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SECOND MESSENGERs
CAMP
cGMP
Faraza Javed
PhD Pharmacology
secondMESSENGERS
Second messengers are intracellular signaling
molecules released by the cell to trigger physiological
cha...
 Examples of second messengers include cyclic AMP,
cyclic GMP, Inositol trisphosphate, Diacylglycerol
and Calcium.
 Rele...
 The first messengers such as peptide hormones,
neurotransmitters usually do not physically cross the
phospholipid bilaye...
 Second messengers greatly amplify the strength of the
signal.
 Activate or inhibit the target enzymes of the pathway.
History
 Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr. discovered secondary
messengers.
 He saw that epinephrine stimulate glycogenolysis i...
Common mechanisms of second messenger
systems
There are several different secondary messenger systems
(cAMP system, phosph...
Types Of SecondMessenger Molecules
 Three basic types of second messenger
molecules:
 Hydrophobic molecules:
membrane-as...
1. cAMP
 cAMP is a second
messenger, synthesized
from ATP by enzyme
adenylyl cyclase.
 Adenylate cyclase is
activated by...
Cyclic AMP generated by adenylyl cyclases has three
major targets in most cells,
 The cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase...
PKA REGULATION by cAMP
 The most common downstream
effector of cAMP is Protein kinase
A(PKA).
 PKA is normally inactive ...
 PKA can phosphorylate a diverse array of
physiological targets such as metabolic enzymes and
transport proteins, and num...
cAMP Response Element-Binding (CREB)Protein
Cellular transcription factor e.g. the neurotrophin
BDNF, tyrosine hydroxylase...
 Protein synthesis-PKA
directly activate CREB,
which bind the cAMP
response element
(CRE). The activated
CREB protein the...
 CREB has many functions in many different organs,
and some of its functions have been studied in relation
to the brain. ...
Cyclic AMP–Regulated Guanine Nucleotide Exchange
Factors
The small GTP-binding proteins are monomeric GTPases
and key regu...
 For example, many small GTPases are regulated by GEFs
(Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors). GEFs act by
binding to the ...
 These pathways play major role in Cell
differentiation/proliferation, cytoskeletal organization,
vesicular trafficking &...
TherapeuticApplications
Selected Drugs that target cAMP signalling
Drug cAMP Therapeutic Application
Salmeterol ↑ Asthma, ...
Metoprolol ↓ Angina, Hypertension,
CHF
Morphine ↓ Pain
Sumatriptan ↓ Migraine
Ibuprofen ↓ Inflammation, Pain
Ranitidine ↓ ...
Cyclicnucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs)
 Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases form another family
of important signali...
 Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is the predominant cAMP-
degrading enzyme expressed in inflammatory cells.
 cAMP helps regul...
Decrease in PDE4 increases cAMP, leads to increased
transcription of genes that have CRE sites, including the
gene for IL-...
 PDEs are drug targets for treatment of diseases such as
asthma, COPD, cardiovascular diseases such as heart
failure, ath...
Recent Development
 A new Second Messenger, c-di-AMP was
discovered in Staphylococcus aureus with a Role in
Controlling C...
 Most of work on c-di-AMP signaling has been done in
Gram-positive bacteria and actinobacteria, where c-di-AMP
signaling ...
cGMP
The signaling pathways that regulate the synthesis of
cyclic GMP in cells include hormonal regulation of
transmembran...
Unlike cAMP, cGMP has established signaling roles in
only few cell types
Signaling pathways that regulate synthesis includ...
 Nitric oxide (NO) is a
gas, diffuse through the
plasma membrane and
affect nearby cells.
 Synthesized from arginine
and...
 The function of NO is the
dilation of blood vessels.
 The acetylcholine
(neurotransmitter) acts on
endothelial cells to...
Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) exists as 4 isoforms:
 Neuronal type I isoform (nNOS)
 Inducible type II isoform (iNOS)
 En...
NOS constitutively expressed in:
eNOS
Endothelium, cardiac myocytes, renal mesangial cells,
osteoblasts, platelets and is ...
iNOS
Macrophages, Kupffer cells, neutrophils, fibroblasts,
vascular smooth muscle cells & endothelium and involved
in immu...
