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Conflict Resolution Strategies among School Principals in Region XII

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A study that explores the various conflict resolution strategies of principals in DepEd Region XII.

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Conflict Resolution Strategies among School Principals in Region XII

  1. 1. ADMINISTRATORS’ CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES AND SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT IN REGION XII ERNIE C. CERADO SULTAN KUDARAT STATE UNIVERSITY ACCESS, EJC Montilla, Tacurong City 1 NATIONAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE PUNTA VILLA, ILOILO CITY OCTOBER 29-31, 2013
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIO N Schools have managers judged with the responsibility of maintaining stability in order to achieve organizational goals. They are the school administrators who are tasked with the overall management of the school. 2
  3. 3.  Nevertheless, conflicts in the country’s public secondary schools are on the rise in the recent years. This is mainly due to unresolved conflicts between the students, teachers, and the school administrators. These have had negative impacts on the academic standards and performance of the school and the students (DepEd, 2010). CONT… 3
  4. 4. Pendharkar (1995) reveals that schools with greater number of unsolved conflicts performed poorly compared to those schools with lesser conflicts. Thus, knowledge of conflict resolution strategies by the school administrators is perceived to enhance learning, thereby improving the academic performance of the students. CONT… 4
  5. 5. On the other hand, Martires (2000) stresses out that if a manager wants to keep his team or organization work effectively, then he should have the skills in solving conflicts. Once he has understanding of the different styles, a manager can make use of them to think about the most appropriate approach for the conflict to resolve. CONT… 5
  6. 6. It was on these premises, however, that the researcher thought of undertaking this study among public secondary school administrators in Region XII. CONT… 6
  7. 7. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK This study is anchored on the theories of Thomas and Kilmann (1970), and Martires and Fule (2000) on conflict resolution. Accordingly, conflict may be resolved through accommodation, avoidance, collaboration, competition, compromising, litigation, mediation, problem solving, smoothing, and use of authority. 7
  8. 8. Likewise, school development as a concept was coined from the Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) School-Based Management Framework which covers curriculum, staff, resources, learning environment, community building, and students’ academic development. CONT… 8
  9. 9. CONT…  In this study, the school administrators’ CRS was presumed to have influence over school development. Moreover, it was also predicted that the way school heads respond to conflicts may also be a factor of his personal circumstances like age, gender, highest educational attainment, length of administrative service, and religion. 9
  10. 10. FIGURE 1. RESEARCH PARADIGM SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS’ PERSONAL FACTORS Age Gender Highest Educational Attainment Length of Administrative Service Religion CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES Accommodation Avoidance Collaboration Competitive Compromising Litigation Mediation Problem Solving Smoothing Use of Authority SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT Curriculum Development Staff Development Resource Development Learning Environment Development Community-Building Development Students’ Academic Development Antecedent Variable Independent Variable Dependent Variable 10
  11. 11. The primary objective of the study was to assess and relate the conflict resolution strategies of public secondary school administrators with school development in the Department of Education (DepEd) Region XII. General Objective 11
  12. 12. 1. To describe the profile of the public secondary school administrators in terms of age, gender, highest educational attainment, length of administrative experience, and religion. In particular, it sought to answer the following objectives: 12
  13. 13. 2. To describe the respondents’ assessment on the the conflict resolution strategies of public secondary school administrators along with: 2.1 accommodation; 2.2 avoidance; 2.3 collaboration; 2.4 competitive; 2.5 compromising; 2.6 litigation; 2.7 mediation; 2.8 problem solving; 2.9 smoothing; and 2.10 use of authority? 13
  14. 14. 3. To determine the difference between the assessments of administrators themselves and the teachers on the conflict resolution strategies 4. To assess school development in Region XII along with curriculum, staff, resources, learning environment, community-building, and students’ academics achievement 14
