Donald E. Vandergriff (Major, US Army, retired) looks at the best armies of the past. From these, he makes a powerful case that larger ratios of officers to enlisted ranks makes an army more effective.
Officer Manning: Armies of the past
• Successful traits:
– Armies with lower ratio (1:33) of officer to enlisted had faster decision cycle
– Policies built around unit manning
– Command and instructor positions most prized, lasting from 3-5 years in key
• Unsuccessful traits:
– Armies with higher ratio (1:13 to 1:6) of officer to enlisted had slower
decision cycle at all levels
– Policies were individual centric leading to lower unit success
– Officers were rotated swiftly through many positions on average a new
position every 10.1 months
Insights into personnel systems (cultures) of other armies in history—
objective: develop decisive leaders of character for uncertain and complex problems
Officer Management: Armies of the Past
• Successful traits:
– Officers attended extensive military schooling early in career
• Most schooling comes at entry level through 4th
• Courses were intellectually demanding (German staff college so tough that falling
out was not seen as failure)
• Culture encouraged self-teaching, self-policing and professional discourse
– Accessions into officer ranks tough (up to 80% failure rate)
– Promotions and selections
• Based on two measures, seniority and combat performance
– “Perform or out” versus “up or out” promotion system
• Decentralized at lower levels with local boards; senior selections centralized
• Unsuccessful traits:
– Officers viewed as generalists where rank meant assumed level of knowledge
– Careers adhered to templates and patterns with little flexibility based on competence
– Individual replacement rather than group replacement hindered cohesion
– Individual career management assumed Social Darwinism, equal opportunity &
progressive assumption of survival of fittest
– Careerism outcome based individual’s psychological “investment” in their own career
coupled with promotion for pay economic reward system
– Incentive structure focused on individual failed to ensure superior group performance
US Army Officer Trends
Officer to Enlisted Ratios
Context: Technology breakthrough, Communication, Area of Operations, Doctrinal Focus,
Operational Environment, Spectrum of Conflict, Army Purpose, Officer Development
Civil War World War I World War II Vietnam/Cold War Today
Total Army 2,100,000 4,050,000 8,800,000 1,330,000 1,140,000
Officers 137,254 1: 14.3 250,000 1: 15.2 758,620 1: 10.6 172,727 1: 6.7 180,094 1: 5.3
Field Grade 41,176 1: 47.7 32,926 1: 115.4 42,307 1: 190.1 73,888 1: 15.7 78,082 1: 12.3
General 564 1: 3480 1,006 1: 3777.3 1,260 1: 6382 542 1: 2135.2 632 1: 1518.8
1,606 1: 14.2 6,243 1: 35.3 3,966 1: 20.9 3,510 1: 15.7
IN: 3488 1: 12.1
HV: 3779 1: 11.3
ST: 4224 1: 11.4
Roman Army French Army Finnish Army German Army Israeli Army
(52 AD) (1806) (1939) (1940) (1967)
Total Army 300,000 350,000 346,000 4,555,000 264,000
Officers 3,817 1: 77.6 4,215 1: 82 10,380 1: 32.3 133,970 1: 33 15,000 1: 16.6
Field Grade 1,980 1: 149.6 1,867 1: 185.2 2,147 1: 156.3 16,098 1: 274.6 2,358 1: 105.6
34 1: 8711.3
423 1: 817.5 56 1: 5993.2 4,561 1: 969.3 36 1: 6916.7
56 1: 5289
5,000 1: 73.6 2,400 1: 41.9 3,100 1: 82.8 3,300 1: 79.5 2,800 1: 46.5
(Legion) (Brigade) (Regiment) (Reg't/Bde) (Brigade)
US Army Officer Trends
In Foreign Successful Armies
US Army Officer Trends
In Unsuccessful Armies
Prussian Army French Army Italian Army British Army
(1806) (1940) (1940) (1940)
Total Army 182,995 3,333,000 1,630,000 1,615,000
Officers 23,789 1: 6.7 666,600 1: 4 293,400 1: 4.6 177,650 1: 8.1
Field Grade 8,794 1: 18.1 23,498 1: 113.5 67,009 1: 19.9 46,000 1: 31.2
General 528 1: 301.5 1,843 1: 1446.8 1,101 1: 1214 748 1: 1921.6
(Brigade) (Regiment) (Regiment) (Brigade)
Criteria Civil War World War I World War II Cold War / Vietnam Today
Long Range Arty
Airplane as a weapon
Tactical Nuclear Wpn
Land Line Telephone
Signal Flags / Courier
Area of Operations
300 m 3500 m 4-6 KM 5-9 KM
Area Of Opn
Arty, IN, CAV
Fires & Maneuver
With Other Services
Within Nuclear parity
Rise non-state actors
War among people
Mid & High
General Purpose &
Full spectrum Opn
Army Forward Deployed
to Deter Conflict
Branch Branch Combined Arms
US Army Officer Trends
Officer to Enlisted Ratios
ERA Civil War World War I World War II Vietnam/Cold War Today
Total Army 2,100,000 4,050,000 8,800,000 1,330,000 1,140,000
Officers 1: 14.3 1: 15.2 1: 10.6 1: 6.7 1: 5.3
Field Grade 1: 47.7 1: 115.4 1: 190.1 1: 15.7 1: 12.3
General 1: 3480 1: 3777.3 1: 6382 1: 2135.2 1: 1518.8
1: 14.2 1: 35.3 1: 20.9 1: 15.7
Criteria Civil War World War I World War II Cold War / Vietnam Today
Area of Operations
Top Down, centralized
and hierarchal control
Top Down, centralized
and hierarchal control
Top Down, centralized and
hierarchal control C2
system, later mission cmd
Top Down, centralized and
hierarchal control C2 system; 1982-
86 FM 100-5 encouraged more
mission cmd, but culture did not
Operations, emphasis toward
mission command, but still retains
top-down hierarchal system
CSA used same
Germans moved from
operational to tactical
maneuver warfare with
Linear Battlefield; Germans
warfare in time, space and
depth with mission cmd
Linear warfare against Soviet
threat, but emerging non-state
opponents using non-linear warfare
US demonstrated ability to conduct
maneuver warfare in OEF and OIF
in initial phase; Rise non-state
actors war among people
United States Military
Military Colleges in
on linear warfare
United States Military
Military Colleges in
staff college. Learning
was inward focused on
United States Military
Academy, private military
colleges, ROTC, but
largely OCS w/college
degree; staff college
Learning was inward
focused on process
United States Military Academy,
ROTC and OCS initially, templated
school system Lieutenant through
colonel. Learning was inward
focused on process and driven by
top down POI
United States Military Academy,
ROTC and OCS initially, templated
school system Lieutenant through
colonel. Learning moving from
process to classical education
system focused on cognitive
US Army Leader Development
Sources for officer/enlisted numbers/ratios
• Center of Military History Research page,
• US Army Human Resources Command, Department of Defense
Military Personnel as of 31 March 2010
• Department of the Army, The Personnel System In The United
States Army, 1954 (covers Civil War through World War II)
• Kreidberg and Henry, History of the Mobilization in the United States
Army, 1775-1945, 1955
• Vandergriff, Donald, Path to Victory: America’s Army and the
Revolution in Human Affairs, 2002
• Access through Army G1, LTC Daniel Shimpton, 5 May 2010
• Dr. Blair Hayworth, US Army Center of Military History
• Dr. Bruce Gudmundsson, Historian USMC TECOM
• LTC Symon Tanner, British Army liaison to ARCIC Forward, 6 May
Use an empirical approach to understand
how the U.S. Army’s personnel system
(culture) evolved over time by comparing
to other armies in snapshots of history
Provide brief insights into personnel
systems (cultures) of other armies in
history. Key trend throughout is how to
develop decisive leaders of character
Summary of traits
• Successful armies started officer candidate earlier in age, with most
beginning in the ranks or as an officer candidate 2-4 years
• After 1871, American and Europeans tried to copy the German
system, but many succeeded in copying them organizationally, but
none succeeded at copying them culturally, but their systems lacked
the requisite mutual trust needed to empower subordinates
• France fought well in WWI, adjusted to conditions of trench warfare,
but did not learn how to adapt to changed conditions in the next war
(precursor: decentralized German storm tactics first used in 1916-
• Excessive politicization undermined mutual trust
– Atmosphere of mistrust and a Cartesian intellectual tradition (emanating from
DeCartes) inspired a centralized officer culture that tried to reduce conflict to a
series of predictable formulaic relations
– Italy had courageous individual qualities smothered by rigid culture leads to
failures without reforms
– Britain excellent at basic soldiering skills with outstanding small unit leadership
by NCOs but officer corps remained wedded to methodical frontal battles of
• The Roman Army of 216 BC to 52 AD
• The French Army of 1798-1807
• The Finnish Army of 1926-1940
• The German Army of 1809-1942’
• The Israeli Army of 1948-1973
Common Features: All these armies faced the threat of a crushing defeat at the hands of well armed
numerically superior opponents, and
Officer corps open to wide population, but had high entrance standards with strenuous measurement tools,
which resulted in small percentage of officers to enlisted (entire force from 3-7%); and built personnel system
around unit manning
• The Prussian Army (1806)
• The French Army (1870, 1914, 1940)
• The Italian Army (1914-1942)
• The British Army (Crimea 1856, S. Africa
1898, WWII 1939-1942)
Common Features: Confined their officer corps to an aristocratic or privileged class-limited talent with
entrance and promotion standards based on birth than competence; maintained larger than necessary officer
corps anywhere from 15-20 percent; dogmatic, non-adaptive doctrine when faced with obvious need to
Roman Army 216 BC-52 AD
• Battle of Cannae in 216 BC forced major reforms. Leadership dominated
– Publius Cornelius Scipio (Africanus after 202 BC) reformed officer corps with
– Garius Marius made tactical and structural changes to the legion
• The entire army revolved around the legion
– It recruited, trained and promoted its own officers based on merit (similar to
– Length of service was 20 years—leaders within the Legion came from the ranks
– Legions were the basic building blocks of armies and were the regional
specialists for operations other than war
• Tactical doctrine demanded that subordinates exhibit initiative
• Legion evolved a culture of unit cohesion and professionalism that gave the
Romans an unbeatable Army for almost four centuries until:
– Failed to adapt to the fighting methods of Germanic Tribes
– Citizens serving diminished, and use of mercenaries and immigrants with no vested interest
– Involvement of acquisition of its own supplies corrupted the officer corps (particularly at the
furthest, most isolated corners of the empire)
Roman Military History
• Craven, Brian, The Punic Wars, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1980
• Crawford, Michael, “Early Rome and Italy, in The Oxford History of the Classical
World, Oxford University Press, 1988
• Ferrell, Arther, The Fall of Roman Empire: The Military Explanation, Thames and
• Gibbon, Edward, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Random House, Inc.,
• Grant, Michael, History of Rome, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978
• Pareti, Luigi and Brezzi, Paolo and Petech, Luciano, History of Mankind, Cultural and
Scientific Development Vol 2: The Ancient World, Harper and Row Publishers, 1965.
