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Healthy Diets and our Food environment?

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Healthy Diets and our Food environment?

United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition, 10 June 2016, FAO

© FAO: http://www.fao.org

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Healthy Diets and our Food environment?

  1. 1. Healthy Diets and our Food environment? A presentation at the SCN 10 June 2016 (FAO, Rome, Italy) Anna Lartey, PhD Director of Nutrition, FAO, Rome
  2. 2. • 63 countries have reached the hunger target of MDG-1. • 25 countries have achieved the more stringent WFS target. (FAO,WFP,IFAD-SOFI 2015)
  3. 3. Undernutrition declining, but not fast enough Source: UNICEF, WHO, World Bank. Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates. 2012
  4. 4. Overweight, obesity rising rapidly Source: FAO, SOFA, 2013
  5. 5. Source: Lancet Vol 387, April 2, 2016 If trends continue, the probability of meeting global obesity target is virtually zero; Severe obesity will surpass underweight in women by 2025 Warning on Global Obesity trends: Men Women
  6. 6. NUTRITION IN TRANSITION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA Specification Overweight 2011 (%) (WHO, 2011) Obesity 2011 (%) (WHO, 2011) Undernourishment 2010-2012 (%) (FAO, WFP and IFAD; 2012) Albania 54.4 21.3 - Algeria 45.5 16.0 <5 Egypt 67.9 33.1 <5 Iraq 62.3 27.0 26.0 Israel 60.9 26.2 - Jordan 64.1 30.0 <5 Lebanon 61.8 27.4 <5 Libya 61.9 27.8 <5 Morocco 46.8 16.4 5.5 Syria 61.2 27.1 <5 Tunisia 53.7 22.3 <5 Turkey 61.9 27.8 <5 Table. 1. Obesity, overweight and malnutrition (undernourishment) in selected Mediterranean countries. Source: CIHEAM-Bari’s elaboration using data from WHO 2011 and FAO-WFP-IFAD 2012 (FAO, WFP et al. 2012) .
  7. 7. Our Diet:
  8. 8. FEB. 23, 2015 Health Food Habits Getting Worse Around the World
  9. 9. “Our diet is killing us” By Peter Whoriskey February 2015 America, please eat more fruits and vegetables Washington Post By Peter Whoriskey February 2015 Washington Post February 2015
  10. 10. September 2015 THE GUARDIAN
  11. 11. Global risk factors contributing to early deaths (Source: GBD 2013; Lancet 2015)
  12. 12. September , 2015 Poor diet: “Eating too few fruits and vegetables, nuts and whole grains, too much sodium (salt) and cholesterol are taking a toll on health across the globe” Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation Authority on Global Health Diseases
  13. 13. Specific Dietary risks  Diets low in: Fruits Vegetables Whole grains Nuts and seeds Milk Fiber (legumes, pulses) Sea food (w3 Fatty acids) Low in PUFA  Diets high in Red meat Processed meat Sugar sweetened beverages Trans fatty acids Sodium (salt)
  14. 14. Economic costs of malnutrition unacceptably high @ 5% of GDP • Under-nutrition, micronutrient deficiencies cost 2-3% of global GDP • Total output loss, healthcare costs due to NCDs, for which obesity is key risk factor, about US$47 trillion over next 2 decades • Total costs of malnutrition may be as high as 5% of global GDP, equivalent to US$3.5trn or US$500/person/year • Poorer countries -> higher malnutrition costs
  15. 15. Economic costs of obesity by McKinsey Global Institute (2014) About 1.9~2.1 bn people overweight or obese), i.e. 30% of global population Comparative economic burden armed conflicts ($2.1 trillion) smoking ($2.1 trillion) obesity ($2.0 trillion)
  16. 16. 16 At ICN2 countries committed to reform their food systems: ”we commit to enhance sustainable food systems by developing public policies from production to consumption and across sectors to provide year- round access to food that meets people’s nutrition needs and promote safe and diversified healthy diets.”
  17. 17. What is a Healthy Diet?
  18. 18. WHO Healthy diet fact sheet: Healthy diet contains:  Fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, and whole grains  At least 400g (5 portions of F&V)  Less than 10% of total energy from free sugars (¬ 50g);  Less than 30% of total energy from fats;  Less that 5 g of salt (¬ 1 teaspoon) per day
  19. 19. Healthy Diets through the lens of two famous traditional diets: Declared World Intangible Cultural Heritage by UNESCO 2013 “Washoku” Traditional diet of Japan:  Well-balanced through use of foods that vary in colour and texture;  Diversity and freshness of seasonally-available ingredients;  Fish as major animal protein;  Use of natural spices  High use of fermented foods Mediterranean Diet  High use of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes and nuts (Diversity);  Use of olive oils;  Limited use of red meat and processed meat;  Consumption of fish and poultry;  Use of herbs and spices for flavouring
  20. 20. Food from Japan “Food of systems of indigenous peoples show the important role of a diversified diet based on local plant and animal species” Biodiversity and Nutrition: a common Path (FAO)