  15. 15. 5. To relate the school administrator’s conflict resolution strategies and school development 6. To determine the effect of the administrators’ personal factors to their conflict resolution strategies 7. To find out the issues and concerns of public secondary school administrators regarding conflict resolution strategies 15
  16. 16. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 16
  17. 17. RESEARCH DESIGN  This study is descriptive in general and correlational in particular since: FOREMOST, it assessed the conflict resolution strategies of public secondary school administrators and school development in the nine (9) divisions of DepEd Region XII. SECONDLY, it considered describing the existing relationships between said variables. For this inquiry, this is the most fitting design suggested by Sevilla et al (1992). 17
  18. 18. LOCALE OF THE STUDY The survey covered the 9 school and city divisions in Region XII, namely; South Cotabato, Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sarangani, Tacurong City, Cotabato City, Kidapawan City, Koronadal City, and General Santos City. Map of Region XII 18
  19. 19. THE RESPONDENTS The respondents of the study included sixty (60) public secondary school administrators and four hundred fifty-seven (457) randomly selected teachers; those whose length of service in their present school assignment was not less than three years. 19
  20. 20. DATA GATHERING INSTRUMENTS  A researcher-made survey instrument was used in assessing CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES of secondary school principals. Each item in the tool was rated based on the following scale: Rating --- Verbal Description 5 --- Highly Effective 4 --- Very Effective 3 --- Effective 2 --- Fairly Effective 1 --- Less Effective 20
  21. 21. CONT…  On the other hand, the respondents rated SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT indicators using the following scale: Rating --- Verbal Description 5 --- Most Evident 4 --- Moderately Evident 3 --- Evident 2 --- Less Evident 1 --- Least Evident 21
  22. 22. STATISTICAL TREATMENT Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis to include percentage, weighted mean, t-test, F-test, Pearson r, and ranking. In most computations, the use of Microsoft Excel software was maximized. All hypothesis tests were performed at .05 level of significance. 22
  23. 23. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 23
  24. 24. PROFILE OF THE SECONDARY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS IN REGION XII 24
  25. 25. FIGURE 3. THE AGE PROFILE OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS Nearly 40% or 4 out of 10 secondary school administrators in Region XII are 40 to 49 years old. 32% or about 3 out of 10 school heads are 50- 59 years old. 22% 38% 32% 8% less than 30 30-39 40-49 50-59 60 years old & above 0 5 10 15 20 25 25
  26. 26. FIGURE 4. THE GENDER PROFILE OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS Majority of the secondary school administrato rs is male. Female 45% Male 55% 26
  27. 27. FIGURE 5. BAR GRAPH OF THE HIGHEST EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS 50% or 5 out of 10 secondary school administrators in the region have completed a Master’s degree 33% 50% 8% 8% with MA units MA Graduate with PhD/EdD Units PhD/EdD Graduate 27
  28. 28. FIGURE 6. BAR GRAPH OF THE LENGTH OF ADMINISTRATIVE EXPERIENCE OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS Typically, or 43% of the school administrators have administrative experience of 10 to19 years. 37% 43% 20% 0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% less than 10 years 10-19 20-29 30-39 28
  29. 29. FIGURE 7. THE RELIGION PROFILE OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS Majority or 70% of the secondary school administrators are Roman Catholic. PROTESTAN T, 12% ISLAM, 18% ROMAN CATHOLI C, 70% 29
  30. 30. CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS 30
  31. 31. FIGURE 8. BAR GRAPH OF THE RESPONDENTS’ ASSESSMENT ON THE CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES OF PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS 15% 0% 83% 5% 68% 7% 52% 80% 72% 47% Accomodation Avoidance Collaboration Competition Compromising Litigation Mediation Problem Solving Smoothing Use of Authority Mostly of the secondary school principals are employing collaboration, problem solving, smoothing and compromising strategies in resolving conflicts in school. 31
  32. 32. RESPONDENTS’ ASSESSMENT ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS 32
  33. 33. TABLE 1. THE RESPONDENTS’ ASSESSMENT ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS Respondents Means Interpretation Teachers 3.74 Very Effective School Administrators 3.56 Effective Overall Mean 3.65 Very Effective Generally, the assessment of teachers and administrators towards the latter’s conflict resolution strategies is very effective. 33
