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Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
A General Overview
The Syste...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Agenda
• General Definitions...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
System
• A set of interactin...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
System
• An organism or a so...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Model
• Models are construct...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Model
• A model consists of ...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Four kinds of Models
• Sampl...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Models
• Formal - A mathemat...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Systems Analysis
• Formal in...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
The Job
• Interface…Interfac...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
The Systems Analyst
• Work i...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Requirements Analysis
• Unde...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Requirements Analysis requir...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Requirements Analysis will p...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Requirements Analysis Sequen...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Tasks
• Specified - are spec...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Requirements Analysis Sequen...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Requirements Analysis Sequen...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Risk Assessment
• Determine ...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Risk Assessment
• Develop co...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Risk Assessment
Hazard Proba...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Risk Assessment
Hazard Proba...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Risk Assessment
Hazard Proba...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Risk Assessment
Hazard Proba...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
The Systems Analyst
• Knows ...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Interface…Interface…Interfac...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
The Systems Analyst
• Determ...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Get it Right up Front
• Spen...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
3%
5%
7%
5%
7%
6%
67%
Requir...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Get it Right the First Time
...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
If your design doesn't work
...
Robertson-Howard Consultants
Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504
Characteristics of a Good De...
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SystemsAnalyst

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SystemsAnalyst

  1. 1. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 A General Overview The Systems Analyst
  2. 2. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Agenda • General Definitions • The Job • Requirements Analysis • Systems Analysis
  3. 3. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 System • A set of interacting components with relationships established between them. • A set of variables selected by an observer together with the constraints across variables he either discovers, hypothesises or prefers.
  4. 4. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 System • An organism or a social institution and a constraint is the logical complement of a relation, an equivalent definition of system is that it represents a set of components together with the relations connecting them to form a whole unity. • Describes, simulates or predicts a portion of his environments it may be regarded as a model of that portion. The model and the modeled "world" share the same organization but because of their different material realizations they are likely to differ in structure.
  5. 5. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Model • Models are constructed to answer specific questions about a proposed system. – Will it Work? – How can we make it work better? • A model is a device, scheme, or procedure typically used in systems analysis to predict the consequences of a course of action.
  6. 6. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Model • A model consists of a set of objects, described in terms of variables and relations defined on these and either – Embodies a theory of that portion of reality which it claims to represent – Corresponds to a portion of reality by virtue of an explicit homomorphism (many to one) or isomorphism (one to one) between the model's parameters and given DATA.
  7. 7. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Four kinds of Models • Sampling Models • Iconic Models • Behavioral Models • Symbolic Model
  8. 8. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Models • Formal - A mathematical expression. – Analytic Model – Simulation Model • Causal - Cause-effect relationships. – Correlational – Deterministic – Stochastic – Dynamic – Static
  9. 9. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Systems Analysis • Formal inquiry to ID COA’s • Problem Situation to evaluate COA’s • Systems analysis combination of – Identification of objectives – Examination of probable consequences – Presentation of the results
  10. 10. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 The Job • Interface…Interface…Interface • Technical Generalist • Systems Expert • Projects mostly IT Related • Requirements Analysis* • Systems Analysis • Design the project *depends on project manning
  11. 11. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 The Systems Analyst • Work is up front. • Project complexity is proportional to Interface complexity. • Interfaces between project and existing systems must be rigorously documented. • Interfaces don't work the project will fail to meet expectations.
  12. 12. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Requirements Analysis • Understand the customer’s desires – Drawing diagrams – Writes Scenarios – Questions the Customer – Gathers Samples • Document the specifications
  13. 13. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Requirements Analysis requires • Clarity • Functional area estimates and pertinent facts – Personnel – Training – Documentation – Overall Corporate Mission – Internal Logistics – External Logistics – Facilities requirements • All assumptions stated in writing.