  21. 21. What then is a Healthy diet?  Characteristics of a Healthy Diet: CFS Vision for nutrition: access to adequate food and enjoy diversified, balanced (and healthy diets) for an active and healthy life. Health Effects of Healthy Diet: * Reduced prevalence of nutrient deficiencies • Reduced prevalence of obesity; • Reduced incidence of non-communicable diseases- diabetes, heart diseases, etc.
  22. 22. Modern day challenges to Healthy diets Fast pace of life: • People do not have the time to cook; • Issue of affordability • People should be able to do what we want them to do
  23. 23. Food System Production, processing, retail, consumption Food Environment Availability, access, convenience, desirability for consumers Individual Diet Quality Diversity, adequacy, safety Sources: Herforth & Ahmed, 2015; Global Panel on Agriculture & Food Systems for Nutrition, 2015, SOFA, 2013 WHAT INFLUENCES DIET QUALITY OR HEALTHY DIET? FOOD ENVIRONMENTS
  24. 24. WHAT ARE “FOOD ENVIRONMENTS”? The foods that are available in the spaces around people as they move through their daily lives, & how affordable, convenient & desirable they are
  25. 25. Food System Production, processing, retail, consumption Food Environment Availability, access, convenience, desirability for consumers Individual Diet Quality Diversity, adequacy, safety Sources: Herforth & Ahmed, 2015; Global Panel on Agriculture & Food Systems for Nutrition, 2015, SOFA, 2013 WHAT INFLUENCES DIET QUALITY OR HEALTHY DIET? FOOD ENVIRONMENTS
  26. 26. to create fovourable food environment to ensure that their citizens have access to healthy diets Governments responsibility:
  27. 27. Ways in which Governments can influence the food environment for Healthy Diet
  28. 28. THROUGH AGRICULTURAL POLICIES: INCREASING AVAILABILITY AND AFFORDABILITY OF NUTRITIOUS, HIGH QUALITY FOOD
  29. 29. Food-based Dietary Guidelines (April 2016) (FAO and Oxford University) FBDG: Communication tool to promote healthy diets and nutritional well-being. “.. They provide an official, accessible and easy to understand steer on how people should eat and the direction of travel needed.” Some are building sustainability issues in their FGDB by cautioning on meat consumption. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i5640e.pdf
  30. 30. Countries with official FBDGs in FAO’s site 30
  31. 31. China is encouraging its citizens to eat less meat — and that could be a big win for the climate An updated set of dietary guidelines just released by the Chinese government could be a boon not only for public health, …but also for the environment. (April 11, 2016: www.washingtonpost.com)
  32. 32. USING FOOD LABELLING TO INFLUENCE FOOD ENVIRONMENTS THE CHILI EXPERIENCE In Chile, one out of three children under 6 years of age is overweight. Starting from June 27th, 2016, a law of food labelling and advertising will be active to curb the ongoing epidemic increase of obesity and non-communicable diseases. It includes: • incorporating easy-to-understand front-of- packages labelling and specific messages addressing critical nutrients: • decreasing children’s exposure to unhealthy foods by restricting marketing, advertising and sales, in particular in schools.
  33. 33. Policies to address food safety Food environments in many developing countries are characterized by unsafe foods and are the cause of high rates of food bourne diseases; Issues of Anti-microbial resistance is a major problem in many countries
  34. 34. Trade Policies can influence foods available CONSEQUENT IMPACT ON FOOD ENVIRONMENTS & DIET QUALITY AROUND THE WORLD: •Increased availability and intake of artificially sweetened beverages, processed foods and refined carbohydrates , •Decreased fruit, vegetable and legume availability and intake
  35. 35. Looking for Healthy Diet? Go to Africa! A 2015 study published by The Lancet Global Health journal looked at the consumption of food (both healthy and unhealthy items) in 187 countries in 1990 and in 2010. The aim was to determine which countries had the world’s healthiest diets. …of the ten countries with the healthiest diets on earth, nine of them are in Africa. What’s more, the three countries with the very best diets are some the world’s poorest.
  36. 36. Global Community: A charge to keep, we have ICN2 Rome Declaration on Nutrition: “Eradicate hunger prevent all forms of malnutrition” Agenda 2030 SDG Goal2: Commitment to end all forms of malnutrition (target 2.2) and provide safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round;
  37. 37. Time to protect Traditional diets Traditional diets, in many parts of the world are being displaced due to neglect by policy makers; and over processed low nutrient foods are becoming cheaper
  38. 38. Conclusion  Governments working with food systems actors must steer the food system to deliver on healthy diets  Protect traditional healthy diets through the creation of conducive food environment E.g. policies in place to make healthy diet available, accessible, convenient and desirable to the consumer

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