Natriuretic Peptide
3 small peptide ligands:
 Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
 Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)
 C-type...
The major physiological effects of these hormones are to
decrease blood pressure (ANP, BNP), to reduce cardiac
hypertrophy...
The transmembrane receptors for ANP, BNP, and CNP
are ligand-activated guanylate cyclases. The ANP and
BNP receptors conta...
 Ligand brings
juxtamembrane regions
together
Phosphorylation of
serine residues→
Stimulation of guanyl
cyclase
Downstream reactions of cGMP:
 Activation of Protein Kinase G
 cGMP gated ion channels
 cGMP-modulated Phosphodiesteras...
Therapeutic Applications
Selected Drugs that target cGMP signalling
Drug cGMP Therapeutic Application
Nitroglycerine NO Do...
BAY Series of
Compounds
BAY 41-2272
8-pCPT-cGMP
Riociguat (Adempas)
Specific
activators &
inhibitors of
PKG
Asthma
Graft s...
THANKYOU
Second messengers cAMP and cGMP
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Second messengers cAMP and cGMP

  1. 1. SECOND MESSENGERs CAMP cGMP Faraza Javed PhD Pharmacology
  2. 2. secondMESSENGERS Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell to trigger physiological changes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival, and apoptosis.  Second messengers are therefore one of the initiating components of intracellular signal transduction cascades.
  3. 3.  Examples of second messengers include cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, Inositol trisphosphate, Diacylglycerol and Calcium.  Releases in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules/ligands the first messenger, such as neurotransmitters, hormones (epinephrine, growth hormone and serotonin).
  4. 4.  The first messengers such as peptide hormones, neurotransmitters usually do not physically cross the phospholipid bilayers.  First messengers need to be transduced into secondary messengers, so that the extracellular signal may be propagated intracellularly.
  5. 5.  Second messengers greatly amplify the strength of the signal.  Activate or inhibit the target enzymes of the pathway.
  6. 6. History  Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr. discovered secondary messengers.  He saw that epinephrine stimulate glycogenolysis in liver cells, but epinephrine alone would not convert glycogen to glucose  He found that epinephrine had to trigger a secondary messenger, cyclic AMP for the liver to convert glycogen to glucose. He won the 1971 Nobel Prize in Medicine.
  7. 7. Common mechanisms of second messenger systems There are several different secondary messenger systems (cAMP system, phosphoinositol system), but they all are quite similar in overall mechanism, although the substances involved and overall effects can vary.
  8. 8. Types Of SecondMessenger Molecules  Three basic types of second messenger molecules:  Hydrophobic molecules: membrane-associated e.g. diacylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol  Hydrophilic molecules: water- soluble molecules, such as cAMP, cGMP, IP3, and Ca2+, located within the cytosol.  Gases: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which can diffuse both through cytosol and across cellular membranes.
  9. 9. 1. cAMP  cAMP is a second messenger, synthesized from ATP by enzyme adenylyl cyclase.  Adenylate cyclase is activated by stimulatory G (Gs)-protein-coupled receptors.  Inhibited by adenylate cyclase inhibitory G (Gi)-protein-coupled receptors.
  10. 10. Cyclic AMP generated by adenylyl cyclases has three major targets in most cells,  The cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA),  cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors termed EPACs (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP), and  via PKA phosphorylation, a transcription factor termed CREB (cAMP response element binding protein).
  11. 11. PKA REGULATION by cAMP  The most common downstream effector of cAMP is Protein kinase A(PKA).  PKA is normally inactive as tetrameric holoenzyme(two catalytic and two regulatory units).  The regulatory unit always block the catalytic center of catalytic unit.  Two cAMP molecules bind to each PKA regulatory subunit.  The regulatory subunit dissociate from the catalytic subunit.  The free catalytic subunits interact with proteins to phosphorylate Ser or Thr residues, thus producing cellular response.
  12. 12.  PKA can phosphorylate a diverse array of physiological targets such as metabolic enzymes and transport proteins, and numerous regulatory proteins including other protein kinases, regulation of glycogen, sugar, and lipid metabolism, ion channels, and transcription factors.
  13. 13. cAMP Response Element-Binding (CREB)Protein Cellular transcription factor e.g. the neurotrophin BDNF, tyrosine hydroxylase & many neuropeptides binds to certain DNA sequences called cAMP response elements (CRE) thereby increasing or decreasing the transcription of the downstream genes.
  14. 14.  Protein synthesis-PKA directly activate CREB, which bind the cAMP response element (CRE). The activated CREB protein then binds to a CRE region, and is then bound to CBP (CREB binding protein), which co- activates it, allowing it to switch certain genes on or off and altering the transcription.
  15. 15.  CREB has many functions in many different organs, and some of its functions have been studied in relation to the brain. CREB proteins in neurons are thought to be involved in the formation of long-term memories. CREB is also important for the survival of neurons, as studied in genetically engineered mice, where CREB and CREM were deleted in the brain. If CREB is lost in the whole developing mouse embryo, the mice die immediately after birth, again highlighting the critical role of CREB in promoting survival.
  16. 16. Cyclic AMP–Regulated Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors The small GTP-binding proteins are monomeric GTPases and key regulators of cell function. The small GTPases operate as binary switches that exist in GTP- or GDP- liganded conformations. They integrate extracellular signals from membrane receptors with cytoskeletal changes and activation of diverse signaling pathways, regulating such processes as phagocytosis, progression through the cell cycle, cell adhesion, gene expression, and apoptosis.
  17. 17.  For example, many small GTPases are regulated by GEFs (Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors). GEFs act by binding to the GDP-liganded GTPase and catalyzing the exchange of GDP for GTP.  The two GEFs regulated by cAMP are able to activate members of the Ras small GTPase family, Rap1 and Rap2; these GEFs are termed exchange proteins activated by cyclic AMP (EPAC-1 and EPAC-2). The EPAC pathway provides an additional effector system for cAMP signaling and drug action.
  18. 18.  These pathways play major role in Cell differentiation/proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, vesicular trafficking & nuclear transport.  Potential target for cancer therapy.
  19. 19. TherapeuticApplications Selected Drugs that target cAMP signalling Drug cAMP Therapeutic Application Salmeterol ↑ Asthma, COPD Haloperidol ↑ Schizophrenia Metoclopramide ↑ Nausea, Vomiting Desmopressin ↑ Diabetes Insipidus
  20. 20. Metoprolol ↓ Angina, Hypertension, CHF Morphine ↓ Pain Sumatriptan ↓ Migraine Ibuprofen ↓ Inflammation, Pain Ranitidine ↓ Peptic ulcer, GERD Misoprostol ↓ Prevention of NSAID ulcers Cabergoline ↓ Parkinson’s disease
  21. 21. Cyclicnucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs)  Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases form another family of important signaling proteins whose activities are regulated via the rate of gene transcription as well as by second messengers (cyclic nucleotides or Ca2+) and interactions with other signaling proteins such as β arrestin and protein kinases. PDEs hydrolyze the cyclic 3′,5′- phosphodiester bond in cAMP and cGMP, thereby terminating their action.
  22. 22.  Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is the predominant cAMP- degrading enzyme expressed in inflammatory cells.  cAMP helps regulate T cell function.  cAMP helps maintain immune homeostasis by suppressing the release of proinflammatory mediators (eg, TNF-α, IL- 17, and IFN-γ). cAMP promote the release of anti- inflammatory mediators (eg, IL-10) by immune cells.
  23. 23. Decrease in PDE4 increases cAMP, leads to increased transcription of genes that have CRE sites, including the gene for IL-10, which is an anti-inflammatory mediator.
  24. 24.  PDEs are drug targets for treatment of diseases such as asthma, COPD, cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, atherosclerotic coronary and peripheral arterial disease, and neurological disorders.
  25. 25. Recent Development  A new Second Messenger, c-di-AMP was discovered in Staphylococcus aureus with a Role in Controlling Cell Size and Envelope Stress. This work was published in the September 2011 Issue of PLoS Pathogens.