Provides a detailed description of Marius reforms and campaigns
• Scullard, H.H., Scipio Africanus: Soldier and Politician, Thames and Hudson, 1970
• Van Creveld, Martin, Command in War, Harvard University Press, January 1, 1987
The French Army 1798-1807
• Nation in Arms concept of mobilizing entire nation’s resources
– Allowed the French to choose from a large number of candidates into the officer corps
– Moral and physical energy of citizen-soldiers and new leaders generated by the revolution
and magnified by successes against allied armies
– Leaders promoted by merit (e.g., Davout)
• Napoleon’s doctrine of the “corps-de-armee” demanded initiative by division
and corps commanders operating over wide fronts
• General to Emperor
– Napoleon increasingly used top-down control to fight centralized battles (similar to modern
concept of synchronization)
– As Emperor, he did not encourage subordinates to operate autonomously (away from his
oversight, e.g., Wagram in 1809, Central Germany campaign of 1813, Waterloo 1815)
• Result: The cultural freedoms unleashed by the French Revolution and
Napoleon’s background and genius induced him to,
– As general, promote talent based on battlefield performance (“marshal’s baton in every
– As Emperor, substitute central control & stereotyped tactics based on massed firepower for
talent at all levels below corps (Wagram and beyond)
French Napoleonic History
• Bertaud, J ."Napoleon's Officers", Past and Present, 112 (1986)
• Butler, A.R.(trans). The Memoirs of Baron De Marbot: Late Lieutenant in the French Army,
Longmans, Green & Co, London, 1897
• Chandler, D. The Campaigns of Napoleon, Macmillian Publishing, London, 1965
• Chandler, D. On the Napoleonic Wars, Stackpole Books, London, 1994
• Connelly, O. Blundering to Glory: Napoleons Military Campaigns, Scholarly Resources Inc,
• Ellis, G. The Napoleonic Empire, Macmillian Press, London, 1991
• Elting, J.R. Swords Around a Throne: Napoleon's Grande Armee, Macmillian, London, 1988
• Epstein, R.M. "Patterns of Change and Continuity in Nineteenth-Century Warfare.", Journal of
Military History, 56, (July 1992)
• Haythornthwaite, P.J. The Naploeonic Source Book, Arms and Armour, London, 1990
• Lyons, M. Napoleon Bonaparte And the Legacy of the French Revolution, MacMillan Press,
• Lynn, J "Towards and Army of Honour: The Moral Evolution of the French Army, 1789-1815",
French Historical Studies, 16, (Spring 1989)
• Marbot, M.D. Memoirs du General Baron de Marbot, III,Paris, Plon, 1892
• Marshall-Cornwall, J. Napoleon As a Military Commander, Clowes and Son Ltd, London, 1965
• Morris, W. Napoleon: Warrior and Ruler, Putnam's, London, 1896
• Petre, F. Loraine. Napoleon at Bay, Greenhill Books, London, 1994 (first published 1914)
• Rothenberg, G. The Art of Warfare in the Age of Napoleon, University of Indiana Press, 1978
• Weigley, R.F. The Age of Battles, Pimlico, London, 1991.
The Finnish Army, 1926-1940
• Origin of doctrine and personnel management systems—German Army
• Destroyed the numerically superior invading Soviet Army in 1939
– Small unit leaders employed maneuver warfare doctrine within larger framework of
commander’s intent, schwerpunkt and mission orders
– The officer corps made up 3% of the force
• Commanders & NCOs held leadership and command positions for long
periods of time 3 to 5 years, in some cases even longer
• Promotions and selections were decentralized to regimental level
– Based on rigorous testing and performance in training exercises
• Extraordinary training of the enlisted ranks, NCOs and officers
– In one battle an NCO leading a 100 man detachment defeated a Soviet battalion
• Strong regimental system (Army composed mainly of “National Guard”)
– Swiss model (units from same town, district)
– Mobilization plan required reserves to be well trained as small regular army
– Finns achieved the highest exchange ratio in WWII—10:1 against the Soviets
– Standards of Finnish officer and NCO accession process were even higher than the German
Finnish Military History
• Condon, Richard, The Winter War: Russia Against Finland (History of 2nd World
• Edwards, Robert, The Winter War: Russia's Invasion of Finland, 1939-1940 , Peguin
• Engle, Eloise and Paananen, Lauri, The Winter War: The Soviet Attack on Finland
1939-1940, Stackpole Books (January 1992)
• Trotter, William, Frozen Hell: The Russo-Finnish War of 1939-1940, Algonquin Books
, January 2000
• Interviews with Dr. Bruce Gudmundsson, Historian, USMC TECOM
German/Prussian Army (1809-1942)
• Gerhard Scharnhorst (leading Prussian reformer after 1806) believed
– Accession to officer corps should be determined by merit not social class (not completely
– Standards for obtaining a commission should be strenuous (achieved-25% made it)
– Officer selections and promotions were decentralized to the regiment and regimental
• Office candidate first served in the regiment as an “ensign”
• Candidate required to pass demanding three day examination
• Candidate’s character had to be approved by a board of regimental officers
• Rigorous but fair standards ensured that officers could focus on their
– Percentage of officers to force was 3-5%
• 3-track officer system: General staff, regimental (line) and technical
• Education and personnel system focused inward on character development
and the art of war at the tactical and operational levels, but not at the
strategic level of war
– Institutionalized excellence at the tactical and operational levels of war, great for wars
confined to Europe (victories Danish War of 1864, Austria in 1866 and France 1870)
– Weak strategically and disastrous at the grand strategic level of national conflict as
evidenced by WWI and WWII (“made enemies faster than they could kill them”)
German Military History
• Barry, Quintin, The Franco-Prussian War 1870-71: Volume 1: the Campaign of
Sedan: Helmuth Von Moltke and the Overthrow of the Second Empire, Helion &
• Corum, Robert, The Roots of Blitzkrieg: Hans von Seeckt and German Military
Reform, University of Kansas Press, 1992
• Horne, Alistor, The Fall of Paris: The Siege and the Commune, 1870-71. Penguin
• Howard, Michael Eliot, The Franco-Prussian War: The German Invasion of France,
1870-1871, Routledge, 2001
• Millman, Richard, British Foreign Policy and the Coming of the Franco-Prussian War.
Clarendon Press. 1965
• Ollivier, Emile, Translated by George Burnham Ives. The Franco-Prussian War and
Its Hidden Causes, Little, Brown, and Company, 1912
• Stone, David, Fighting for the Fatherland: The Story of the German Soldier from
1648 to the Present Day, Conway. 2006
• Stone, David, First Reich: Inside the German Army During the War with France,
1870-71, Brassey‘s, 2002
• Wawro, Geoffrey, The Franco-Prussian War: The German Conquest of France in
1870-1871, Cambridge University Press, 2003
• Werstein, Irving, The Franco-Prussian War: Germany's Rise as a World Power, J.
• Wetzel, David, A Duel of Giants: Bismarck, Napoleon III, and the Origins of the
The Israeli Army of 1948-1973
• High initiative, decentralized officer culture evolved out of commando operations of
– Up through 1967, most senior tank officers served as commandos in 1948 or earlier
– Commando heritage evolved naturally into an effective maneuver warfare doctrine copied from the German
army between 1948 and 1956, reached fruition in 1967 and was sufficiently intact to recover in 1973
• Officer accession (up through 1973) focused on battlefield leadership
– All officers began in enlisted ranks—top soldiers became NCOs and top NCOs became officers
• NCO Squad leaders course considered one of the toughest in the world
– Officers emerged from a unit cohesion system that kept crew and squads together from beginning of
– Rigorous selection process limited officer corps to 7-8 percent of the force
• Officer assignments prioritized by success and initiative exhibited in combat
– Priorities by initiative: highest to fighter pilots, then paratroopers, then tankers, then so on down to
– Twenty-year career norm, officers served in few assigned positions
– Most served in combat arms then moved over to supporting arms
• Promotions through Lt. COL & selection for command delegated to the brigade
– Up to 1967, IDF achieved quick mobilization and quick victories with low casualties
– Lost initiative during opening days of 1973 War, but recovered and quickly isolated Arab adversaries
– Changed officer accession system approach to provide larger pool of officers in reaction to high officer
casualties in 1973—witnessed marked downturn in performance in the 1982 Lebanon invasion and
• Author interviews with Martin van Creveld, October 1997
• Author interviews with Dr. Ben Uzi, Israeli Army March 2010
• Boyd, John, Patterns of Conflict. 1986. accessed 5 February 2005
• Rothenburg , Erich Gunther, The anatomy of the Israeli army: The Israel Defence
Force, 1948-78, Praeger, 1997
• Schiff, Zeev, History of the Israeli Army, Sidgwick & Jackson Ltd, March 5, 1987
• Van Creveld, Martin, Command in War, Harvard University Press, January 1, 1987
• Van Creveld, Martin, The Sword and the Olive: A Critical History of the Israeli
Defense Force, Public Affairs; 1st edition July 2, 2002
Israeli Military History
Prussian Army of 1806
• Need to change: faced with doctrinal changes unleashed by the French
Revolution & Napoleon’s operational level brilliance, the Prussians
formalized Frederick the Great’s centralized concepts of operations and
tactics without his brilliance
• Debate was discouraged, even frowned upon
– An enormous social gap between officers and enlisted men
– The dry rot revealed itself at Jena-Auestadt (Oct 1806) when the Prussian Army collapsed
• Officer accessions, promotions and development:
– Drawn largely from Prussian nobility
– Selection & promotions based on connections, not performance
– Professional education did not exist
• Symbols glorifying bravery and elan preferred over professionalism
• Result: German reformers realized that an Army’s performance depended
– Having a professional system of education and development to analyze lessons from
– A culture that encourages debate and intellectual ferment that is needed to evolve these
lessons into new ideas (and technologies) needed to fight the next war
– A system of selection of promotion of officers that stresses ability and performance rather
The French Army 1870-1914, 1919-1940
• The Revolution democratized the French officer corps which continued throughout
– But the trust and mutual respect that united the German officers never evolved in the French officer corps
due to a system that promoted the individual at the cost of the whole
– The failure of 1870 was an obsession with colonial warfare that made those at the top successful prior to
1870, and unable to cope with the new German method of war
• Fatal weaknesses of the French officer corps of 1940 can be seen in many events or
attitudes prior to WWII
– Lack of mutual respect, careerism and corruption (e.g., Dreyfus Affair before WWI)
– Alienation of the careerist military from the regime of the 1930s
– Lack of solidarity with subordinates, particularly enlisted men (1920s and 1930s)
– Suppression of internal debate (DeGualle)
– Officer bloat (20% of total force) caused many officers to serve as NCOs
– Inability to deal with unexpected situations (Metz and Sedan in 1870, Battle of Frontiers 1914 and the
German breakthrough 1940)
– Centralized control and authoritarianism crushed the initiative of subordinates and blocked cooperation
between branches of army
• Cartesian Outlook shaped education and thinking by attempting to impose order,
method and routine on the chaos of war
– A culture that discourages discussion, debate and intellectual ferment risks turning inward by imposing the
unquestioned assumption on the lessons of history and new technologies to reinforce old ideas
• Example, the French obsession with the doctrine of methodical battle after WWI (RMA)
• Example, Maginot line (Star Wars)
French Military History
• Numerous interviews with Dr. Bruce Gudmundsson on French Military culture. Dr.
Gudmundsson founded and ran the USMC School of Advance Warfare (SAW) course
of majors in the early 1990s, and is currently a historian for the USMC TECOM
• Cook, Don, Charles De Gaulle: A Biography, G.P. Putman’s Sons, 1983
• De Gaulle, Charles, The Army of the Future, Hutchinson, 1940.
• Doughty, Robert, “From the Offense a’ Outrance to the Methodical Battle,” in
Maneuver Warfare an Anthology, Richard Hooker, editor, Presidio Press, 1993. Also,
Vandergriff interviews with Dr. Robert Doughty September and November 1997
• Doughty, Robert, Seeds of Disaster: The Development of French Army Doctrine
1919-1939, Archon Book, 1985
• Horne, Alistair, The Price of Glory: Verdun 1916, Penguin Books, 1962
• Lottman, Herbert, Petain, Hero or Traitor: The Untold Story, William Morrow &
Company, Inc. 1985
• Shirer, William, The Collapse of the Third Republic: An Inquiry into the Fall of France
in 1940, Simon & Schuster, 1969
Italian Army 1914-1942
• Possessed the same doctrine as the Germans (copied their manuals
verbatim), but failed to create an officer corps that could execute it
• Up through WWII, officers were selected from the aristocratic class, and the
separation between them and the enlisted ranks was considerable
– officers were not united by a tradition on professional matters
– Measures of performance, such as examinations, did not determine promotions, which were
made by a centralized selection board in Rome, usually with considerable political or family
– An excess of either “cleverness” (intelligence) or zeal was bad form
• Combat experience came from beating primitive tribal adversaries in
colonial wars, where there was no pressure to develop military art of
combined arms warfare
– The culture of the Italian Army in 1939 was incapable of executing Maneuver Warfare
– They professed Speed and Initiative in their doctrine, but they practiced centralized control
• Why? Hierarchal, stand-offish relationships paralyzed commanders and subordinates by introducing
complex layers of bureaucratic procedures
• Why? Formal requirements of protocol impeded frank communications
– Careerism increased risk averse behavior which curtailed freedom of action
• Cloutier, Patrick, The Italian Royal Army In Mussolini’s Wars, 1935-1945, republished
1987 to 2010, available as download from www.lulu.com
• Gooch, John, Mussolini and his Generals: The Armed Forces and Facist Foreign
Policy, 1922-1945, Cambridge Military Press, 2007
• Nicolle, David, The Italian Invasion of Abyssinia 1935-36, Osprey Publishing, October
• Sweet, John, The Mechanization of Mussolini’s Army, 1920-1940, Stackpole Military
History, December 30, 2006
• Trye, Rex, Mussolini’s Africa Korps: The Italian Army in North Africa, 1940-1943, Axis
Europa Books 1999
• Walker, Ian, Iron Hulls Iron Hearts: Mussolini’s Elite Armored Divisions in North
Africa, The Crowood Press , July 15, 2006
Italian Military History
British Army 1856, 1898, 1939-42
• Regime was not interested in its Army officer corps during 19th
– Did not need a professional army to protect its elites from social revolution, like colonial
– Based its foreign policy on a maritime strategy & the colonial threats to its empire
• While they maintained one of the finest regimental systems from the time of
Cromwell’s army in the 1600s, its officer system
– Recruited and selected officers from the aristocratic class up until WWII, but when offices
were needed for WWI and WWII, they expanded the officer corps too quickly
– Regimental systems decentralized promotions to the lower levels (good), but selection was
influenced more by aristocratic background and wealth than by competence
– De-emphasized education in the art of war, because the Army was viewed as a gentleman’s
• Fixation on colonial threats coupled by gentlemanly amateurism created
conditions fostering a rigid doctrine with close (centralized) control
• Authoritarian mentality of aristocratic tradition impeded learning by making it
difficult to admit mistakes
– Reports by junior officers were discarded after the Boer War and WWI
• Results Regimental system built solid unit cohesion and a strong NCO
corps that never broke in combat, but could not evolve with war or adapt
– Balaklava (1856), small unit NCOs withstood encirclement by superior numbers of Russian
– Rork’s Drift (1898), encircled company beat off 3,000 combat veterans, highly disciplined and motivated Zulus
– N. Africa (1941-1942), maintained cohesion and avoided collapse despite repeated tactical and operational errors when facing
British Army History
• Based on numerous discussions of British Army history with LTC Symon Tanner,
British Army liaison to ARCIC Forward
• Chandler and Beckett, The Oxford History of the British Army, Oxford Military Press,
• Clayton, Anthony, The British Officer: Leading the Army from 1660 to Present,
• Griffith, Paddy, Battle Tactics of the Western Front: The British Army’s Art of Attack
1916-1918, Yale University Press, 1996
• Hastings, Max, The British Army: A Definitive History of the 20th
Century, Imperial War
• Miller, Stephen, Volunteers in the Veld: Britain’s Citizen Soldiers and the South
African War 1899-1902, Campaigns and Commanders, 2007
• Strachen, Hew, Big Wars and Small Wars: The British Army and the Lessons of the
Century, Routledge, 2006
• Strawson, John, Beggars in Red: The British Army 1789-1889, Pen & Sword, 2003
• Need for massive mobilization shapes today’s personnel
– up or out promotion system in order to keep officers fit and
• Need a place to keep everyone in order to move them up
– Numbers of officers kept top heavy to provide pool to lead new
formations in time of mobilization
– Large and many headquarters to oversee process and
adherence to doctrine, and provides place to put people
(institutionalized over time)
• Legacy of General George Marshall’s view of the world
– Remains organized to fight a linear war on the attritional model
– Despite attempts at it, remains focused on individual vice unit
Up or Out Promotion System
• Navy personnel act of 1916 first introduced up or out promotion system, but failed
because Navy had small officer corps (it requires a large, top heavy system to work)
• Officer Personnel Act of 1947 (based on testimonies by Eisenhower, Marshall and
– Significantly increased the size of the officer corps at the middle and senior grades for mobilization
– Embraced the up or out promotion system to develop “generalists” while keeping the officer corps “vigorous
– Established the “all or nothing” 20 year retirement system
• 1970 War College Study of Professionalism stated that the “up or out” promotion
– “contributed significantly to much of the undesirable and unethical conduct of its officers”
– “seniors sacrificed integrity on the alter of personal success”
– “junior officers perceived a preoccupation with insignificant statistics”
• Debate began in 1974 over up or out that led to the Defense Officer Personnel
Management Act (DOPMA) of 1980, Senator Sam Nunn argued against it,
– “The up or out promotion system forced too-many experienced officers out”
– “The number of officers at middle and upper levels were too high”
– But, the Services wanted up or out
• The theory behind up or out,
– If the system works properly, there will always be more officers qualified for promotion than there are
– Permits selectivity, the selection of the “best qualified”
– By forcing officers up they would receive exposure to numerous jobs that could apply to a meaningful way in
senior leadership positions
• Author’s Note: I found it necessary to revisit the research I did for Path to Victory: America’s Army and the Revolution in Human Affairs
due to many factors that influence the evolution of the Army’s personnel system influence Army ROTC. I added to the research I was in
the progress of making for Raising the Bar (2006) and Manning the Legions (2008). I also found that I had to update my knowledge of
Army doctrine (new FMs written during General Shinseki’s tenure at Chief of Staff (1999-2003) or as a result of his Transformation efforts,
laid new foundation and guidance for Army ROTC. General Schoolmaker assumed the duties of Army Chief of Staff in July 2003 and has
driven even more leadership-centric guidance, some documents such as “Adapt or Die” provided excellent direction for where the officer
accession programs—ROTC, USMA and OCS—should go to develop an “adaptive leader.” Recently, I was involved in the ARCIC
(TRADOC) Human Dimension study, as well as the 2010 writing and publication of the Army Capstone Concept. My research and
sources involved 10 areas and continue to evolve to this day:
• The history of the evolution of the U.S. Army and Army ROTC
• A study of the U.S. Army officer’s corps study of warfare and its influence
• A study of the evolution of the U.S. society and its influence on Army ROTC
• The theories of leadership
• An analysis of education and training approaches to teach cognitive skills
• The history of political correctness
• Reviews of psychology, sociology, anthropology,
• The evolution of the influence of management science on leadership and academic development in the United States
• A review of my research I had done for Learning From Others: The Officer Development Approaches of Armies through History. In this
book, which I never finished, I had examined the cultures of the armies Ancient Rome, Britain, France, Germany, Israel, and Italy
throughout periods of time to give insights to the officer development practices of other nations. For this, I am greatly indebted to Dr Bruce
I Gudmundsson, Dr. John Sayan and William S. Lind for their patience and time in teaching and checking my attempts at the French and
German languages. Bruce also directed me to many European military history web sites.
• A study and understanding of the evolutions of war, particularly into the Fourth Generation of Warfare. I am indebted to Colonel T.X.
Hammes USMC, Mr., William S. Lind, Dr. Chet Richards, Franklin C. Spinney, Greg Wilcox LTC U.S. Army retired, and Colonel G. I.
• I am indebted to Dr. Jonathan Shay for teaching me how to understand the value of trust in military organizations and being a “missionary”
in the effort to reform the military personnel system.
• I am also indebted to my former boss, Lieutenant Allen Gill for our great conversations on leadership, how to develop it, how to create it in
our type of academic environment, talks on strategy, how the Army works, and just great stories about people. LTC Gill has allowed
Georgetown ROTC to evolve into a “Learning Organization.”
Listed below are a compilation of all the sources, including web
sites. I am indebted to the staffs of The Archives of the United
States: The Library of Congress; The Eisenhower Library U.S. Army
Command & General Staff College, The Lauinger Memorial Library,
Georgetown University; The U.S. Army War College, not only for
their assistance, but for the maintenance of some great sources
through web sites that saved so much time.
At this time I am also completing a roll up of the hundreds of notes
that I have taken since June 1998, as well as compiling informal
surveys I recently conducted.
• Addington, Larry A. The Blitzkrieg Era and the German General Staff, 1865-1945.
New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1971.
• Agor, Weston. H., “Tomorrow’s Intuitive Leaders,” The Futurist, August 1993, 46-53.
• Agor, Weston. H., Intuitive management: Integrating Left and Right Brain
Management Skills. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1984.
• Alberts, David S., John J. Garstka and Frederick P. Stein. Network Centric Warfare:
Developing and Leveraging Information Superiority, 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.:
C4ISR Cooperative Research Program, CCRP Publication Series, August 1999.
• Allinson, C. W., Armstrong, S. J. & Hayes, J. “The effects of cognitive style on leader-
member exchange: A study of member-subordinate dyads.” Journal of Occupational
and Organizational Psychology, no. 74 (2001), pp 201-220.
• Anastasi, Anne, Psychological Testing, 4th Edition. New York: MacMillan Publishing
Co. Inc., 1976.
• Andrews, F.M. “Social and Psychological Factors Which Influence the Creative
Process.” In Perspectives in Creativity, ed. A. Taylor and W. Getzels, 89. Chicago:
Aldine Publishing Co, 1975.
• Applegate, Melissa. Preparing For Asymmetry: As Seen Through the Lens of Joint
Vision 2020. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute,
• Arieti, S. Creativity: The Magic Synthesis. New York: Basic Books, 1976.
• Association of the United States Army. How “Transformational” is Army
Transformation? Arlington, VA: Association of the United States Army, Institute of
Land Warfare, February 2003.
• Autry, James A. The Servant Leader: How to Build a Creative Team, Develop Great
Morale, and Improve Bottom-Line Performance. Roseville: Prima Publishing, 2001.
• Bacevich, Andrew, “A Modern Major General: Andrew Bacevich on Tommy Franks,
American Soldier. Invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq on the account of their senior
field commander, as object lesson in a wider strategic failure.” Assessed on 01
November 2004, http://www.newleftreview.net/NLR26307.shtml
• Barber, Benjamin R. Jihad vs. McWorld. New York: Ballantine Books, 1995.
• Barnaby, Frank, ed. Future War: Armed Conflict in the Next Decade. New York:
Facts on File Publications, 1984.
• Barnett, Thomas. “The Pentagon’s New Map.” Esquire. 1 March 2003. Available from
http://www.nwc.navy.mil/newrulesets/ThePentagonsNewMap.htm .Internet. Accessed
30 December 2003.
• Barnett, Thomas. “Where – Not When – Preemption Makes Sense.” Transformation
Trends – 18 November Issue. Available from
http://www.nwc.navy.mil/newrulesets/PreemptionMakesSense.pdf. Internet. Accessed Novem
• Beadnell, Charles M. An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Science and War. London: C.A.
• Bowyer, Richard. Dictionary of Military Terms. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers,
• Beiring, Michael W. Getting Serious About Leadership: What Do We Have To Hide?.
Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, 12 February 1999.
• Bellamy, Christopher, ed. The Evolution of Modern Land Warfare: Theory and
Practice. New York: New Dehli: Deep and Deep Publications, 1982.
• Bernstein, Alvin H. and Martin Libicki. “High-tech: The Future Face of War? (A
Debate).” Commentary Magazine, January 1998. Database on-line. Available from
LookSmart’s FindArticles. Accessed 14 January 2004.
• Bennis, Warren, and Burt Nanus. Leaders: Strategies for Taking Charge. New York,
NY: HarperCollins Publishers Inc., 2003.
• Bey, Jacqueline S., Army Transformation: A Selected Bibliography. Carlisle Barracks:
U. S. Army War College Library, August 2001.
• ________. Human Dimensions of Strategic Leadership: A Selected Bibliography.
Carlisle Barracks: U. S. Army War College Library, December 2002.
• Bhatia, Harbans S. Military dictionary and Encyclopedia of Army, Navy, Air Force,
Para- Military, and Allied Terminology. 1990.
• Bleedorn, Berenice. D., “Making the World Safe for Intuitives.” 17 March 1986.
Available from <http://www.creativityforce.com/intuitives.html>. Internet. Accessed 28
• Boot, Max. “The New American Way of War.” Foreign Affairs (July/August 2003): 41-
• Boot, Max. Savage Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books,
• Brinton, Crane. The Anatomy of Revolution. New York: Vintage Books, 1938.
• Brereton, T.R. Educating the U.S. Army: Arthur L. Wagner and Reform, 1875-1905.
Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000.
• Burnette, Thomas N. Jr., “Building Better Leaders.” Army 48, no. 10 (1998): 121-126.
• Bush, George W. “President Speaks on War Effort to Citadel Cadets.” 11 December
2001, Available from
Accessed 15 January 2004.
• Bush, George W. “Remarks by the President of the United States at the Heritage
Foundation President’s Club Luncheon.” 11 November 2003. Available from
• Bush, George W. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America.
Washington, D.C.: The White House, September 2002.
• Canadian National Defense Force. Logistics Officer Professional Development, Vol 2,
Chap 2. Available from
http://www.dnd.ca/admmat/logbranch/handbook/Volume2/chap2_e.htm . Internet.
Accessed 3 September 2003.
• Caraccilo, Dominic. J., and John L. Pothin. “Coup d’oeil: The Commander’s Intuition
• Carafano, James Jay. “Post-Conflict and Culture: Changing America’s Military for
21st Century Missions,” Heritage Lecture #810. 20 November 2003. Available from 28
http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/HL810.cfm . Internet. Accessed
30 December 2003.
• Carafano, James Jay. “The Reserves and Homeland Security: Proposals, Progress,
Problems Ahead.” CSBA Backgrounder 19 June 2002. Available from
20619.The_Reserves_andH.htm . Internet. Accessed 30 December 2003.
• Carafano, James Jay. “The U.S. Role in Peace Operations: Past, Perspective, and
Prescriptions for the Future.” 14 August 2003. Available from
http://www.heritage.org/Research/NationalSecurity/hl795.cfm . Internet. Accessed 30
• Casey, Major General John T.D., College ROTC: The Way Ahead, Fort Monroe,VA,
• Cebrowski, Arthur K. “Testimony before the Senate Armed Services Committee’s
Emerging Threats and Capabilities Subcommittee.” Transformation Trends – 17
March Issue. Washington D.C.: The Pentagon. 14 March 2003.
• Cebrowski, Arthur K. “The American Way of War.” Transformation Trends – 13
January Issue. Washington D.C.: The Pentagon. 13 January 2004.
