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# Color models

Its about the color models (e.g. RGB, YIQ, CMY, HSV, HSL)

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### Color models

1. 1. Computer Graphics Color Models Represented By: Haitham Abdel-atty Abdullah Donia Gamal El-din Pre-Master 2014-2015 Supervised by: Prof. Taha El-Areef 1
2. 2. 2 Properties of Light Color Models Standard primaries and the chromaticity diagram The RGB color model The YIQ and related color model The HSV color model The HSL Color model The CMY and CMYK Color models Color Models Applications Dithering VS Half-toning
3. 3. 3 Properties of Light Each frequency value within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponds to a distinct spectral color. FIGURE-1
4. 4. 4 • When white light is incident on an opaque object , some frequencies are reflected and some are absorbed. • The combination of frequencies present in the reflected in the reflected light determines the color of the object that we see.(Dominant frequency or Hue) Properties of Light
5. 5. 5 Period (T) Properties of Light
6. 6. 6 Characteristics of Color 1. Dominant Frequency (Hue) The color we see (red, green, purple). 2. Brightness The total light energy, how bright is the color (How bright are the lights illuminating the object?) 3. Purity (Saturation) Purity describes how close a light appears to be to a pure spectral color, such as pink is less saturated than red. Chromaticity refers to the two properties (purity & hue) together.
7. 7. 7 •A color model is an abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as tuples of numbers, typically as three or four values or color components. [Wikipedia] •Any method for explaining the properties or behavior of color within some particular context is called a Color Model.[Hearn, Baker ,computer graphics with OpenGL] Color Model
8. 8. 8 Color Model Primary Colors Sets of colors that can be combined to make a useful range of colors Color Gamut Set of all colors that we can produce from the primary colors. Complementary Colors Pairs of colors which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white. Example, in the RGB model: red & cyan , green & magenta , blue & yellow. •No finite set of real primary colors can be combined to produce all possible visible colors. •However, given a set of three primary colors, we can characterize any fourth color using color-mixing processes.
9. 9. 9 Shades , Tints & Tones • A shade is produced by “dimming ” a hue.[Adding black]. Dark Blue = pure blue + black • A tint is produced by "lightening" a hue. [Adding white]. Pastel red = pure red + white • Tone refers to the effects of reducing the "colorfulness" of a hue. [adding gray] or [adding black & white]. Thus, shading takes a hue toward black, tinting takes a hue towards white, and tones cover the range between. Color Model
10. 10. 10 Color Model Additive color Uses light to display color. Mixing begins with black and ends with white; as more color is added, the result is lighter and tends to white. Used for computer displays Example: The RGB colors are light primaries and colors are created with light. A subtractive color Uses ink to display color. Mixing means that one begins with white and ends with black; as one adds color, the result gets darker and tends to black. Used for printed material It is called 'subtractive' because its wavelength is less than sum of the wavelengths of its constituting colors. Example: The CMYK color system is the color system used for printing.
11. 11. 11 Standard Primaries & the chromaticity diagram •This is an international standard for primary colors established in 1931. • It allows all other colors to be defined as weighted sum of the three "primary" colors. • There are no real three colors that can be combined to give all possible colors. Therefore the Three standard primaries are selected [imaginary numbers]. •They are defined mathematically with positive color-matching functions that specify the amount of each primary needed to describe any spectral color.
12. 12. 12 Standard Primaries & the chromaticity diagram Color-matching functions A color in the vicinity of 500nm can be matched only but subtracting an amount of red light from a combination of blue and green lights.
13. 13. 13 Standard Primaries & the chromaticity diagram
14. 14. 14 Standard Primaries & the chromaticity diagram To define a color in CIE model, provide weights for the X, Y and Z primaries, just as you would for an RGB display (e.g. color = xX + yY + zZ). • X, Y and Z form a three dimensional color volume. • We can ignore the dimension of luminance by normalizing with total light intensity, x+y+z = 1. CIE chromaticity diagram.
15. 15. 15 Standard Primaries & the chromaticity diagram Gamut Color Complementary Color Dominant Wavelength & Purity RGB Model
16. 16. 16 •The red, green, and blue (RGB) color space is widely used throughout computer graphics. •Additive Color Model. •Unit Cube defined on R, G & B axes. •The Origin (0,0,0) represents black and the diagonally opposite vertex (1,1,1) is White. •Vertices of the cube on the axes represent primary colors, and the remaining vertices are the complementary color points for each of the primary colors. •Shades of gray are represented along the main diagonal. RGB Model