  34. 34. TABLE 2. THE T-TEST ANALYSIS OF THE RESPONDENTS’ ASSESSMENT ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS Respondents Means Computed t Interpretation Teachers 3.74 3.8878 significant School Administrators 3.56 ttab( 514,.05) = 1.9719 The perception of the teachers on the conflict resolution strategies of their school administrators is relatively higher than that of the latter. 34
  35. 35. EXTENT OF SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT IN REGION XII 35
  36. 36. TABLE 3. SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN REGION XII Variables Mean Verbal Description Curriculum Development 3.92 Moderately Evident Staff Development 3.97 Moderately Evident Resource Development 3.97 Moderately Evident Learning Environment 4.05 Moderately Evident Community-building development 4.19 Moderately Evident Overall Mean 4.02 Moderately Evident Generally, the school development in the region is moderately evident. 36
  37. 37. TABLE 4. STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC DEVELOPMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF REGION XII School Year NAT Results Descriptive Rating 2008 - 2009 46.76 Average Mastery 2009 - 2010 48.70 Average Mastery 2010 - 2011 51.23 Average Mastery Mean 48.90 Average Mastery In terms of students’ academic achievement as a measure of school development, its level reaches to average mastery. 37
  38. 38. RELATIONSHIP OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES AND SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT 38
  39. 39. TABLE 16. CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS’ CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES AND SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT Conflict Resolution Strategies Curriculu m Dev’t Staff Dev’t Resourc e Dev’t Learning Envi. Dev’t Communit y-building Academic Dev’t Accommodation -- -- -- -- -- -- Avoidance -- -- -- -- -- -- Collaboration -- -- -- -- -- -- Competition * * * * * -- Compromising -- -- -- -- -- -- Litigation * * * * * -- Mediation * * * * * -- Problem Solving -- -- -- -- -- -- Smoothing -- -- -- -- -- -- Use of Authority -- -- -- -- -- -- * - significant Only the strategies of competition, litigation and mediation are significantly associated to developments in curriculum, staff, resources, learning environment and community-building. 39
  40. 40. ADMINISTRATORS’ PERSONAL FACTORS AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES 40
  41. 41. TABLE 5. EFFECT OF ADMINISTRATORS’ PERSONAL FACTORS TO THEIR CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES Variables F-ratio F-critical (α.= 05) Interpretation Age 0.174211 2.7694 Ns Gender 0.7175* 2.0017* Ns Educational Attainment 1.2398 2.7694 Ns Administrative Experience 0.7660 3.1589 Ns Religious Affiliation 0.1572 3.1589 Ns * - t-value Ns – not significant Consistently, all personal factors of school administrators were found to have no effect on the kind of conflict resolution strategies that they employed. 41
  42. 42. COMMON ISSUES AND CONCERNS RELATED TO CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES 42
  43. 43. TABLE 6. COMMON ISSUES AND CONCERNS OF PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES Issues and Concerns Rank Lack of adequate/sufficient knowledge on the different conflict resolution strategies 1 Limited knowledge on the conduct of preliminary investigation 2 Inadequate knowledge on the rules of presentation of evidence 3 Attitude of teachers and students on resolution of conflicts 4 Imposition of penalties on the party that is found guilty 5 43
  44. 44. CONCLUSIONS The school administrators predominantly employed the following conflict resolution strategies: COLLABORATION, PROBLEM SOLVING, SMOOTHING, COMPROMISING, AND MEDIATION. 44
  45. 45. CONT… The extent of development of public secondary schools in DepEd XII was substantially observed and sustained for a longer time while the students’ academic development was on “average mastery” level only. 45
  46. 46. CONT… Conflict resolution strategies such as COMPETITION, LITIGATION AND MEDIATION were associated to curriculum, staff, resources, learning environment and community-building development. 46
  47. 47. CONT… Conflict resolution strategies of the secondary school administrators were not affected by personal factors. The inadequacy of competence on the different conflict resolution strategies and the limited knowledge on the conduct of preliminary investigation were the top concerns of school administrators. 47
  48. 48. RECOMMENDATIONS  INTENSIVE SEMINARS for school administrators on the fundamentals, processes, and legal considerations of conflict resolutions and strategies should be organized in the Division level.  Courses or subjects in conflict management should be INTEGRATED IN THE GRADUATE PROGRAM CURRICULUM for Educational Management or Administration to prepare potential school administrators for conflict management in school. 48
  49. 49. 49 Thank you very much for listening!

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