• Cebrowski, Arthur K. “Planning a Revolution: Mapping the Pentagon’s
Transformation.” The Heritage Foundation Lectures and Seminars, Washington, D.C.,
13 May 2003.
• Cheney, R.B. Professional Military Education: An Asset for Peace and Progress.
Washington, D.C.: The Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1997.
• Chilcoat, Richard, A. “The Revolution in Military Education,” Joint Forces Quarterly 22
(Summer 1999), pp.59-64.
• Chisholm, Donald. “The Risk of Optimism in the Conduct of War.” Parameters (Winter
2003/2004): 114. Database on-line. Available from ProQuest. Accessed 15 January
• Clark, H.F. Classrooms in the Military: An Account of Education in the Armed Forces
of the United States. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964.
• Clark, Kenneth E. and Miriam B. Clark, Choosing to Lead. Greensboro, NC: Center
for Creative Leadership, 1996. Department of the Army, Army Posture Statement.
Available from http://www.army.mil/aps/2003/realizing/people/leader.html. Internet.
Accessed 18 November 2003.
• Clark, Kenneth E., and Miriam B. Clark. Measures of Leadership. West Orange, NJ:
Leadership Library of America, Inc., 1990.
• Clark, Vern. “Sea Power 21: Projecting Decisive Joint Capabilities,” United States
Naval Institute. Proceedings. Annapolis: October 2002. Vol. 128. Database on-line.
Available from ProQuest. Accessed 18 October 2003.
• ”Clausewitzian Terms.” Air & Space Power Journal, 16 February 2000., 21-28.
• Clausewitz, Carl von. Historical and Political Writings. Ed. and trans. Peter Paret and
Daniel Moran. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1992.
• ________. On War. Ed. and trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret. Princeton, New
Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1989.
• Cayce, Edgar. “Discover Your Intuitive Connection.” 15 January 2002. Available from
<http://www.eciis.org/courses/desc/pc01.jsp>. Internet. Accessed 3 September 2003.
• Coens, Tom, and Mary Jenkins. Abolishing Performance Appraisals: Why They
Backfire and What to Do Instead. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.,
• Collins, John M. Military Strategy: Principles, Practices, and Historical Perspectives.
Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s Inc., 2002.
• Cohen, Eliot A. and John Gooch. Military Misfortunes: The Anatomy of Failure in War.
New York: The Free Press, 1990.
• Cook, Martin L., “Army Professionalism: Service to What Ends?” In The Future of the
Army Profession, ed Don M. Snider and Gayle L. Watkins, 59. New York: McGraw-Hill
• Corbett, Julian S. Some Principles of Maritime Strategy. Annapolis: Naval Institute
• Correll, John T. “What Happened to Shock and Awe?,” Air Force Magazine,
November 2003. Available from
http://www.afa.org/magazine/nov2003/1103shock.pdf. Internet. Accessed 15 January
• Craig, Gordon A. The Politics of the Prussian Army 1640-1945. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1956.
• Crane, Conrad C. and W. Andrew Terrill. Reconstructing Iraq: Insights, Challenges,
and Missions for Military Forces in a Post-Conflict Scenario. Carlisle Barracks: U.S.
Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, February 2003.
• Corum, James S. The Roots of Blitzkrieg: Hans von Seeckt and German Military
Reform . Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 1992.
• Doughty, R.A., Maj. The Command and General Staff College in Transition, 1946-
• Department of Strategy, by, Ft. Leavenworth, U.S. Army Command and General Staff
• Drucker, Peter F. The Essential Drucker: The Best of Sixty Years of Peter Drucker’s
• Dunn, Brian J. “Transforming USAREUR for a Strategy Preemption,” Military Review
(November/December 2003): 15-20.
• Dupuy, Trevor N. A Genius for War: The German Army and General Staff, 1807-
1945. Toronto: Prentice-Hall of Canada, Ltd., 1977.
• Echevarria, Antulio J. After Clausewitz: German Military Thinkers Before the Great
War. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000.
• Echevarria, Antulio J. II. “Interdependent Maneuver for the 21 st Century.” Joint Force
Quarterly (Spring 2003): 95-103.
• Echevarria, Antulio J. II. An American Way of War or Way of Battle? Carlisle
Barracks: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 4 February 2004.
• Echevarria, Antulio J. II. Rapid Decisive Operations: An Assumptions-based Critique.
Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, November
• Ekbladh, David. “How to Build a Nation.” Wilson Quarterly (Winter 2004): 12-20.
• Fallows, James. “Blind Into Baghdad.” The Atlantic Monthly, January/February 2004,
• Fallows, James, Corum Robert and Vandergriff Donald, “The American Way of War,”
Atlantic Monthly, January/February 2003, online issue, at
• Fastabend, David A. “That Elusive Operational Concept.” Army, June 2001, 37-44.
• Farris, B.D. “Defining a Combat Decision-Making Process at the Tactical Level of War
and Operations Other than War.” MMAS, U.S. Army Command and General Staff
College, Ft. Leavenworth, KS, 1995.
• Field, Kimberly C. and Robert M. Perito. “Creating a Force for Peace Operations:
Ensuring Stability with Justice.” Parameters (Winter 2002/2003): 77. Database on-
line. Available from ProQuest. Accessed 15 January 2004.
• Filiberti, Edward J., How the Army Runs: A Senior Leader Reference Handbook,
2003-2004 . Carlisle, PA; U. S. Army War College Department of Command,
Leadership and Management, 2003.
• Fitzgerald, Catherine and Linda K. Kirby, Developing Leaders. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-
Black Publishers, 1997.
• Fulmer, Robert M., and Marshall Goldsmith. The Leadership Investment: How the
World’s Best Organizations Gain Strategic Advantage Through Leadership
Development. New York, NY: American Management Association, 2001.
• Furtwengler, Dale. Performance Appraisals: 10 Minute Guide . Indianapolis: Alpha
• Gabriel, Richard A. and Karen S. Metz. A Short History of War: The Evolution of
Warfare and Weapons. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies
Institute, 30 June 1992.
• Gabel, Christopher R. “The Leavenworth Staff College: A historical overview,”
Military Review (September/October 1997): pp.98-102.
• Gaddis, John L. Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American
National Security Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
• Galvin, John R. “What’s the Matter with Being a Strategist?,” Parameters (Summer
1995): pp. 161-168.
• Gentry, John A. “Doomed to Fail.” Parameters, Winter 2002/2003. Database on-line.
Available from ProQuest. Accessed 15 January 2004.
• Gergin, David. Eyewitness to Power: The Essence of Leadership (Nixon to Clinton).
New York: Simon and Shuster, 2000.
• Gerras, Stephen, William Kidd, Robert Pricone, Richard Swengros, and Leonard
Wong. Strategic Leadership Competencies. Carlisle Barracks: Strategic Studies
Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2002.
• Giambastiani, E.P. Remarks Presented to AFCEA West “Born Joint?” Conference.
Available from http://www.jfcom.mil/newslink/storyarchive/2004/sp021004.htm .
• Giber, David, Louis L. Carter, and Marshall Goldsmith, eds. Linkage Inc.’s Best
Practices in Leadership Development Handbook . San Francisco: Jossey-
Bass/Pfeiffer and Linkage Inc., 2000.
• Goerlitz, Walter. History of the German General Staff 1657-1945. New York: Barnes
and Noble Books, 1995.
• Goffee, Rob, and Gareth Jones. The Character of Corporations: How Your
Company’s Culture Can Make or Break Your Business. New York: Harper Business,
• Goleman, Daniel. “Emotional Intelligence: Issues in Paradigm Building.” 30 June
2003. Available from <http://www.eiconsortium.org/research/ei_issues_in_paradign
_building.htm>. Internet. Accessed 29 September 2003.
• Goleman, Daniel, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee, Primal Leadership, Realizing
the Power of Emotional Intelligence. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002.
• Hire Success, Developing Hiring Standards, The Untapped Wealth of Information in
Your Office. Available from http://www.hiresuccess.com/establishing-baseline-
personality-profiles.htm . Internet. Accessed 14 September 2003.
• Gouge, Jeffry A. Air Force Mentoring: The Potential Protégé’s Perspective. Wright-
Patterson Air Force Base: U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology, September 1986.
• Griffith, Samuel B. trans. Sun Tzu, The Art of War. New York: Oxford University
• Guderian, Heinz. Achtung-Panzer! Trans. Christopher Duffy. London: Arms and
Armour Press, 1993.
• ________. Panzer Leader. Trans. Constantine Fitzgibbon. New York: E. P. Dutton,
1952. Hofstadter, Richard. Anti-intellectualism in American Life . New York: Alfred A.
• Halberstam, David. War in a Time of Peace: Bush, Clinton, and the Generals. New
York: Scribner, 2001.
• Hammes, T.X., Sling and Stone: On War in the 21st
Century (MN: Zenith Press,
• Hanrieder, Wolfram, F. Dictionary of Security and Defense Term. Boulder: Westview
• Hays, Peter L., Brenda J. Vallance, and Alan R. Van Tassel, eds. American Defense
Policy. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.
• Harris, S.G. “Organizational Culture and Individual Sensemaking: A Schema-Based
Perspective.” Organizational Science, 5 March 1994, 309-321.
• Hedge, John W., and William C. Borman. “Changing Conceptions and Practices in
Performance Appraisal.” In Frontiers of Industrial and Organizational Psychology: The
Changing Nature of Work , ed. Ann Howard, 145-150. New York, Josey-Bass, 1995.
• Hesselbein, Frances, Marshall Goldsmith, and Iain Somerville, eds. Leading Beyond
the Walls. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1999
• Higgs, M.J., and S.V.D. Dulewicz. “Emotional Intelligence: A Review and Evaluation
Study.” Journal of Managerial Psychology 15 (October 2000): 341-368.