  26. 26.  Most of work on c-di-AMP signaling has been done in Gram-positive bacteria and actinobacteria, where c-di-AMP signaling pathways affect potassium transport, cell wall structure, and antibiotic resistance.  These findings greatly expand the c-di-AMP signaling role and reveal a central metabolic regulatory role for a cyclic dinucleotide.  However, the molecular mechanisms of c-di-AMP signaling are still poorly understood.
  27. 27. cGMP The signaling pathways that regulate the synthesis of cyclic GMP in cells include hormonal regulation of transmembrane guanylate cyclases such as the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor (ANP) and the activation of soluble forms of guanylate cyclase by nitric oxide (NO).
  28. 28. Unlike cAMP, cGMP has established signaling roles in only few cell types Signaling pathways that regulate synthesis include:  Nitric Oxide  Hormonal Regulation (ANP/BNP/CNP)
  29. 29.  Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas, diffuse through the plasma membrane and affect nearby cells.  Synthesized from arginine and oxygen by the NO synthase.  NO then activate soluble guanylyl cyclase, to produce cGMP. Nitric Oxide
  30. 30.  The function of NO is the dilation of blood vessels.  The acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) acts on endothelial cells to stimulate NO synthesis.  NO, diffuses to neighboring smooth muscle cells where it interacts with the guanylyl cyclase.  This increase enzymatic activity resulting in the synthesis of cGMP.  The cGMP then induces muscle relaxation and blood vessel dilation.
  31. 31. Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) exists as 4 isoforms:  Neuronal type I isoform (nNOS)  Inducible type II isoform (iNOS)  Endothelial type III isoform (eNOS)  Mitochondrial isoform (mtNOS)
  32. 32. NOS constitutively expressed in: eNOS Endothelium, cardiac myocytes, renal mesangial cells, osteoblasts, platelets and is involved with regulating vascular function (Vasodilation). nNOS CNS nerves and skeletal muscles, performs a role in cell communication and is associated with plasma membranes
  33. 33. iNOS Macrophages, Kupffer cells, neutrophils, fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle cells & endothelium and involved in immune defence against pathogens. mtNOS NO in the mitochondrial matrix may regulate ATP synthesis.
  34. 34. Natriuretic Peptide 3 small peptide ligands:  Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)  Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)  C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP) These peptides possess potent natriuretic, diuretic, and vasodilating activities and are implicated in body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure control.
  35. 35. The major physiological effects of these hormones are to decrease blood pressure (ANP, BNP), to reduce cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis (BNP), and to stimulate long bone growth (CNP).
  36. 36. The transmembrane receptors for ANP, BNP, and CNP are ligand-activated guanylate cyclases. The ANP and BNP receptors contain 450 amino acid extracellular domain that binds the peptide, a short 20 amino acid transmembrane domain, and large intracellular domains that contain a kinase homology region, and a C-terminal guanylate cyclase domain. Phosphorylation of serine residues in the kinase domain is important for activity; dephosphorylation of these residues leads to desensitization of the receptor.
  37. 37.  Ligand brings juxtamembrane regions together Phosphorylation of serine residues→ Stimulation of guanyl cyclase
  38. 38. Downstream reactions of cGMP:  Activation of Protein Kinase G  cGMP gated ion channels  cGMP-modulated Phosphodiesterase Pharmacologically important effects of elevated cyclic GMP include modulation of platelet activation and relaxation of smooth muscle. PDEs hydrolyze the cyclic 3′,5′-phosphodiester bond in cAMP and cGMP, thereby terminating their action.
  39. 39. Therapeutic Applications Selected Drugs that target cGMP signalling Drug cGMP Therapeutic Application Nitroglycerine NO Donor Angina Sodium Nitroprusside NO Donor Hypertensive Emergencies Nesiritide Synthetic BNP Acutely decompensated CHF Ecadotril ↑ BNP Congestive Heart Failure
  40. 40. BAY Series of Compounds BAY 41-2272 8-pCPT-cGMP Riociguat (Adempas) Specific activators & inhibitors of PKG Asthma Graft survival after liver & lung transplantation. Pulmonary Hypertension
  41. 41. THANKYOU
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Second messengers cAMP and cGMP and their downstream signals

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