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Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 1 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 2 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 3 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 4 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 5 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 6 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 7 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 8 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 9 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 10 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 11 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 12 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 13 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 14 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 15 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 16 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 17 Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer) Slide 18
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Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer)

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Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer), Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment options on the basis of staging.

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Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer)

  1. 1. Uterine Cancer Faraza Javed Ph.D Pharmacology
  2. 2. Uterine Cancer The terms uterine cancer may refer to any of several different types of cancer which occur in the uterus, namely:  Endometrial cancer: originate from cells in the glands of the endometrium (uterine lining).  Cervical cancer: arises from the transformation zone of the cervix, the lower portion of the uterus.
  3. 3. Pathophysiology Endometrial cancer forms when there are errors in normal endometrial cell growth. Usually, when cells grow old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. Cancer starts when new cells form unneeded and old or damaged cells do not die as they should.
  4. 4. These abnormal cancer cells have many genetic abnormalities that cause them to grow excessively. Mutations are found in a tumor suppressor gene, commonly p53 or over expression of PI3k/Akt kinase pathway, which promote cell growth in endometrial cancer.
  5. 5. Risk Factors  Increased estrogen  Hormone therapy  Obesity  Estrogen secreting tumors  Older age  Infertility  Genetics
  6. 6.  Lynch syndrome (Hereditary colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a syndrome results due to gene mutation that increases the risk of colon cancer and other cancers, including endometrial cancer).  Endometrial Hyperplasia (The endometrium has an average thickness of 6.7 mm).  Viral Infection (Human Papilloma Virus)  Some evidence shows that Tobacco Smoking reduces the rate of progression of tumor. Smokers have lower levels of estrogen and lower rate of obesity.
  7. 7. Symptoms  Bleeding or watery discharge from vagina  Difficult or painful urination  Back Pain  Swelling in Legs  In later stages of the disease, women may feel pelvic pain and experience unexplained weight loss.
  8. 8. Diagnostic Parameters  Transvaginal Ultrasound: An ultrasound uses sound waves to create a picture of internal organs. If the endometrium looks too thick, the doctor may decide to perform a biopsy.  Hysteroscopy: Hysteroscope allows doctors to do a visual examination of the endometrium.
  9. 9.  Biopsy: Testing for endometrial cancer or endometrial hyperplasia.  CT Scan and MRI: Both are used to measure the tumor’s size.  CA 125 Blood Test: CA 125 is a substance released into the bloodstream. The normal value is less than 35 U/mL. A level above 35 U/mL is considered abnormal. In someone with endometrial cancer, a very high blood CA 125 level suggests that the cancer has probably spread beyond the uterus.
  10. 10. Treatment Once cancer has been diagnosed, treatment strategy depends on the extent (stage) of your cancer. Stages of endometrial cancer include:  Stage I cancer is found only in uterus.  Stage II cancer is present in both the uterus and cervix.  Stage III cancer has spread beyond the uterus, but hasn't reached the rectum and bladder. The pelvic area lymph nodes may be involved.
  11. 11.  Stage IV cancer has spread past the pelvic region and can affect the bladder, rectum and more-distant parts of your body. Combinations of treatments are often recommended.
  12. 12.  Surgery:  Hysterectomy: Removal of uterus  Lymph node dissection: Removal of lymph nodes near the tumor if the cancer has spread beyond the uterus.
  13. 13.  Radiation Therapy: The radiation therapy is most often given after surgery to destroy any cancer cells remaining in the area but rarely given before surgery to shrink the tumor. Radiation therapy options for endometrial cancer may include radiation directed towards the whole pelvis externally or tiny radioactive seeds are placed in the body close to tumor which is termed as Brachytherapy.
  14. 14.  Chemotherapy:  Hormone Therapy: Hormone therapy for uterine cancer often involves the hormone progesterone, given in a pill form. Other hormone therapies include the Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) often used for the treatment of women with breast cancer, such as Anastrozole and Letrozole. An AI is a drug that reduces the amount of the hormone estrogen in a woman's body by stopping tissues and organs other than the ovaries from producing it with other types of treatment.
  15. 15. Hormone therapy may also be used for women who cannot have surgery or radiation therapy or in combination.  The chemo often includes the combination of Doxorubicin+ Cisplatin+ Paclitaxel.  Bevacizumab (Avastin) blocks angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) and is under evaluation in clinical trials.  Pazopanib blocks angiogenesis and stop the growth of cancer cell.
  16. 16.  Vaccination: The World Health Organization (WHO), as well as public health officials in Australia, Canada, Europe, and the United States recommend this vaccination against HPV. Two vaccines have market approval in manycountries as of 2014 (called Gardasil and Cervarix in the US). Both vaccines protect against the two HPV types (HPV-16 and HPV-18) that cause 70% of cervical cancers. Both Gardasil andCervarix have been shown to prevent cervical hyperplasia due to viral infection.
  17. 17.  Both vaccines are given as a series of three injections over a six-month period. The second dose is given one to two months after the first dose, and the third dose is given six months after the first dose.
  18. 18. THANKYOU
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Uterine cancer (Endometrial & Cervical Cancer), Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Treatment options on the basis of staging.


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