 5. Formal Group • Defined by the organization’s structure • Have designated work assignments and specific tasks • Directed at accomplishing organizational goals GROUP > FORMAL GROUP
  6. 6. Formal Group • Examples: • Command Group • Task Group • Cross-Functional Team • Self-managed Team GROUP > FORMAL GROUP
  7. 7. Command Group • Individuals who report directly to a given manager • Specified by the organizational chart • Often consist of a supervisor and the subordinates that report to that supervisor • Example: • Academic department chairman and the faculty members GROUP > FORMAL GROUP > COMMAND GROUP
  8. 8. Task Group • Commonly referred to as “task force” • Individuals brought together to complete a specific common task within a specified time period • Often temporary • Often disbands when task is completed • Assigned task examples: • Development of a new project • Improvement of a production process • Task group example: • Project groups GROUP > FORMAL GROUP > TASK GROUP
  9. 9. Cross-Functional Team • Groups that bring together the knowledge and skills of individuals from various work areas or groups whose members have been trained to do each other’s job • Accomplish specific goals within an unspecified time frame • Remain in existence after achievement of current goals and objectives • Examples: • Marketing Department • Customer Service Department • Accounting Department GROUP > FORMAL GROUP > CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAM
  10. 10. Self-Managed Team • Groups that are essentially independent, but team members are interdependent • Self-regulating, operating with few external controls • Members determine schedules, procedures & adjustments • Performs their tasks in an interrelated way • Retains independence & greater ownership of their work • Examples: • Collaborative teams GROUP > FORMAL GROUP > SELF-MANAGED TEAM
  11. 11. Informal Group • Social groups • Occur naturally in the workplace • Tend to form around friendships and common interests • Example: • 5 employees from different departments who regularly eat lunch together GROUP > INFORMAL GROUP
  12. 12. Work Group vs. Work Team • Work Group • Interacts primarily to share information & to make decision to help each member do his/her job more efficiently & effectively • No need/opportunity to engage in collective work that requires joint effort • Work Teams • Groups whose members work intensely on a specific, common goal using their positive synergy, individual & mutual accountability, & complementary skills
  13. 13. 5 Stages of Group Development (General Framework) • Bruce Wayne Tuckman • Carried out research into the theory of group dynamics • 1965 – published “Tuckman’s stages of group development” theory (now, a model) 1. Forming 2. Storming 3. Norming 4. Performing • 1977 – added a 5th stage with Mary Ann Jensen 5. Adjourning • Necessary and inevitable in order for the team to grow, face up challenges, tackle problems, find solutions, plan work, and deliver results • Has been since the basis of subsequent models
  14. 14. 5 Stages of Group Development (General Framework) 1. Forming 2. Storming 3. Norming 4. Performing 5. Adjourning
  15. 15. 1. Forming Stage • Phase 1: People join the group • Why join a group? Because of some work assignment • Phase 2: Define the group’s purpose, structure, leadership • Members “test the waters” to determine the types of behavior are acceptable • Completed when… • members think of themselves as part of the group. Work assignment: Mobile app project Given mobile app project requirements, - Define resources needed - Project Manager - Programmer/s - Artist/s - Tester/s 5 STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT > 1. FORMING STAGE
  16. 16. 2. Storming Stage • Starts with conflict as there is not yet a hierarchy of leadership and agreement on the group’s direction. • Completed when… • there is an assigned leader, or hierarchy of leadership • there is group direction Assign who would assume given roles. 5 STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT > 2. STORMING STAGE
  17. 17. 3. Norming Stage • Close relationships develop • Group becomes closely united • There is a strong sense of group identity • There is camaraderie, feeling of good friend among people in the group • Completed when… • Group structure solidifies • Group has assimilated a common set of expectations (or norms) regarding member behavior Everyone understands what to do. 5 STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT > 3. NORMING STAGE
  18. 18. 4. Performing Stage • Group structure is in place and accepted by group members • Energies moved from “getting to know” and “understanding each other” to “working on the group’s task” • This stage is the last stage for permanent groups • For temporary groups (e.g., project teams, task forces), there is another stage Implementation stage. - Project management - Programming/coding - Creation of graphic artworks - Quality assurance/testing 5 STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT > 4. PERFORMING STAGE
  19. 19. 5. Adjourning Stage • Group prepares to disband • Wrapping up activities • Group members react in different ways • Some are upbeat, thrilled about the group’s accomplishments • Others may be sad over the loss of camaraderie & friendship Mobile app is successfully released on App Store/Google Play. Let’s wrap up. 5 STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT > 5. ADJOURNING STAGE
  20. 20. Work Group Performance & Satisfaction • Why are some groups more successful than others? • Why do some groups achieve high levels of performance & member satisfaction and others don’t? • Group members’ abilities • Group size • Level of conflict • Internal pressures to conform on group’s norms
  21. 21. Group Performance/Satisfaction Model Major factors that determine group performance & satisfaction FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION
  22. 22. External Conditions Imposed on the Group • Work Groups are affected by external conditions imposed on it, such as... • Organization’s strategy • Authority relationships • Formal rules & regulations • Availability of resources • Employee selection criteria • Performance management system & culture • General physical layout of the group’s work space FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > EXTERNAL CONDITIONS IMPOSED ON THE GROUP