• Higgs, M. J., and S.V.D. Dulewicz, Making Sense of Emotional Intelligence. Windsor:
• Howard, Michael and Peter Paret, eds. On War. Princeton: Princeton University
• Hundley, Richard O. “Past Revolutions, Future Transformations: What Can the
History of Revolutions in Military Affairs Tell Us About Transforming the U.S.
Military?” Rand Report MR-1029-DARPA. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1999. 21-34.
• Huntington, Samuel, The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Practice of Civilian-
Military Relations. New York: Vintage Books, 1957.
• Huntington, Samuel P. “The Clash of Civilizations?” Foreign Affairs (Summer 1993):
22. Database on-line. Available from ProQuest. Accessed 15 January 2004.
• Ikenberry, G. John. America’s Alliances in the Age of Unipolarity. Unpublished paper
for U.S. Army War College XIV Strategy Conference, Carlisle PA, April 2003.
• Isenberg, David and Ivan Eland. “Empty Promises Why the Bush Administration’s
Half –Hearted Attempts at Defense Reform Have Failed.” Policy Analysis. 442 (11
June 2002), 2-20.
• Jablonsky, David. “Army Transformation: A Tale of Two Doctrines.” In Transforming
Defense, ed. Conrad C. Crane, 45-88. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College,
Strategic Studies Institute, December 2001.
• Jannowitz, Morris, The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait. New York:
Vintage Books, 1971.
• Jannowitz, Morris, and Roger W. Little. Sociology and the Military Establishment.
London, England: Sage Publications, 1974.
• Jelonek, Mark P. Toward an Air and Space Force: Naval Aviation and the
Implications for Sea-Power. Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, 1999.
• Johnson, David E. Preparing Potential Senior Army Leaders for the Future. Santa
Monica, CA: RAND Arroyo Center, September 2002.
• Johnson, David E. Fast Tanks and Heavy Bombers. Ithaca, New York: Cornell
University Press, 1998.
• Johnson, V.E. Development of the National War College and Peer Institutions: A
Comparative Study of the Growth and Interrelationship of U.S. Military Senior
Services Colleges. Washington, D.C.: National War College, 1982.
• Kagan Frederick W. “The Art of War.” The New Criterion Journal on-line. Available
from http://host45.ipowerweb.com/-newcrite/cgi-bin/printpage.php . Internet.
Accessed 14 January 2004.
• Kagan, Frederick W. “A Dangerous Transformation.” Opinion Journal. Journal on-line.
Available from http://www.opinionjournal.com/extra/?id=110004289 . Internet.
Accessed 16 January 2004.
• Kagan, Frederick W. “Did We Fail in Afghanistan?” Commentary Magazine, March
• Kagan, Frederick W. “War and Aftermath.” Policy Review Online August and
September 2003. Journal on-line. Available from
http://www.policyreview.org/aug03/kagan_print.html. Internet. Accessed 14 January
• Kagan, Frederick W. “Why Our Troops Should Stay in ‘Old Europe’,” Commentary
Magazine, May 2003, 30-34.
• Kaplan, Robert D. “The Coming Anarchy.” The Atlantic Online. Journal on-line.
Available from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/foreign/anarchy.htm . Internet.
Accessed 5 February 2004.
• Kelleher, Patrick N. “Crossing Boundaries: Interagency Cooperation and the Military.”
Joint Force Quarterly (Autumn 2002): 104-110.
• Kiely, Timothy. P., and Duane A. Dannewitz. “Force XXI: MI Officer Professional
Development.” Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin, no 2 (1996): 12-16.
• Kirksey, Jayart, “Companies Evaluate Employees from All Perspectives.” Personnel
Journal Online August 2000. Journal on-line. Available from <http://wwww.quality.
org/tqmbbs/tools- techs/360pa.txt>. Internet. Accessed 13 September 2003.
• Knox, MacGregor and Williamson Murray, eds. The Dynamics of Military Revolution
1300-2050. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
• Kolenda, Christopher D., Leadership: The Warrior’s Art. Carlisle Barracks: U. S. Army
War College Foundation Press, 2001
• Kotter, John P. Leading Change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1996.
• Korb, L.J. The System for Educating Military Officers in the U.S. Pittsburgh:
International Studies Association, 1976.
• Kouzes, James M., and Barry Z. Posner. The Leadership Challenge, 3rd ed. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2002.
• Krepinevich, Andrew F. “The Army and Land Warfare: Transforming the Legions.”
Joint Force Quarterly (Autumn 2002): 76-82.
• Krulak, Charles C. “Cultivating Intuitive Decisionmaking.” Available from
OpenDocument>. Internet. Accessed 27 Sep 03.
• Krulak, Victor H. First to Fight: An Inside View of the U.S. Marine Corps. Annapolis,
MD: Naval Institute Press, 1984.
• Kugler, Richard L. and Hans Binnendijk. “Choosing a Strategy.” In Transforming
America’s Military, ed. Hans Binnendijk. Washington, D.C.: National Defense
University Press, 2002.
• Langton, Christopher, ed. The Military Balance 2003, 2004. London: Oxford
University Press for The International Institute for Strategic Studies, October 2003.
• Lee, Robert J., and Sara N. King. Discovering the Leader in You: A Guide to
Realizing Your Personal Leadership Potential. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.,
• Limerick, D., Cunnington, B. & Crowther, F. Managing the New Organization:
Collaboration and Sustainability in the Post-Corporate World. Warriewood: Business
and Professional Publishing, 1988.
• Lloyd, Richmond M., ed. Strategy and Force Planning. Newport: Naval War College
• Locher, James L. III. “Taking Stock of Goldwater-Nichols.” Joint Force Quarterly
(Spring 2003): 34-40.
• Lovelace, Douglas C. Jr. The Evolution in Military Affairs: Shaping the Future U.S.
Armed Forces. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute,
16 June 1997.
• MacGregor, Douglas A. Transformation Under Fire: Revolutionizing How America
Fights. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2003.
• Mackenzie, J.J.G., ed. The British Army and the Operational Level of War. London:
Tri-Service Press, 1989.
• Macksey, Kenneth. “Guderian.” In Hitler’s Generals, ed. Correlli Barnett, 441-460.
New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1989.
• ________. Guderian: Panzer General. London: Greenhill Books, 1992. Messenger,
Charles. The Blitzkrieg Story. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976.
• Magee, Roderick R. II, ed. Strategic Leadership Primer. Carlisle Barracks:
Department of Command, Leadership, and Management, U.S. Army War College,
• Margrave, Adele, and Robert Gorden. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Performance
Appraisals. Indianapolis: Alpha Books, 2001.
• Martin, Gregg F., George E. Reed, Ruth B. Collins, and Cortez K. Dial. “The Road to
Mentoring: Paved with Good Intentions.” Parameters 32 (Autumn 2002): 115-127.
• Maxwell, John C. Developing the Leader Within You. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, Inc.,
• Masland, J.W. Soldiers and Scholars: Military Education and National Policy.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957.
• Mahy, Martin. “Teaching Intuition at De La Salle College.” 9 January 1999. Available
from <http://email@example.com . Internet. Accessed 3
• Martin, Gregg F., and Jeffrey D. McCausland. “The Role of Strategic Leaders for the
Future Army Profession.” In The Future of the Army Profession , ed. Don M. Snider
and Gayle L. Watkins, 431. New York: McGraw-Hill Co., 2002).
• Marutollo, Frank. “A Good Bowl of ‘Chowder’ Saved Marine Corps Following WWII.”
Marine Corps Gazette. December 1978, 22-33.
• Matthews, Lloyd J., ed. Challenging the United States Symmetrically and
Asymmetrically: Can America be Defeated? Carlisle Barrack: U.S. Army War College,
Strategic Studies Institute, July 1998.
• Matthews, Lloyd J. “The Uniformed Intellectual and His Place in American Arms, Part
I.” Army Magazine, July 2002, 17-25.
• ________. “The Uniformed Intellectual and His Place in American Arms, Part II.”
Army Magazine, August 2002, 31-40.
• Matthews, William. “Is the U.S. Military Too Small?” Defense News, 12 January 2004.
Internet. Accessed 12 January 2004.
• Maxwell, John. C. The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership Workbook . Nashville:
Thomas Nelson, Inc., 2002.
• ________. The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership: Follow Them and People will
Follow You . Nashville: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 1998.
• ________. The Right to Lead. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, Inc., 2001 May, Karen. E.,
“Work in the 21 st Centruy: Implications for Performance Management,” Society for
Industrial and Organizational Psychology Online July 1996. Journal on-line. Available
from http://siop.org/tip/backissues/TIPJul 96/May.HTM>. Internet. Accessed 3
• McAdam, N., 2001. “A Brain Styles Model of Change Responsiveness and distributed
leadership in 21st Century Network Organizations.” International Journal of
Organizational Behavior Vol 5, No 7 (November 2002): 213-241.
• McCauley, Cynthia D., Russ S. Moxley, and Ellen Van Velsor, The Center for
Creative Leadership Handbook of Leadership Development. Greensboro, NC: Center
for Creative Leadership, 1998.
• McGee, Michael L., T. Owen Jacobs, Robert N. Kilcullan, and Herbert F. Barber,
“Conceptional Capacity as Competitive Advantage: Developing Leaders for the New
Army.” In Out of the Box Leadership: Transforming the Twenty-First Century Army
and Other Top- Performing Organizations, ed. James G. Hunt, George Dodge, and
Leonard Wong, 235. Stamford, Conn: JAI Press, Inc., 1999
• Meigs, Montgomery C. “Unorthodox Thoughts About Asymmetric Warfare.”
Parameters (Summer 2003): 4-18.
• Merton, R.K. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press, 1964.