  14. 14. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Requirements Analysis will provide • Restated Mission Statement • Project End State • Preliminary Preparation Required • Deliverables by functional area
  15. 15. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Requirements Analysis Sequence • Review the Project Specifications – Determine what is required – Identify the Systems – Determine Concept of the Project – First-cut Timeline • Determine specified, implied, and essential Task.
  16. 16. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Tasks • Specified - are specifically assigned • Implied - must be performed to accomplish a specified task • Essential Task - those task that are essential to meet the specifications (composed of Specified and Implied)
  17. 17. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Requirements Analysis Sequence (cont.) • Review the available assets • Determine constraints. • Identify critical facts and assumptions. • Conduct a Risk Assessment. • CCIR’s
  18. 18. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Requirements Analysis Sequence (cont.) • Plan the use of the available time • Write a restated Mission • Approval for the restated Mission • Requirements Analysis briefing
  19. 19. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Risk Assessment • Determine Hazards that will result from the project. – Physical Hazards – Asset Hazards – Operational hazard – Collateral Hazard • Assess each hazard – severity – potential loss
  20. 20. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Risk Assessment • Develop controls – Training – Standards – Leadership – Personnel • Implement Controls • Supervise and Evaluate.
  21. 21. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Risk Assessment Hazard Probability Frequent Likely Occasional Seldom Unlikely Catastrophic Critical Marginal Severity Negligble Risk Levels E (Extremely High) - loss of the ability to accomplish the Mission H (High) - Significantly degrades mission capabilities in terms of required mission standard M (Moderate) - Degrades mission capabilities in terms of required mission standard L (Low) - Little or no impact on accomplish of mission
  22. 22. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Risk Assessment Hazard Probability Frequent Likely Occasional Seldom Unlikely Catastrophic L L L L L Critical L L L L L Marginal L L M H H Severity Negligble L L M H H Risk Levels E (Extremely High) - loss of the ability to accomplish the Mission H (High) - Significantly degrades mission capabilities in terms of required mission standard M (Moderate) - Degrades mission capabilities in terms of required mission standard L (Low) - Little or no impact on accomplish of mission This Hazard would not effect the mission
  23. 23. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Risk Assessment Hazard Probability Frequent Likely Occasional Seldom Unlikely Catastrophic L M H L L Critical L M M M L Marginal L L M L L Severity Negligble L L L L L Risk Levels E (Extremely High) - loss of the ability to accomplish the Mission H (High) - Significantly degrades mission capabilities in terms of required mission standard M (Moderate) - Degrades mission capabilities in terms of required mission standard L (Low) - Little or no impact on accomplish of mission This Hazard can cause problems
  24. 24. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Risk Assessment Hazard Probability Frequent Likely Occasional Seldom Unlikely Catastrophic H H M L L Critical H H M L L Marginal M M M M L Severity Negligble L L M M L Risk Levels E (Extremely High) - loss of the ability to accomplish the Mission H (High) - Significantly degrades mission capabilities in terms of required mission standard M (Moderate) - Degrades mission capabilities in terms of required mission standard L (Low) - Little or no impact on accomplish of mission Need to find another way to do this one
  25. 25. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 The Systems Analyst • Knows systems and understands systems. • Is not overly concerned with how the project system implementation details. • Is very concerned with how the project interfaces with existing system interfaces. • Will know the exact specifications of the existing system. • Is concerned with the internal system aspects of the project.
  26. 26. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Interface…Interface…Interface • Two physical devices must interface with each other, share data, react to data from another, and be under control. • Software or Database that must share data with each other. • Multiple Users must communicate with each other.
  27. 27. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 The Systems Analyst • Determines the system elements • Assigns systems elements to – Software – Hardware – Users – Databases – Documents – Procedures • Provides Focus
  28. 28. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Get it Right up Front • Spend as much time as necessary to get the analysis done correctly. • Make sure that you understand both the specifications and requirements • Spend as much time as necessary to get the design done correctly, test your design. • If your design is done properly, the programming should be the easiest part.
  29. 29. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 3% 5% 7% 5% 7% 6% 67% Requirements Specification Design Coding Testing Integration Maintenance Software Life Cycle Cost
  30. 30. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Get it Right the First Time • 60 to 70 percent of all faults in large-scale project are specification and design faults. • Cost of Errors, every dollar spent in Specification Phase – $2.00 when caught in the design phase – $10.00 will be required in the coding phase – $100.00 to repair a fault caught in the Maintenance Phase.
  31. 31. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 If your design doesn't work • Analyze the design, looking for missing possible inputs, controls, and physical requirements. • If your design cannot be adjusted, revisit your requirements analysis. • If the design is still incapable, get with the customer and redo the requirements phase.
  32. 32. Robertson-Howard Consultants Copyright © 2002 Robertson-Howard Consultants, Lincoln, NE 68504 Characteristics of a Good Design • Understandable by ALL parties involved in the project. • Maps onto the requirements specifications. • Is modular has – High Cohesion – Low Coupling • It can be tested, e.g. a Software Program compiles, it binds with all libraries, and the interfaces work. • Can it be easily translated to code.

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