17. 17. 17 Each color point within the unit cube can be represented as w weighted vector sum of the primary colors, using unit vectors R,G and B. C(λ) =(R,G,B) = RR +GG+ BB Where R,G, and B are assigned values in the range from 0 to 1.0. For example , the magenta vertex is obtained by adding the maximum red and blue values to produce : (1,0,1) RGB Model
18. 18. 18 YIQ model •YIQ model is used for US TV broadcast. •This model was designed to separate chrominance (I and Q) from luminance (Y). •This was a requirement in the early days of color television when black-and-white sets still were expected to pick up and display what were originally color pictures •The Y-channel contains luminance information (sufficient for black-and-white television sets) while the I and Q channels carried the color information.
19. 19. 19 •A color television set would take these three channels, Y, I, and Q, and map the information back to R, G, and B levels for display on a screen. •The advantage of this model is that more bandwidth can be assigned to the Y-component (luminance) because the human visual system is more sensitive to changes in luminance than to changes in hue or saturation YIQ model Convert From RGB To YIQ Convert From YIQ To RGB
20. 20. 20 HSV Model Every color is represented by three components Hue ( H ), Saturation ( S ) and Value ( V )
21. 21. 21 HSV Model The Hue (H) of a color refers to which pure color it resembles. All tints, tones and shades of red have the same hue. (simply the color we see)
22. 22. 22 HSV Model The Saturation (S) of a color describes how white the color is. Or the amount of white added to the color. A pure red is fully saturated (S=1) means no white added
23. 23. 23 HSV Model The Value (V) of a color, also called its lightness, describes how dark the color is. A value of 0 is black, with increasing lightness moving away from black.
24. 24. 24 HSL Model • Double-cone Representation Parameters are : • Hue (H) • Lightness (L) • Saturation (S)
25. 25. 25 HSL Model • Vertical Axis is called Lightness(L). • At L=0 we have black , and at L=1 we have white • Grayscale values are along the L axis • The pure colors lie at the axis where L=0.5 and S=1.0
26. 26. 26 •Subtractive Color Model. •Stands for cyan-magenta-yellow. •Used for hardcopy devices (ex. Printers). •A printed color that looks red absorbs the other two components G and B and reflects R. •Thus the C-M-Y coordinates are just the complements of the R-G-B coordinates. CMY and CMYK Model
27. 27. 27 In additive color models such as RGB, white is the “additive” combination of all primary colored lights, while black is the absence of light. In the CMYK model, it is the opposite: white is the natural color of the paper or other background, while black results from a full combination of colored inks. CMY and CMYK Model RGB To CMY CMY To RGB
28. 28. 28 CMYK Color Model Although cyan, magenta and yellow inks might be expected be sufficient for color printing, most actual color printing uses black ink in addition. This is partly because a mixture of the first three inks may not yield a black that is neutral enough, or dark enough, but also because the use of black spares the use of the more expensive colored inks, and also reduces the total amount of ink used, thus speeding drying times. K used instead of equal amounts of CMY • called under color removal • richer black • less ink deposited on paper – dries more quickly • First approximation – nonlinearities must be accommodated: K = min(C, M, Y) C’ = C – K M’ = M – K Y’ = Y – K CMY and CMYK Model
29. 29. Color Model Application Area Color Model Application Area RGB - Computer graphics - Image processing - Image Analysis - Image Storage CMY(K) Printing HSV, HSL - Human visual perception - Computer graphics processing - Computer Vision - Image Analysis - Design image - Human vision - Image editing software - Video editor YIQ - TV broadcasting - Video system Color Models Applications
30. 30. 30 • A technique used in newspaper printing Only two intensities are possible, blob of ink and no blob of ink. But, the size of the blob can be varied Halftone
31. 31. 31 Dithering The process of approximating colors you don't have by mixing colors you do have.
32. 32. 32 Half toning is the reproduction of grayscale images using dots but with varying size. Typical Application Laser printer. If a monitor can't show a certain color, dithering approximates the color by placing close together pixels in colors that the computer can display. Typical Application Web graphic designers often limit their images to 256 colors and use dithering to imply other colors. Halt-Toning Vs. Dithering
33. 33. 33 References • Hearn, Baker and Carithers, Computer Graphics with OpenGL • https://www.siggraph.org/education/m aterials/HyperGraph/color/colorcm.ht m • www.wikipedia.com • http://www.cs.sun.ac.za/~lvzijl/courses /rw778/grafika/OpenGLtuts/Big/graphi csnotes008.html
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Its about the color models (e.g. RGB, YIQ, CMY, HSV, HSL)

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