• Mintzberg, Henry. The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning: Reconceiving Roles for
Planning, Plans, Planners. New York: The Free Press, 1994.
• Moskos, Charles C., and Frank R. Wood, The Military: More Than Just a Job?
Washington, D.C.: Pergamon-Brassey’s International Defense Publishers, 1988.
• Murray, Williamson. “Armored Warfare: the British, French, and German
Experiences.” In Military Innovation in the Interwar Period , ed. Williamson Murray
and Allan R. Millett, 6-49. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
• ________. “May 1940: Contingency and fragility of the German RMA.” In The
Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050, ed. MacGregor Knox and Williamson
Murray, 154-174. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
• Murray, Williamson and Knox, MacGregor. “The future behind us.” in The Dynamics
of Military Revolution, 1300-2050, ed. MacGregor Knox and Williamson Murray,
Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
• Murray, Williamson. “The Army’s Advanced Strategic Art Program,” Parameters 4
(Winter 2000/2001), pp.31-40.
• Murray, Williamson. “Innovation: Past and Future.” Joint Force Quarterly (Spring
• Murray, Williamson. “The Evolution of Joint Warfare.” Joint Force Quarterly (Summer
• Naveh, Shimon. In Pursuit of Military Excellence: The Evolution of Operational
Theory. London: The Cummings Center Series, 1997.
• Naylor, Sean. Not a Good Day to Die: The Untold Story of Operation Anaconda.
Berkeley Hardcover, March 2005.
• Nenninger, T.K. a Brief Account of the Evolution of the Regular Course at the U.S.
Army Command and General Staff College. Ft. Leavenworth: U.S. Army Command
and General Staff College, 1988.
• Nenninger, Timothy K. “Leavenworth and its critics: The U.S. Army Command and
General Staff School, 1920-1940,” Journal of Military History (April 1994), pp.199-
• Neustadt, Richard E. Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents: The Politics of
Leadership from Roosevelt to Reagan. New York: The Free Press, 1990.
• Nicholls, J., “Beyond Situational Leadership – Congruent and Transforming Models
for Leadership Training.” European Management Journal Vol 4, no. 1 (Spring 1986):
• Noonan, Michael. P., and Mark R. Lewis. “Conquering the Elements: Thoughts on
Joint Force (Re)Organization.” Parameters Vol 33, no. 3 (Autumn 2003): 31-45.
• “Online Learning of Complex Skills.” United States Army Research Institute
Newsletter Vol 12, Number 1 (Winter 2002): 11.
• Owens, William A. “Making the Joint Journey.” Joint Force Quarterly (Spring 2003):
• Owens, William A. “The Once and Future Revolution in Military Affairs.” Joint Force
Quarterly (Summer 2002): 55-61.
• Pascarella, Perry J., “We’ve let technocrats lead us astray.” Management Review Vol
86, Iss 8 (September 1997): 30-33.
• Paret, Peter. “Clausewitz.” In Makers of Modern Strategy from Machiavelli to the
Nuclear Age, ed. Peter Paret, 186-213. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University
• ________. Clausewitz and the State. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press,
• ________. Understanding War. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press,
• Pearson Assessments, Clinical and Career Assessments. Available from
http://www.pearsonassessments.com/assessments/categories/safety.htm . Internet.
Accessed 14 September 2003.
• Pelz, Donald C., and Frank M. Andrews. Scientists in Organizations: Productive
Climates for Research and Development. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press,
• “Performance Management Practitioner Series: 360-Degree Assessment: An
Overview,” September 1997. Available from
<http://www.opm.govperform/wppd/360assess.pdf>. Internet. Accessed 15 October
• Perkins, D. N. The Mind’s Best Work . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press,
• Peters, T. J., and R. H. Waterman Jr. In Search of Excellence: Lessons from
America’s Best Run Companies. New York: Harper and Row, 1982.
• Peters, Ralph. Beyond Baghdad: Postmodern War and Peace. Mechanicsburg, PA:
Stackpole Books, 2003.
• Phillips, T.R., Brig. Gen., ed. Roots of Strategy: Book 1. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books,
• Powell, Colin. My American Journey. New York: Ballintine Books, 1996.
• Preston, R.A. Perspectives in the History of Military Education and Professionalism.
Colorado Springs: U.S. Air Force Academy, 1980.
• Posen, Barry R. The Sources of Military Doctrine: France, Britain, and Germany
• Posen, Barry. “Command of the Commons.” International Security (Summer 2003): 5-
• Psychological Testing, What Makes a Good Test? . Available from
http://www.psychologicaltesting.com/val.htm . Internet. Accessed 14 September
• Record, Jeffrey. Bounding the Global War on Terrorism. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army
War College, Strategic Studies Institute, December 2003.
• Rice, Condoleezza. “Promoting the National Interest.” Foreign Affairs
(January/February 2000): 45. Database on-line. Available from ProQuest. Accessed
15 January 2004.
• Ricks, Thomas, “The Widening Gap Between the Military and Society.” Atlantic
Monthly, July 1997, 66-78.
• Riedel, Dr Sharon, “Critical Thinking for Army Schoolhouse and Distant Learning,”
Army Research Institute, Fall 2004. Accessed 01 December 2004.
• Rogers, Clifford J. “’As if a new sun had risen’: England’s fourteenth-century RMA.”
In The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050 , ed. MacGregor Knox and
Williamson Murray, 15-34. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
• Rosanoff, Nancy. “Intuition Comes of Age: Workplace Applications of Intuitive Skill for
Occupational and Environmental Health Nurses”, April 1999. Journal on-line.
Available from <http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?
cmd=reetrieve&db=PubMed&list uids=10418345>. Internet. Accessed 28 August
• Rosen, Stephen Peter. Winning the Next War: Innovation and the Modern Military.
• Rowan, Roy. The Intuitive Manager. Boston: Little, Brown Publishers, 1986.
• Roxborough, Ian. “From Revolution to Transformation: The State of the Field.” Joint
Force Quarterly (Autumn 2002): 68-75.
• Rudman, Warren B., Richard A. Clarke, and Jamie F. Metzl. Emergency Responders:
Drastically Underfunded, Dangerously Unprepared. Report of an Independent Task
Force Sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations. New York: Council on Foreign
• Rumsfeld, Donald H. “Transforming the Military,” Foreign Affairs (May/Jun 2002): 20-
• Rumsfeld, Donald. “Secretary Rumsfeld Speaks on ‘21 st Century Transformation’ of
U.S. Armed Forces.” Transcript of remarks and question and answer period. Fort
McNair, Washington D.C., National Defense University, 31 January 2002.
• Scales, Robert H. America’s Army in Transition: Preparing for War in the Precision
Age. Army Issue Paper No. 3. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, Strategic
Studies Institute, November 1999.
• Scales, Robert H. America’s Army: Preparing for Tomorrow’s Security Challenges.
Army Issue Paper No. 2. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies
Institute, November 1998.
• Schrader, John Y., Leslie Lewis, and Roger Allen Brown. “Quadrennial Defense
Review 2001.” Documented briefing. Santa Monica, CA: National Defense Research
Institute, RAND, 2003.
• Scobell, Andrew, ed. The Costs of Conflict: The Impact on China of a Future War.
• Shamir, Boaz, and Eyal Ben-Ari. “Leadership in an Open Army? Civilian Connections,
Interorganizational Frameworks, and Changes in Military Leadership.” In Out of the
Box Leadership: Transforming the Twenty-First Century Army and Other Top
Performing Organizations, ed. James G. Hunt, George Dodge, and Leonard Wong,
Stamford, Conn: JAI Press, Inc., 1999.
• Shelburne, J.C. Education in the Armed Forces. New York: Center for Applied
Research in Education, 1965.
• Simons, W.E. Professional Military Education in the United States: A Historical
Dictionary. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2000.
• Snider, Don. M., 2003, “Jointness, Defense Transformation, and the Need for a New
Joint Warfare Profession.” Parameters Vol 33, no 3 (Autumn 2003): 17-30.
• Snider, Don. M., and Gayle L. Watkins. The Future of the Army Profession. New
York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002.
• Snoke, Elizabeth, R. The Operational Level of War: A Bibliography. Ft. Leavenworth:
Combat Studies Institute, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1985.
• Starck, Peter. “General Calls For Separate Defenses.” Washington Times, 20
January 2004, p. 15. Available
Internet. Accessed 20 January 2004.
• Stone, Paul. “Transformation: Why You Should Care.” American Forces Press
Service. 31 December 2003.
• Stratford, Sherman, “Leaders Learn to Heed the Voice Within.” Fortune, 22 August
1994, 92- 98.
• Szvetecz, Thomas S. Global Strategic Task Force: A Strategic Renaissaance.
Research Report. Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: ACSC Air University, April 2001.
• Taylor, Robert L. and William E. Rosenback, Military Leadership: In Pursuit of
Excellence . Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2000.
• Tesolin, Arupa. L. “How to Develop the Habit of Intuition”, Training & Development
Vol 54, Iss 3 (March 2000): 76-79.
• Totten, Herman. L., and Ronald L. Keys. “The Road to Success.” Library Trends Vol
43, Iss 1 (Summer 1994): 34
• Turnow, Walter W., Manuel London, and CCL Associates, Maximizing the Value of
360-Degree Feedback . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1998.
• Ulmer, Walter F., Jr., Inside View: A Leader’s Observations on Leadership .
Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership, 1997.
• ________. Military Leadership into the 21st Century: Another “Bridge Too Far?”,
Parameters, Spring 1998. Available from http://carlislewww.
army.mil/usawc/parameters/98spring/ulmer.htm . Internet. Accessed 21 September
• Ulrich, M.P. “Infusing Civil-Military Relations norms in the Officer Corps.” In The
Future of the Army Profession, ed. Don M. Snider and Gayle L. Watkins, 248. New
York: McGraw Hill Primus Custom Publishing, 2002.
• U.S. Department of Defense. Battlespace Awareness: Functional Concept. V 2.1.
Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense, February 2004.
• U.S. Department of Defense. Directions for Defense: Report of the Commission on
Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces. Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense,
24 May 1995.
• U.S. Department of Defense. Directive Number 5100.1. Washington, D.C.:
Department of Defense, 1 August 2002.
• U.S. Department of Defense. Draft Joint Battle Management Command and Control
Roadmap. Draft Version 1.2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Army, 12
• U.S. Department of Defense. Focused Logistics Joint Functional: Concept.
Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense, December, 2003.
• U.S. Department of Defense. Force Application Functional Concept. Washington,
D.C.: Department of Defense, February 2004.
• U.S. Department of Defense. Joint Command and Control: Functional Concept.
Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense, February, 2004.
• U.S. Department of Defense. Joint Operations Concepts. Washington, D.C.:
Department of Defense, November 2003.
• U.S. Department of Defense. Joint Transformation Roadmap. Pre-Decision Draft.
Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense, 3 November 2003.
• U.S. Department of Defense. Major Combat Operations Joint Operating Concept.
Version 0.9, Draft Working Paper. Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense, 16
• U.S. Department of Defense. Military Transformation: A Strategic Approach.
Washington, D.C.: Director, Force Transformation, Office of the Secretary of Defense,
• U.S. Department of Defense. Protection Joint Functional Concept. Version 1.0.
Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense, 31 December 2003.
• U.S. Department of Defense. Quadrennial Defense Review Report. Washington,
D.C.: Department of Defense, 30 September 2001.
• U.S. Department of Defense. Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on
DoD Logistics Transformation, Volume 2. Washington, D.C.: Department of Defense,
• U.S. Department of Defense. Stability Operations Joint Operating Concept. Version
0.85, Draft Working Paper Pending USJFCOM/J9 Approval. Washington, D.C.:
Department of Defense, 16 December 2003.
• U.S. Department of Defense. The Defense Science Board 1998 Summer Study Task
Force on DoD Logistics Transformation, Volume 1, Final Report. Washington, D.C.:
Department of Defense, December 1998.
• U.S. Department of Defense. The Defense Science Board 1998 Summer Study Task
Force on Joint Operations Superiority in the 21st Century, Volume 1. Washington,
• U.S. Department of Defense. Training Transformation Implementation Plan.
Washington, D.C.: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and
Readiness, 10 June 2003.
• U.S. Department of Defense. Transformation Planning Guidance. Washington, D.C.:
Department of Defense, April 2003.
• U.S. Department of the Air Force. Air Force Basic Doctrine. Air Force Doctrine
Document 1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Air Force, September 1997.
• U.S. Department of the Air Force. America’s Air Force: Vision 2020. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Department of the Air Force, 2003.
• U.S. Department of the Air Force. The USAF Transformation Flight Plan. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Department of the Air Force, 2003.
• Department of the Army. Army Leadership. Army Regulation 600-100. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Department of the Army, 17 September 1993.
• ________. ATLDP Officer Study Report to the Army. Available from
<http://www.army.mil/ features/ATLD/ATLD.htm>. Internet. Accessed 18 January
• ________. Battle Focused Training. Field Manual 7-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Department of the Army, September 2003.
• ________. Commissioned Officer Development and Career Management.
Department of the Army Pamphlet 600-3. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the
Army, 1 October 1998.
• ________. “FY04 Pre-Command Course: Evaluation and Reporting Systems.”
• ________. Leader Development for America’s Army. Department of the Army
Pamphlet 350-58. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Army, 13 October 1994.
• ________. Army Transformation Roadmap 2003. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department
of the Army, 2003.
• ________. The Army Future Force: Decisive 21st Century Landpower. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Department of the Army, 26 August 2003.
• ________. The Army in 2020 White Paper. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the
Army, 1 November 2003.
• ________. The Army. Army Field Manual 1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of
the Army, 14 June 2001.
• ________. Military Personnel Management. Army Regulation 600-8. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Department of the Army, 1 October 1989.
• ________. MILPER MSG 02-220, “Refinements to Officer Evaluation Reporting
System (OERS”) (issued 08/07/2002). Database on-line. Available from
<https://perscomnd04.army.mil/milpermsgs.nsf >. Internet. Accessed 29 January
• ________. Mission Command: Command and Control of Army Forces. Field Manual
6-0. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Army, 11 August 2003.
• ________. Officer Evaluation Reporting System . Army Regulation 623-105.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Army, 1 April 1998.
• ________. Officer Promotions. Army Regulation 600-8-29. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Department of the Army, 30 November 1994.
• ________. The Way Ahead: Relevant and Ready. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Department of the Army, 2003.
• U.S. Department of the Navy. Naval Power 21…A Naval Vision. Washington, D.C.:
U.S. Department of the Navy, October 2002.
• U.S. Department of the Navy. Naval Transformation Roadmap: Power and Access…
From the Sea. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Navy, 2003. 34
• U.S. Department of the Navy. Naval Warfare. Naval Doctrine Publication 1.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Air Force, 28 March 1994.
• U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Vision 2020. Washington, D.C.: US Government
Printing Office, June 2000.
• U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and
Associated Terms. Joint Publication 1-02. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Joint Chiefs of
Staff, 12 April 2001.
• U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Doctrine for Joint Operations. Joint Publication 3-0.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 10 September 2001.
• U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Doctrine for Campaign Plainning. Joint Publication 5-
00.1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 25 January 2002.
• U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Doctrine for Military Operations Other Than War. Joint
Pub 3 -07. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 16 June 1995.
• U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Force Capabilities. Joint Publication 3-33.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 13 October 1999.
• U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Joint Warfare of the US Armed Forces. Joint Pub 1.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, 11 November 1991.
• U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Operation of the Joint Capabilities Integration and
Development System. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, available from
accessed 14 January 2004.
• Ullman, Harlan K. and James P. Wade with L.A. “Bud” Edney, Fred M. Franks,
Charles A. Horner, Jonathan T. Howe, and Keith Brendley. Shock and Awe:
Achieving Rapid Dominance. Washington, D.C.: National Defense University, Institute
for National Strategic Studies, (ACTIS), November 1996.
• Vaughn, F. Awakening Intuition. Garden City: Anchor Books, 1979.
• Van Creveld, M.L. The Training of Officers: From Military Professionalism to
Irrelevance. New York: The Free Press, 1990.
• Vandergriff, Donald, “Revolution in Human Affairs,” unpublished brief, Defense and
National Interest, October 2000, available from
• Vandergriff, Donald, Path to Victory: America’s Army and the Revolution in Human
Affairs, Novato, VA: Presidio Press, May 2002.
• Vandergriff, Donald, “Achieving Parallel Evolution: A Critical Examination of ‘The Way
Ahead,” unpublished paper presented to MG Casey, October 2002.
• ______________, ed., Spirit, Blood and Treasure: The American Cost of Battle in the
Century, Novato, CA: Presidio Press, June 2001.
• ____________, “Learn from the Past Before It Is Too Late,” July 21, 2003,
• _____________, “Effective Personnel,” August 28, 2003,
• _____________, “A Failed System” September 12, 2003,
• _____________, “Put Everyone on the Line, By God!” September 15, 2003,
• ______________, ”Military Education - Tools exist now, just use them” January 6,
• _____________, “Military Education - We Are Stuck in the Past” January 13, 2005,
• Vane, Michael A. and Robert M, Toguchi. “The Enduring Relevance of Landpower:
Flexibility and Adaptability for Joint Campaigns.” The Land Warfare Papers 44
Arlington, VA: AUSA,(October 2003).
• Von Oech, R. A Whack on the Side of the Head. New York: Warner Books, 1983.
• Walker, Wallace E. Changing Organizational Culture: Strategy, Structure, and
Professionalism in the U.S. General Accounting Office. Knoxville: University of
Tennessee Press, 1986.
• Wallach, Jehuda L. The Dogma of the Battle of Annihilation . Westport, Connecticut:
Greenwood Press, 1986.
• Wass de Czege, Huba and Antulio J. Echevarria II. “Landpower and Future Strategy:
Insights from the Army after Next.” Joint Force Quarterly (Spring 1999): 62-69.
• Wass de Czege, Huba and Antulio J. Echevarria II. Toward a Strategy of Positive
Ends. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute,
• Weigley, Russell. The American Way of War: A History of United States Military
Strategy and Policy. Bloomington, Indiana, University of Indiana Press, 1977.
• White, Charles E. The Enlightened Soldier: Scharnhorst and the Militärische
Gesellschaft in Berlin, 1801-1805. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1989.
• Wilson, Peter A., John Gordon IV, and David E. Johnson. “An Alternative Future
Force: Building a Better Army.” Parameters (Winter 2003/2004): 19. Database on-
line. Available from ProQuest. Accessed 15 January 2004.
• Wishnick, Elizabeth. Growing U.S. Security Interests in Central Asia. Carlisle
Barracks: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, October 2002.
• Wong, Leonard. Stifling Innovation: Developing Tomorrow’s Leaders Today. Carlisle,
PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2002.
• Worley, D. Robert. W(H)ither Corps? Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College,
Strategic Studies Institute, August 2001.
• Yoshihara, Toshi. Chinese Information Warfare: A Phantom Menace Or Emerging
Threat? Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute,
• Zwaenepoel, William, Michael Terk, Joseph Cavallaro, and Leslie Miller. “A Web-
Based Engineering Design Tutor.” Rice University Center for Technology in Teaching
and Learning Online May 2002. Executive Summary from Carneige Mellon research
grant application. Available from <http://www.citi.rice.edu/research/mellon.shtml>.
Internet. Accessed 3 September 2004.