  23. 23. External Conditions Imposed on the Group • Work Groups are affected by external conditions imposed on it • For instance… • GROUP A – modern, high quality tools & equipment • GROUP B – outdated tools & equipment FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > EXTERNAL CONDITIONS IMPOSED ON THE GROUP
  24. 24. Group Member Resources • Group’s performance potential depends on each resources knowledge, abilities, skills and personality traits • Then, they determine what members can do • Interpersonal skills (conflict management & resolution, collaborative problem solving & communication) consistently emerge as important for high performance by work groups. FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP MEMBER RESOURCES
  25. 25. Group Member Resources • Personality traits also affect group performance because they strongly influence how individual will interact with other members. • Positive traits • Sociability • Self-reliance • Independence • Negative traits • Authoritarianism • Dominance • Unconventionality FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP MEMBER RESOURCES
  26. 26. Group Structure • Internal structure that shapes members’ behavior • Influences group performance • Defines the following aspects: (1) roles, (2) norms, (3) conformity, (4) status systems, (5) group size, (6) group cohesiveness, and (7) leadership FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP STRUCTURE
  27. 27. 1. Role • Concept of role applies to all employees and to their life outside an organization as well • Defined as behavior patterns expected of someone occupying a given position in a social unit • Role Conflicts – differing expectations of roles; individuals play multiple roles and adjust their roles to the group to which they belong at that time FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP STRUCTURE > 1. ROLE
  28. 28. 2. Norms • Defined as the standards or expectations that are accepted and shared by a group’s members. • Dictate things such as work output levels, absenteeism, promptness, and the amount of socializing on the job. FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP STRUCTURE > 2. NORMS
  29. 29. 3. Conformity • Individuals want to be accepted by groups to which they belong, they’re susceptible to pressures to conform. FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP STRUCTURE > 3. CONFORMITY
  30. 30. Asch Cards (1950) • Solomon Asch • Asch Conformity Experiments (Asch Paradigm) • Demonstrated the degree to which an individual's own opinions are influenced by those of a majority group FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP STRUCTURE > 3. CONFORMITY
  31. 31. Groupthink • Irving Janis, 1972 • A psychological phenomenon that occurs when a group exerts extensive pressure on an individual to align his/her opinion with others’ opinion • Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative viewpoints • There is loss of individual creativity, uniqueness and independent thinking FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP STRUCTURE > 3. CONFORMITY
  32. 32. 4. Status Systems • Status – prestige grading, position, or rank within a group. • Status hierarchies FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP STRUCTURE > 4. STATUS SYSTEMS
  33. 33. 5. Group Size • Affects performance and satisfaction • Effect depends on what the group is supposed to accomplish Do you need to assign 10 programmers for a Flappy Bird type of mobile application project? Nguyễn Hà Đông FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP STRUCTURE > 5. GROUP SIZE
  34. 34. Brooks’ Law • The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering • A book on software engineering & project management • Fred Brooks FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP STRUCTURE > 5. GROUP SIZE
  35. 35. Brooks’ Law • “Adding manpower to a late software project makes it late” • There is an incremental person who, when added to a project, makes it more, not less time. • “Nine women can’t make a baby in one month.” • Assigning more programmers to a project running behind schedule will make it even later. • Time required for the new programmer to learn about the project • Increased communication overhead FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP STRUCTURE > 5. GROUP SIZE
  36. 36. Brooks’ Law • Group intercommunication formula: N ( N – 1 ) / 2 Examples: 50 developers give 50 (50 – 1) / 2 = 1225 channels of communication 1 developer give 1 (1 – 1) / 2 = 0 channel of communication 2 developers give 2 (2 – 1) / 2 = 1 channel of communication 4 team mates give 4 (4 – 1) / 2 = 6 channel of communication FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP STRUCTURE > 5. GROUP SIZE
  37. 37. Social Loafing • Tendency for an individual to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. • Occur because people believe that others in the group aren’t doing their fair share. Thus, they reduce their efforts in an attempt to make the workload more equivalent. • The relationship between an individual’s input & output is often unclear. Thus, individuals become “free riders,” because their contributions can’t be measured. • When managers use groups, they must find a way to identify individual efforts. FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP STRUCTURE > 5. GROUP SIZE
  38. 38. 6. Group Cohesiveness • Defined as the degree to which members are attracted to a group and share group’s goal. • Important because it has been found to be related to a group’s productivity • Group with a lot of internal disagreement and lack of cooperation are less effective in completing tasks than groups with members that generally agree, cooperate and like each other. FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP STRUCTURE > 6. GROUP COHESIVENESS
  39. 39. 6. Group Cohesiveness
  40. 40. 7. Leadership • Process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals FACTORS THAT DETERMINE GROUP PERFORMANCE & SATISFACTION > GROUP STRUCTURE > 7. LEADERSHIP
  41. 41. Group Processes • (to be continued by the next reporters)

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