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GRM 2013: Generating new wheat germplasm with enhanced drought / heat tolerance using AB genomes genetic diversity – SC Misra


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GRM 2013: Generating new wheat germplasm with enhanced drought / heat tolerance using AB genomes genetic diversity – SC Misra

  1. 1. Satish Chandra Misra Agharkar Research Institute Pune 411 004, India Generating new wheat germplasm with enhanced drought / heat tolerance using AB genomes genetic diversity GCP 3008:01 (2008 - 2011)
  2. 2. Agharkar Research Institute, Pune (India) S.C.Misra , Sujata Tetali, S.A. Tamhankar CIMMYT, Mexico D. Bonnett, M. Zaharieva, J. Crossa and T. Payne Plant Breeding Institute, Sydney, Australia R.Trethowan and P. Sharp University of Agriculture Scienes, Dharwad (India) R .R. Hanchinal, I. Kalappanaar, A. S. Desai K.K. Math and B. N. Yenagi Collaborating institutes…….
  3. 3. Project rationale……. AABBDD DDAABB Global food demand increasing, no increase in area. Abiotic stresses posing problems for increasing wheat productivity. Abiotic stress are difficult to address genetically as insufficient diversity exists in the current gene pool Synthetic hexaploid wheat, derived by crossing emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell. with Aegilops tauschii (donor of D genome of hexaploid wheat), provides new genetic variability for adaptation to drought, high temperature, salinity, water logging and soil micronutrient imbalances of bread wheat. Genetic diversity : higher within cultivated emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) than within durum wheat.
  4. 4. Analyze diversity in emmer wheat Develop new SHW from diverse emmer wheats Combine Emmer and Durum wheat based SHW diversity Obtain new SBL from emmer based SHW and local elite bread wheat Combine emmer and bread wheat AB genome diversity from their crosses Objectives…….
  5. 5. Strategy ……. Emmer wheat composite set DNA extraction and diversity analysis Emmer wheat reference set Ae. tauschii SHW Elite Bread wheat BC1F1 BC1F2..4 SBL ARI and UAS, Dharwad CIMMYT and PBI Work done CIMMYT
  6. 6. Strategy ……. Emmer based SHW 1. Durum based SHW 2. Emmer based SHW F1 (Feb 2010 onwards ) F2 (June 2010) F3 ( Nov 2010) F4 Elite BW SBL Field Evaluation, Diversity analysis – SSR markers, DArT analysis ARI Pune & UAS Dharwad Emmer wheat Emmer: backcross Derivatives BW
  7. 7. 1. Genetic diversity studies from emmer wheat by SSR markers, DArT analysis. 2. Development new SHW. 3. Development of new SBL by crossing emmer wheat based SHW with local elite bread wheat 4. Development of new bread wheat lines by crossing of emmer wheat with elite bread wheat followed and back crossing Steps followed …….
  8. 8. . Dicoccum accessions summary by country and grouping of countries by region. Region Abbreviation Countries (number of accessions) Total accessions Abyssinia ABS Ethiopia (47), Eritrea (1) 48 Arabian Peninsula ARP Oman (4), Saudi Arabia (1), Yemen (5) 10 Balkans BKN Bulgaria (3), Bosnia-Herzegovina (3), Greece (2), Montenegro (4), Serbia (12) 24 Central and Northern Europe CNE Switzerland (2), Czech Republic (3), Germany (5), Hungary (3), Poland (2), Romania (2), Slovakia (1), United Kingdom (1) 19 Iberian Peninsula IBP Spain (18), Portugal (3) 21 Iran IRN Iran (32) 32 Indian Subcontinent ISC Afghanistan (2), India (20) 22 Italy ITA Italy (22) 22 North Africa NA Morocco (5), Tunisia (2) 7 Near East NE Syria (22), Turkey (9) 35 North-Eastern Europe NEE Belarus (3), Ukraine (4) 7 Russia RUS Dagestan (8), Russia (19) China (1) 28 Transcaucasia TCA Armenia (11), Azerbaijan (5), Georgia (9) 25 0.1 IRN NEE TCA CNE BKN NE RUS ISC ABS ARP IBP ITA NA Core Set of 108 lines possess 376 alleles (80%) of the 470 alleles present across the collection. Genetic Diversity in International collection of Emmer wheat
  9. 9. Dendrogram showing genetic relationships among Indian emmer wheat accessions based on SSR polymorphism Genetic Diversity in Indian Emmer wheat • Low genetic diversity in Indian Emmer wheats • Recently developed semidwarf Emmer wheat showing more genetic diversity
  10. 10. • Worldwide collection of 300 emmer wheat accessions established • Reference set of 100 accessions established based on genetic diversity analysis • New genetically diverse germplasm with potential drought/heat tolerance: - 100 new SHW (emmer wheat x Ae. tauschii) - 176 new SHW (by inter crossing emmer and emmer/durum based SHW) - 1000 double haploid from emmer wheat and hexaploid wheat - 800 BC1 F3 : 5 (emmer wheat and bread wheat) - 367 SBL in advance stages Achievements …….
  11. 11. Publications: A. Book chapters: 2 1. Philippe Monneveux, Ruilian Jing and SC Misra (2011). Phenotyping wheat for adaptation to drought. Eds. Philippe Monneveux and Jean Marcel Ribaut in Drought phenotyping in crops: from theory to practice: Part II.1 Cereals II, 1.2 :Generation Challenge Prgramme, pp 247-259. 2. S C Misra and P Varghese (2011). Breeding for heat tolerance in wheat, Eds. SS Singh, RR Hanchinal, Gyanendra Singh, RK Sharma, BS Tyagi, MS Saharan, Indu Sharma In “WHEAT: Productivity Enchancement under Changing Climate Publishers” Published by Narosa Publishing house Pvt. Ltd, 105-114 B. Research articles: 2 1. Zaharieva M, Geleta Ayana N, Al Hakimi A, Misra SC, Monneveux P (2010) Cultivated emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccon Schrank), an old crop with promising future: a review. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 57: 937-962. 2. Salunkhe A., Tamhankar S., Tetali S., Zaharieva M., Bonnett D., Trethowan R. and Misra S. (2012): Molecular genetic diversity analysis in emmer wheat (Triticum dicocconSchrank) from India Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (accepted for publication)
  12. 12. Expertise and capacity building of Indian National Programs enhanced for • Double haploid production • SHW and SBL development • Marker-assisted genetic diversity analysis. • 2 Ph D students Human Resource Development
  13. 13. Germplasm available: -Germplasm Collection – CIMMYT -SHW - CIMMYT, ARI, UAS and PBI - SBL -CIMMYT, ARI, UAS and PBI - AB genome introgressions – PBI Data available: -passport and genotyping data stored in excel format, partly uploaded on GCP website -Passport and phenotyping data partially available on ICIS Availability…..
  14. 14. All the material collected (emmer accessions) and developed (SHWs, SBLs, DHs) under the project by all partner institutions will be available for further use by wheat researchers. End Product Utilization
  15. 15. - Seeds of DHs, SHWs and SBLs mostly shared between project partners - Develop more SBLs by crossing newly developed SHW with elite bread wheat - Genotyping the 1016 DH emmer/bread wheat developed at PBI - Phenotyping emmer wheats and the generated SHWs, SBLs and DHs and estimate emmer contribution and genetic gains of SBLs and DHs under drought/heat conditions in India and Australia - Publish articles on genotyping and phenotyping results of emmer wheat, SHW and SBLs. New funds needed ! Next step: