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New PC Geographies (post coronavirus) v3.0

New PC Geographies (post coronavirus) v3.0

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New PC Geographies (post coronavirus) v3.0

  1. 1. New Geographies : New Curriculum  PC (Post Coronavirus) School Geographies  A provocation  ‘Geography, like all dynamic areas of disciplinary thought, is  in a constant state of becoming’.  (Lambert & Morgan, 2010)  Alan Parkinson  V3.0   Early May 2020  Image source: ​      Alan Parkinson’s text shared under CC license 1
  2. 2. Moments of crisis, such as the one we are living, are deeply painful in ways                              that cannot be underestimated. The social and emotional impacts of Covid-19                      will be felt even after we return to normal global health conditions. We will                            emerge, albeit more slowly, from the unprecedented economic paralysis. The                    question is how we emerge: whether we return to the ways of the past or                              whether we derive valuable lessons, to emerge wiser and better equipped to                        continue to deal with our longstanding emergency of climate change.    The coronavirus tragedy has shown that we are only as safe as the most                            vulnerable among us and that cross-border threats require global, systemic                    solutions, as well as individual behaviour changes. Over the past few weeks,                        governments and businesses have acted swiftly to mandate drastic, but                    necessary measures to stem the coronavirus, keeping people indoors,                  grounding air travel, cancelling events and closing borders. Citizens, equally,                    are uniting to shift their behaviour en masse, by working and teaching their                          children from home, washing their hands more frequently, protecting the                    elderly, and helping neighbours shop for food.  The same decisive spirit is needed in the climate crisis. We need both                          significant government policies and important personal behaviour changes.                Governments will need to intentionally design economic recovery packages                  that support the most vulnerable and promote innovation and clean                    technologies as the moving force of the economy, while removing subsidies                      from polluting industries.   Individuals will need to change their diets, consumption patterns and travel                      behaviour. We have learned that every person’s individual effort actually does                      count.  The Covid-19 pandemic has unleashed humanity’s instinct to transform itself in                      the face of a universal threat and it can help us do the same to create a                                  livable planet for future generations.  Christiana Figueres, former chair of UNFCCC    Source of the quote: or-tackling-climate-change  2
  3. 3. Contents - Introduction p. 5 Thinking through the changes p. 9 Geographical themes and possible changes p. 11 Physical Geography topics 1. Landscape processes and change p. 11 2. Land use p. 12 3. Weather and climate / air quality p. 13 4. Tectonics p. 15 5. Our relationship with nature p. 15 6. Plate Tectonics p. 17 At the interface between physical and human 7. Climate Change p. 17 Human Geography topics 8. Urbanisation p. 18 a) Urban spaces and hierarchies (and the return of communities) b) LIC urban areas c) Sounds of the city d) Future urban structures e) The role of neighbourhoods f) Urban resilience 9. Employment: primary, secondary and tertiary p. 24 a) Retail b) Gig Economy c) Agriculture d) Service sector e) Garment workers f) Supply chains g) Remittances h) Corporate social responsibility i) The death of the Office as a workplace j) The social contract 10.Development and Inequality p.36 11.Changing leisure time and working hours p.40 12.Demographics p.41 13.Globalisation & Geopolitics p.42 14.Carbon footprints p.44 15.Tourism p.46 16.Crime p.47 17.Transport p.47 3
  4. 4. 18.Geographies of Convenience p.51 19.Sustainable Development Goals p.52 20.Food Security p.54 21.Superpowers: Hard and Soft Power p.55 22.Sense of Place p.55 23.Energy p.55 24.New communities p.56 25.Surveillance (link to D3 Erasmus project) p.57 26.Geography of Disease p.57 27.Borders p.58 Geographical Skills and Tools 28.Fieldwork p.59 29.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) p.60 30.Statistical Literacy p.61 Pedagogical Approaches and thinking incl. DPSIR p.62 - Learning outside the classroom p.66 - Teaching ​about​ Covid-19 - GeographyalltheWay p.68 An early update for the Specifications? p.69 A better world ahead? p.70 Reading list and References incl. ‘Slowdown’ p.76 Testimonials p.81 4
  5. 5. Introduction Welcome to V3.0 of this document, which has been edited and had additional content blended in over the last week of April 2020. ​It’s been two weeks since the first virtual Geographical Association conference, which was a great success thanks to the team at Solly St., particularly Harriet Brookes, and President Gill Miller. ​Thanks to those who have commented on the resource so far and suggested additional content. Let’s hope we reach that important moment soon, where ​R= <1 r-and-why-does-it-matter I’m starting to embolden what I think is particularly valuable content, which may then feed into a final ‘resource’ outcome. As those who’ve read previous versions of the document will know, this came about from some thinking through the weeks of lockdown about the eventual return to school and teaching back in the classroom at some future point, probably ​no earlier than September 2020, ​although some people still think it’s possible to keep 2m away from each other in a school. Those people obviously haven’t been in a school lately. I've been thinking in particular about ​what I/we (as a subject community) will be teaching in Geography when we do. While writing my biography of every Geographical President on my GA Presidents Blog at ​ I’ve encountered numerous occasions where the subject has changed in response to particular events or new ways of thinking. This pandemic will have an impact on many geographical topics, and places that are studied at all key stages, and may result in another ‘turn’ in the subject. For the GCSE and ‘A level (and equivalent) exam specifications, they will remain as they are - there have been no plans to change them, no consultations on those changes, and probably no desire to either. A little more clarity over examination results for this year has been published, with predicted grades and other data being used to provide grades for 2020, but students (who may not have been at school for 6 months by then) may choose to sit rescheduled exams at a later date if they feel their grades weren’t a true reflection of their ability, or want to take the chance to improve or simply to have the experience that they might otherwise miss out on. One issue is that some of the geography in these specifications will have changed out of all recognition by the time we return, as will many of the topics taught lower down the school. In my final week at school before I self-isolated in mid-March, I was teaching what had previously seemed to be ‘important’ topics but was constantly thinking as each day passed “this doesn’t really matter anymore…” or rather that the context had changed and meant they were not as significant. This is significant as a choice to teach a particular topic at KS3 5
  6. 6. means a decision ​not ​to teach something else. It also has a bearing on the powerful knowledge students are introduced to, and then encouraged to explore further. To give one example, jobs which we previously thought of as being important to protect in the garment industry may well be swept away by the cancellation of contracts, and the contraction of the industry. The close confinement of sweatshop workers would also increase their vulnerability to the virus, and stories soon started of desperate workers travelling to find work and having to face impossible decisions: to continue working, or to starve. It was also a reminder that some people in the UK, who may have voted for political decisions which tried to stop migrants from making the effort to escape war zones, were now struggling to cope with the fact that the pubs were shut and they might have to stay at home and read a book, or were fighting over toilet roll and preventing those who had worked all day to save lives from buying the basics for themselves. Here then is a chance to challenge the status quo. What we are likely to be teaching when we return will need to be adjusted. I’m already thinking that I want to ​‘firm up’ the geography in what I teach, and reflect the changes that will have happened during school closure/lockdown and remove some of what could be called the more ‘trivial’ geographies that are in the National Curriculum and other school based curricula which (I and others) have developed over recent years. John Morgan also referred to these as ‘zombie geographies’. 1_10t_3.pdf A few themes have emerged over the last few weeks in the growing number of items I've been reading for what may also become some ​‘new geographies​’ or even new theories of the way that things work in future economies and society. I’ve started to pull together some thoughts and ideas and will eventually create some new curriculum materials for the return to school in some format for our new PC Geography curriculum. These ideas are also feeding into a book that I am currently writing on why geography matters. I am not an academic geographer, and I would guess that geography academics in their different geographical specialist areas are also currently thinking about their own area of expertise and how it may change their teaching too. I’ve come across a few of those ideas, but I would love to hear from you if you have started developing your own ideas in this area and have made a start on your own thinking, or have identified some of these stories emerging in the media, or via your own social media contacts. I was also reminded of this cartoon that I was sent - source unknown - but from a cartoonist called ​Alxe? This reminds us of another coming catastrophe which we will similarly need concerted global action to fight. I’ll return to that at the end of the document. 6
  7. 7. The climate emergency will require even more concerted global action, and this must be a major element of the new curriculum. With the cancellation of COP26 which the UK was due to host, this has built in further delays into the world getting together to solve this crisis which is far more ‘visible’ and urgent to many. Also, ​will we actually ​want to teach about Coronavirus ​(preferring to try to forget it about it, particularly if our family or friends have been touched by tragedy, and inevitably those of our students and colleagues). Is it too raw for a while to be an object of study, or is it something that we just ​should be teaching? Just as earthquake drills are taught and practised in earthquake-prone areas, perhaps we will need to cover pandemics and their spread so that we are ready to act more promptly if there are further similar events in the future. Lessons are being learned currently, so should ​these lessons also be learned (and taught)? I do not intend teaching about Covid-19 as a topic, even if it is an excellent opportunity to show a GIS Dashboard which has almost a billion views every day. What about some of the other topics we’ve traditionally taught which are also potentially problematic for some students and colleagues. Should we be more empathetic, and focus on more positives? I’ll explore that idea too. It’s worth remembering that the risk of ​Pandemic influenza has always been there. Do we use this to explore topics like resilience, and disaster management - the Sendai Framework perhaps. I was reminded by someone who posted a section of Hans Rosling’s essential ​‘Factfulness’ book - ​what a huge pity it is that Hans is not here to guide our response and 7
  8. 8. work with WHO as he did during the Ebola outbreak that he helped with in 2015. Hear him talking so clearly about the work here: In it, he describes a number of things that we ​should be concerned about and Pandemic is there alongside Global Warming. There’s also an understanding of the risk of Pandemics in the Government’s own Risk Register - something I referred to previously in a unit we taught on risk. Here’s an image taken from the 2017 version of the document, which Brendan Conway reminded me of recently, which has pandemics illustrated at the top of the intensity scale. And yet knowing this, few preparations were made, and vital equipment wasn’t stockpiled when it should have been. edition There has been a lot talked about the climate crisis, and the actions of Greta Thunberg and others to popularise and publicise the desperate need for change have started to galvanise young people, and ​geography is the appropriate place for this to happen in the school curriculum. I’d like to see ​more personal action being part of the Geography curriculum: practising what we are preaching perhaps. Our lockdown means an end to many of the practices that we have become used to: easy consumption, take-away coffees, pub lunches, air travel, clothes shopping etc. Geography is firmly back on the agenda​, as outlined in this essential Wired piece by David Wolman: - not that it ever went away, or had vengeance in mind of course.. 8
  9. 9. Pandemic throws the importance of space back into sharp relief.” We’re  thinking about it at the smallest scale, navigating supermarket aisles or  converting closets into serviceable home offices.   Erik Steiner  The curriculum needs to be considered as a process, and a continual work in progress. ​My curriculum is always changing from year to year. Rosalind Walker reminds us of this in this well written piece: k/ And this week, Dylan Wiliam spoke to ResearchED about the overloading in the curriculum. He said, quoted in the TES: "There is no doubt that there’s far too much stuff in our curriculum – I’ve wondered about why this is, and my conclusion is that curriculum developers cannot bear the thought that any children might have spare time on their hands. "So they actually make sure there’s enough stuff in the curriculum for the fastest-learning students to be occupied all year. And so there’s far too much for most students … some teachers just teach the curriculum, they metre it out and they go from beginning to end and 20 percent of the kids get it and the rest don’t – I think that’s logically consistent but immoral. "When the curriculum’s too full, you have to make a professional decision about what stuff you’re going to leave out, and the important point here is that not all content is equally important.” So perhaps now is the time to drop some of that ‘trivial’ stuff I mentioned earlier to make space for greater thinking about futures and a changed world. With that in mind, it’s time to get on with the geographical thinking and ​curriculum making for Post-Corona Geographies. Thinking through the changes One of the prompts that initially got me started on the production of this document was a tweet from ​Helen Young​: the original ​GeographyGeek. 9
  10. 10. I wondered whether there are indeed studies going on, although fieldwork is going to be difficult - data collection via Google Form etc. could be possible, and I’ve used some myself. There was also a Guardian article by ​Adam Tooze on the link with the economy which was one of the first I added into v1.0 of this document. siness-life-death Also this piece by ​Neal Lawson ​provided some ideas: y I was also really interested in this piece by ​Stuart Dunn on the Digital Humanities - he works in the field of GIS which also connects with the ​GI Pedagogy ERASMUS project that will be mentioned later in the document. vid-19/ Stuart’s post led me to an existing roundup of posts in the same field as this document, but at a higher level of education: And some thoughts on separating the signal from the noise from Futures Further thoughts came from Paul Ganderton on the Facebook group set up to support Geography Teachers during Covid-19​ by Matt Podbury: Follow Paul Ganderton here: ​ GA eConference 2020 Teachmeet I used the production of this booklet as my theme for the Teachmeet which formed part of the GA’s eConference 2020 which replaced the face-to-face event due to take place in Surrey from 16th-18th of April 2020. I put together a quick 2 minute LOOM video for use in the event. You can see the link to the video here and watch if you like: Ben Hennig and Tina Gotthardt at WorldMapper have been tracking the cases and producing regularly updated maps and animations. Check in for the latest maps and animations. They are all shared under CC license. You are also able to support their work if you feel able to. 10
  11. 11. Geographical Themes and possible changes These ideas are presented separately, but in reality, a piece of work in a classroom would need to connect several of these together, and bring in appropriate questions, analysis of text and images and some sort of final presentation format and review. A: Physical Geography themes 1. Landscape processes These will largely be unchanged of course, and may be our refuge with memories of the landscapes we can visit when we are allowed out, of mountains we want to climb and places we want to return to after an absence. Several of us may well be making a list of the places we intend visiting as soon as we are able. Rivers have continued to behave as always for the last few weeks, and waves have reached the shore as usual. Rivers will still flow downhill, and waves will still hit the coat every few seconds. The landscape can be one permanence in our lives, and in the curriculum… I’m working on a unit on the development of ​The Fens ​as a consequence, to encourage people to get out into this landscape explained so well by ​Francis Pryor ​in his recent book. Watch this space for links to that new unit. Landscapes being reclaimed by the wild. Goats are reclaiming the streets of a Welsh village - coming down from the Great Orme into Llandudno. 11
  12. 12. s-town Ghost town to goats town - the new kids on the block etc. were the headlines. html This image was excellent - unsure of the source but quite powerful - in time the roads will be covered over… Spanish officials also sprayed a beach with bleach. Not sure if that would speed up chemical weathering in the area ch-with-bleach-coronavirus Coastal Management Many sand dune ecosystems need management including fencing to avoid trampling of the marram that holds them together. The Maspalomas Dunes on Gran Canaria are apparently recovering their natural look after years of damage from tourist visitors: 2. Land Use I would be interested to see how the landscape is changed as a result of decisions made now and in the period when we are able to move around again. e.g Agricultural use of land. Tim Lang book - this came out March 2020 - has it already been overtaken by events? ● Forestry land left unmanaged. 12
  13. 13. ● Reduction in construction projects. ● Floodplain development reduced. ● Housing densities questioned. Will the UK’s land-use as recorded by Daniel Raven Ellison in his wonderful ‘The UK in 100 seconds’ be different if he was to remake it in a few years’ time? A debate started about opening access to golf courses for open space, which connects with ideas of public and private land ownership, and ​rights of way. 1eca40f84593cdc35621d7b79271f2 There was a similar theme to many stories regarding people travelling to rural areas. ​Rights of Way which run close to farms have been chained off, and some politicians have been forced to resign. - this also relates to the use of second homes in rural areas and the impact on rural communities, but gives the story a different dynamic. Thanks to Claire Kyndt for this story. This I think will become more significant when the lockdown lifts, as people will head to places like Devon and Norfolk, for example, bringing the virus with them into areas with relatively low population density. 3. Weather and Climate / Air Quality We could consider the short term impact in carbon reduction and whether it might help any country towards meeting carbon emission and air quality targets. Europe’s air is certainly getting clearer: ​​ (video on this link) Skies have emptied of planes - will we go back to flying when this is all over? Will there still be the same number of airlines / competition for flights / cheap flights? 13
  14. 14. ate-change In India, there is a visual sign that the air is clearing as well: s-pollution-levels-in-india-drop n-falls-lockdown-coronavirus?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other The ​World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) is concerned about the impact of Covid-19 on the observation system. It also describes some of the effects of reduced air traffic which they have already observed, for example in flight observations of temperature and wind speed are an important part of the observation network. erving-system Also check satellite data here: ​ In terms of weather, we are also going to enter the ​Hurricane season shortly. Imagine the issues of trying to deal with a disaster (I’ll avoid involving the word ‘natural’ there) with all the additional complications of the coronavirus. .html?utm_medium=social&utm_content=2020-04-18T20%3A44%3A05&utm_source=twCN N&utm_term=link There may be some short term changes, but not the long term ones required to change the climate. 14
  15. 15. 4. Tectonics The lack of human activity has reduced a lot of the background noise which seismometers have to be calibrated to ignore / account for mologists-find?CMP=share_btn_tw s-earth-seismic-vibrations There are also fears that other hazards such as earthquakes may happen, and people will be unable to help each other for risk of infection. This is a real fear as we move into Hurricane season as mentioned previously. 5. Our relationship with Nature The closure of so called ‘wet-markets’, which are found all over the world and not just in China, for the sale of ‘bush meat’ and other animals needs to be stopped to avoid another pandemic emerging in the future. At the root of the problem is a social phenomenon called “human-wildlife conflict”. This is when the interests of humans and the needs of wildlife overlap in a negative way. le-to-pandemics-135191?fbclid=IwAR37QneFaWgUeG7KQ3JpEgBjEj_Ub72HTpTmzfDd58q JEf4Z3XqVFx-SZGM In terms of food sourcing, cultural norms over bush meat and wildlife markets may now have to face more legislation if this does turn out to be the source of the outbreak iversity-chief-age-of-extinction​ - biodiversity There is also a suggestion we may see more wild flowers. Council services are being cut, and focussing on the vital services, so verge cutting etc. may be stopped. The people with the closest link with nature perhaps are the indigenous peoples such as those who live in the rainforest areas such as the ​Amazon Basin​, who live in harmony with the forest - they are its guardians in many respects - and who practice their faming techniques which many students will have learned about. This article suggests the virus may lead to the extinction of some of these groups: Worth remembering that tackling some issues with landscapes may also reduce risk of future pandemics - image from UN 15
  16. 16. There has also been an increase in fly-tipping as council recycling centres are closed. 6613641 Many people are also looking for jobs to do, and clearing out their houses and wanting to do DIY which has created extra waste. Some councils are also burning recycling as there are fears over virus contamination of card etc. Costing the Earth on BBC Radio 4​ had some thoughts in an episode hosted by Tom Heap Tom Heap talks through the environmentalissues emerging during the coronavirus pandemic and asks what the legacy might be. He's joined by climate change expert Dr Tamsin Edwards from King's College, London to examine the effect of the lockdown. With millions of people now working from home, planes being grounded and fewer cars on the roads, what level of environmental improvement has there been, and will that be reversed once our lives return to normal? With the help of experts from the fields of climate change, remote working, ecology and environmental standards, we track the changes in air pollution and global temperature. What will the return to ‘normal' look like? With the UK aiming to be carbon neutral by 2050, Tom asks whether the pandemic can be seen as a trial run for a zero-carbon world. And, with the international climate meeting COP26 postponed, Tamsin considers how international climate targets might be affected. With contributions from Christiana Figueres - architect of the Paris climate agreement, environmental psychologist Lorraine Whitmarsh, air quality expert David Carslaw, Gina McCarthy of the Natural Resources Defense Council, business communications specialist Jon Sidwick and Julian Newman from the Environmental Investigation Agency. This is likely to be a useful resource and you can download the programme. I like how Tamsin is introduced as a geographer and Tom also declares himself as a geographer. It mentions removal of EPA environmental protections in the USA which may lead to further pollution. 16
  17. 17. The world’s oceans are now much quieter places because of the reduction in the movements of shipping with fewer passenger vehicles e.g. cross channel ferries. down-reduces-ocean-noise-coronavirus 6 .Plate Tectonics One would expect little change to the layout of countries, although Twitter user Karl Sharro suggested how the world map would change in this tweeted image: At the interface between physical and human, we have several other major issues: 7. ​Climate Change - the big one! Climate Change will still need to be at the heart of the curriculum when we return, perhaps even more so. The Greenhouse: What We're Learning I’ve avoided too much on this theme as it’s a whole extra booklet by itself. The reduction in carbon emissions through industrial closedown and far fewer journeys is obvious. record-25bn-tonnes-in-2020 We’re also likely to see changes to school and hospital meals as a result of supply chains, but also the drive for less meat - one campaign here is the #20percentlessmeat campaign which has had some significant success. 17
  18. 18. cut-meat-served-by-20 About a quarter of the UK’s population eats the food from these caterers​ in a typical working week Check out the free Harvard Online courses. This one explores the health impacts of climate change. Perhaps we at least will see an end to ‘big oil’ llapse.html?referringSource=articleShare A useful podcast for Earth Day 2020 discussing parallels between Coronavirus and Climate Change: WFyY2gvY25uL2Nvcm9uYXZpcnVzLWZhY3QtdnMtZmljdGlvbi9hbGwvNzIwLzIwMC8&epis ode=Mjk2YTI0ZmQ2MTNiZTcxOGRhNTQxY2EwOWM1NGZlMDEubXAz&hl=en-GB&ved=2 ahUKEwiSheWK7_7oAhXToXEKHShSCIQQjrkEegQIChAI&ep=6 B: Human Geography themes 8. Urbanisation and Urban Spaces “This was the week our cities died” is the title of this provocative piece which got me going on some thinking in this regard. nd-more-broken-but-we-might-be-more-tender-too Melbourne is also featured here. getting-emptier-each-day-20200318-p54be7.html#comments Daniel Whittall suggested we are seeing new iterations of ‘the city’ or ‘urban spaces’ and we will see another iteration ‘post-covid’. 18
  19. 19. a) Urban Spaces and Hierarchies (and the return of communities) Thanks to ​Claire Kyndt for this link, which started some thinking about the way we use urban spaces and how we live within them. Those people who live in rural areas have greater options when it comes to social distancing and finding a safe space to exercise. I am fortunate, in this respect, to live in a small rural village, 8 miles from the nearest town but equally that means longer ambulance response times. Where we live is influenced by what we can afford. Lynsey Hanley has produced an essential piece of writing on the class divide here vide?CMP=share_btn_tw In it she references another great thinker ​Joe Moran, ​in a piece from 2004. She also talks about the value of public parks and open spaces. Space – how it’s apportioned, how it’s governed, how it’s made available to some and denied to others – is always political. The middle classes, accustomed to constant mobility while valorising the home as a place of comfort and safety, balk at the thought of being unable to up sticks at will. It seems that the Bartlett Centre of UCL is also definitely ‘on it’ with some thinking in the sort of areas that Helen wondered about earlier. “people survive difficulty by coming together as communities of care, not pulling apart in a retreat into individualism” ​OluTimehin Adegbeye​, 2020 “Housing is a condition to the right to life” Laia Bonet, 2020 The quotes above are an entry into this piece by Catalina Ortiz and Camillo Boano on housing as the key infrastructure of care​, and the difficulty for many of social distancing in some housing designs. of-care/ The piece is part of a series on Post Covid 19 Urban Futures put together by UCL - a blog and webinar series. 19
  20. 20. ​ The Alexandra Panman blog is also excellent: ppens-when-the-thing-that-makes-cities-great-also-makes-them-dangerous/ Inequalities are explored here: This gives me hope that more work like this is happening in other universities. Let me know if you spot it and we can add it in. This piece by Gaby Hinsliff suggests social pods of people as a future model. navirus-lockdown b) LIC Urban areas Will the virus lead to a growing exodus from cities or will people still want to live close to services (and each other)? Here’s a ​South African waste-picker on life under lockdown and the impossibility of continuing to work without risk. Diana Mitlin also picked up some of the issues facing cities in the ‘global South’ in this blogpost For those in Kibera, no work means no food, and quarantine is not an option: 20052738905.html Follow Faith Taylor’s work as she maps Covid-19 interventions in the slums of Kibera: ople-per-square-kilometre However, could the climate which has caused issues for countries for decades have been a factor in low numbers of cases? Ab1RnA9bicGHumdK_voINyA1mKCZT-eftcQ8kOWv6qI7y6TiIk The Financial Times piece here is definitely worth reading. It is free to read and not behind the paywall. The article describes the potential impacts of warmer climate, a lifestyle where people are outdoors more, measures taken by governments and also the fact that African countries have the most youthful populations - something we explore with Year 9. In this pandemic, the mask reveals far more than it hides. It exposes the world’s political and economic relations for what they are: vectors of self-interest that ordinarily lie obscured under glib talk of globalisation and openness. For the demagogues who govern so much of the world, the pandemic has provided an unimpeachable excuse to fulfil their 20
  21. 21. dearest wishes: to nail national borders shut, to tar every outsider as suspicious, and to act as if their own countries must be preserved above all others. c) Sounds of the city The virus is changing the ​aural map of cities. ​Bird song is louder. The skies are quieter. The ​Cities and Memory website has been collecting sounds of cities and now has a new lockdown sounds map to capture cities in these very different circumstances.​ - check out some of the sounds. It also featured on Radio 3’s ‘Late Junction’ programme: London as an example of ‘changing places’: d) Future urban structures ld ppens-when-the-thing-that-makes-cities-great-also-makes-them-dangerous/ - mentions Edward Glaeser ​and the importance of density, and the comments thread is also interesting. Some cities are giving over space to transport other than the car: s-and-cyclists Rachael Unsworth mused on the potential for improving things: It included a quote from this Carbon Brief collection of views: ate-change#5mike 21
  22. 22. Also efforts to reduce light pollution in future cities: ht/601846/?utm_content=citylab&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter&utm_campaign= socialflow-organic And Paris is planning to give less space to cars to help with the 15 minute city idea: ke-lanes/610861/ e) The role of neighbourhoods Social distancing is producing more of an engagement with our personal space and place currently, and also a recognition of some simple everyday pleasures such as a walk and meeting friends or going out for a pint: ● Queueing for long periods - a chance to talk, or isolating on mobile phones ● How is this playing out in other countries? ● Spacing in supermarkets changing these everyday interactions and negotiations in aisles ● Facebook connections via group to support geographers being made. A useful piece from Richard Florida on CityLab on the ​‘Geography of Coronavirus’: rural-data/609394/ CityLab also started sharing the first submissions of lockdown maps from readers: e-art/610018/?utm_content=citylab&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter&utm_campaig n=socialflow-organic Channel 4 put together a series of scenes showing cities before and after - and I guess there will also need to be an ‘after after’: ​ 22
  23. 23. In some countries, houses vary in design. In Japan for example, houses are much smaller than many other countries. This Reuters piece with excellent graphics explores the issues in Tokyo for social distancing due to house design: a very pretty piece of work - thanks to Richard Allaway for this link. html In other urban areas, there are concerns that the closure of public parks is disproportionately affecting the poorer residents who may not have large gardens to access for exercise, compared to the more affluent. A report in the Times explored this with regards to Middlesborough. ​ Thanks to Nik Griffith for the tip-off to this report. Community also comes from sport: Check out how Google and Apple’s social-distancing maps work: 7K1fY0HGv2v48913pq96sSt10gAWW3fOSPsQOTc3onkWEhvVPjwDI 23
  24. 24. Compare Apple and Google’s maps. (You can see more of them later in this document) f) Urban Resilience Seaside and ex-industrial towns have already had a tough time economically, and they are now potentially being affected by the impact of the virus. This Sky News piece suggests they may also be worst hit by these: t-risk-11977233?inApp=true&fbclid=IwAR1MUVtSN8Z7D2R1rkrZdf_dhkeHheEZBmWVSgo0 _U_W8w9_wgwAeMkk7cI Even the city of LA, bastion of the car is apparently turning into a city of walkers ml 9. ​Employment: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary The Economy has changed… For example, ask students to analyse this cartoon and explain what its meaning is: Source: Matt Kenyon/The Guardian I had an email update in early April from ​Kate Raworth​, author of ‘Doughnut Economics’ (a speaker at the GA Conference in 2019) giving some suggestions for what they were doing around this area. Follow ​@KateRaworth to see what they are doing with regards to their economic thinking. They are currently working in Amsterdam to apply their doughnut model to the city. onavirus-economy This alone would be enough for a whole unit of work based on some of the starting questions which Kate outlines here: 24
  25. 25. They also recorded a chat on ​pandemic-resistant economics here which may be of interest. Perhaps growth is no longer the best measurement of development (if it ever was) and quality of life needs to be adopted: ur-measure-of-success/413218170519-b4d036a5 This is Danny Dorling’s premise in his book ‘Slowdown’, which is a recommended read at the end of the document. He has also recorded a podcast on the book with Zoe WIlliams for the Guardian and this is worth some of your time here: -williams-slowdown?fbclid=IwAR38rwxB-CAr5rviy0XyWiwXIwFNGH577LfHI7MWYM8__23r CPrQnWC4X7o& There’s also a related one on ‘Lockdownonomics’ - one for the dictionary of Covid-19 terms: Employment ​options for people are changing. People will also perhaps remember those companies that looked after staff by protecting them once the lockdown started, and those that didn’t. Furloughing is not going to benefit people evenly either. Oxfam’s campaign also reminds us how many people are in danger of being pushed into poverty. 25
  26. 26. virus-warns-oxfam This piece also points out the ​gender ​imbalance in impact as well. Women are on the front line of the coronavirus response and are likely to be hardest hit financially. Women make up 70 percent of health workers globally and provide 75 percent of unpaid care, looking after children, the sick and the elderly. Women are also more likely to be employed in poorly paid precarious jobs that are most at risk. More than one million Bangladeshi garment workers –80 percent of whom are women– have already been laid off or sent home without pay after orders from western clothing brands were cancelled or suspended. The ILO (International Labour Organisation) is the organisation that is particularly interested in the impact on ​labour markets and collects statistics in that area. It’s thoughts on the potential impacts are here, and would be useful going forward to explore the impacts in a number of industrial areas. What follows are some examples of particular industries which may see dramatic change. a. Retail An excellent article to start off the retail section. This is a key area for many discussions: _mIKDjxqjBqsAQSK7IZw55mmlVieRXAZ6IjagQxw4AuF8o Changing retail patterns, with Tim Lang, Professor of Food Policy. “Supermarkets actually account for only about 60 percent of the food we [normally] consume,” says Tim Lang, professor of food policy at City University, London. The rest comes from your Friday fish and chips, your Saturday brunch, and all those al desko Pret lunches (oh, falafel flatbread, how we miss thee). “If 40 per cent [of the food supply] is cut off, and 60 per 26
  27. 27. cent has to deal with 100 per cent, well, you’ve got stress and strains. It’s inevitable.” “We need to be thinking very carefully about renationalising supply chains, out of resilience preparedness,” says Lang, the food policy expert. “We’ve developed, over 60 years, a culture that says, 'I can eat what I like, when I like, and it’ll be cheap forever, and I’ll overeat as well.' That culture has got to change.” Tropical fruits will disappear from shelves and seasonal fruits will become so again, thanks to hold-ups at borders due to decreased freight flights. That means no more strawberries in winter. “Coronavirus is going to take a scythe through the normality of food." This Economist Article outlines how Coronavirus rewrote our shopping lists, and also introduced the German word for hoarding: ​hamsterkauf. opping-list Amazon meanwhile is benefitting (although in France, they are not allowed to deliver anything other than essential items) virus-pandemic The High Street may not recover from this setback and we may end up with Amazon and similar online retailers growing their monopoly. They are taking on many more staff. Delivery drivers are bringing our purchases to the door. An excellent NYT piece suggested that we are going to see the end of the department store, as many were already struggling before this crisis, and we are not shopping in the same way. us.html?action=click&module=Top%20Stories&pgtype=Homepage There are limited reads of articles on the New York Times, but I recommend a cheap subscription to access the pieces (charge it to your departmental budget) This had an excellent graphic referencing the classic store Macy’s. Image by Andrew Sondern/New York Times. 27
  28. 28. There were also mentions of Hudson Yards, an exclusive shopping mall which I visited while in New York last year, which is likely to be suffering quite a lot. “The genre is toast, and looking at the other side of this, there are very few who are likely to survive.” Mark A Cohen The High St will also be reshaped: of-uk-high-street-mps-told b. Gig Economy This sector of the economy, which has grown dramatically in recent years, has been particularly affected by the virus. Uber - sharing a car not safe - black cabs with screens still relatively OK. Tube travel in London - still continuing despite difficulty of social distancing. Food delivery - most take-aways closing, even McDonalds and Nando, but person to person possible - the local fish and chip shop in the village was still open, but selling off their potatoes as seeing less trade (I bought a sack) Uber ​- released an ad thanking people for staying at home: Airbnb - this has the potential to return some properties to longer term rentals and may see a change to the dominance of Airbnb in some city centres. 28
  29. 29. Picked up in this ​CityLab article about the longer time impact on airbnb, which is cutting staff and key staff salaries” out/608917/ More of us will work from home in the future. virus-future?rsf=ps%3Afacebook%3Arcanews%3Anat&fbclid=IwAR2bOkHIyJCylwXqu9921v BKB9SV_YjJkHotU_WU3PcAu6VeXmK4141TClI I was interested to see that Uber paid for an ad which didn’t include a single car c) Agriculture and the Food System There is a need for more workers to pick food in the UK or it will rot in the fields as the season progresses. ● Will farming be changed in terms of what is grown? ● Will this see a continued need for migrant workers and visas? ● Will we need a Pick for Britain campaign in the same vein as Dig for Victory? The Fishing industry is suffering with a loss of overseas shellfish sales and closure of supermarket fish counters: s-as-covid-19-devastates-industry?CMP=share_btn_tw Singapore is almost wholly reliant on food imports (around 90% of its food) as it is so small and urbanised. It is now bringing forward plans to grow more of its own food on rooftop gardens. ooftop-farming-plans-as-virus-upends-supply-chains-idUKKBN21Q0QY?fbclid=IwAR3qbVU_ 38ylZ9MlregwS-o5PAxQ2l1KSpixvKTjXIPWwPA__a8v7ktDSTc Only 1% of Singapore is apparently used for growing food at the moment, but that is set to increase. -singapore-eyes-food-future-idUSKCN1T00F2 Similarly, Australia has taken a fresh look at its own agricultural system to increase their self sufficiency - Sydney Morning Herald piece here: 20200412-p54j5q.html Consider this very useful model of the ​Food system from the Centre for Food Policy. Identify the current stresses that are being placed on elements of this model. 29
  30. 30. Image source: Centre for Food Policy The Plant based sector was making good strides before the crisis. This piece is not entirely without bias but makes a few interesting points with respect to the cost of food.. The rural economy will need help to bounce back as well - will there be changes to the typical English countryside?: There is of course one very important food related link and that is the cultural issues behind the consumption of animals. In some countries, including the USA, there are so called “wet markets” where animals are sold live. The presence of these markets has been suggested as one origin for pandemics due to hygiene and other aspects of the operation of these markets. Some Chinese cities are now banning the sale of meat from dogs and cats it seems, and there may well be other cultural changes in what meats are consumed. The consumption of ‘bush meat’ such as bats was thought to be a source for the Ebola outbreaks of 2015. op-the-wildlife-trade-campaign-a9466136.html In the middle of April we also saw the first of a series of flights bringing Romanian fruit and vegetable pickers to the UK: 9562/ 30
  31. 31. Remarkably the Daily Mail had this as its cover, after years of front covers denigrating migrant workers. All those people who wanted to ‘support their country’ and ‘take back control’ weren’t up to helping it seems when it really mattered. . Food production has been connected with the emergence of new viruses, as well as other issues. ​This is an area to develop in the curriculum I would say. animal-human-health d) Service sector - service sector has been badly affected by the lockdown, and also certain sectors placed at increased risk of job losses. This includes food services and entertainment of course, with pubs and music venues closed. The world’s largest service industry of course is ​Tourism​, and this is unlikely to be back to anything like normal for at least six months with many countries closing their borders to international tourists. A recalculation of the P/S/T employment mix may be needed. e) Garment workers Various campaign groups were quick off the mark to publicise the plight of garment workers. upply-chains?fbclid=IwAR0pfQvjJ4vZM6aLNZImo3N2PtTGsju4NhYljif17sQQZRxSSIApdmn 53vQ Many garment workers feared for their lives with a lack of social distancing. Fashion Revolution was an important account to follow in this area as it kept track of stories relating to garment workers and how they tried to cope. Also ​Follow the Things Facebook page is an important resource here. 31
  32. 32. Some companies like Primark cancelled crucial orders. rmg-purchasing-contracts-1890838 Vietnam’s workers were in debt and worried eu-garment-workers/5364643.html Check our Dana Thomas’ ongoing work to explore how garment workers are being affected here: ​​ - excellent interview​ - education toolkit The Clean Clothes Campaign have published a report on ​Garment Worker exploitation in Japan. e-substantial-risks-during-coronavirus-outbreak- This final article connects sections e) and f) f) Supply chains Just-in-time economies have been disrupted. This has caused issues for many industries which relied on supplies arriving just when they were needed. Perhaps we need more teaching about the nature of supply chains perhaps and the vital work of logistics. This is one area which we always did well at my current school. I am working with one of the country’s leading logistics companies to put together a teaching resource on this topic. It will be appearing in the next couple of months. Or perhaps we recalibrate the idea that we could order one day and get it the next day, and relearn the act of patience e.g. queueing to walk into a supermarket. 32
  33. 33. Shipping containers are an important technology here. Mariners on container ships were relatively safe there and could be tracked on MarineTraffic continuing their global wanderings. ​ Will we start manufacturing closer to home if this is possible? 3D printers have certainly been used by many to start printing PPE: a big well-done to Patrick Carberry, Head of DT at my school for printing and distributing PPE to local health care agencies and pharmacies. It seems that quite a few teachers have gone to a similar effort to support local healthcare workers. Suddenly the face mask is the most important commodity it seems: -pandemic?CMP=share_btn_fb&fbclid=IwAR0upcfvvGj6TR1lFkrSt2m55IGfiJO4fzH0QngmW l0QWHloXwf7TUu0-wM BBC Radio 4 programme on this theme: ​ In Business Programme - Radio 4 How can companies change their way of working? Some thoughts here avirus-world/ As China’s supply lockdown passes the six-week mark, we are reaching a tipping point. With only a slow build-back of supply from China, we are inevitably going to see shortages of key components across a range of sectors. The type of exports affected by the lockdown in China’s Hubei province are garments and textiles; mobile phones; electronics; medical products; small components and machinery. Therefore, the disruption caused is likely to be seen mainly in automotive, consumer electronics and pharmaceuticals, meaning the immediate impact on European consumers will be less directly felt. To finish the Economies Section, check out ​Kit Rackley’s latest ​GeogRamblings video, released at the end of March 2020. 33
  34. 34. This explores the potential downward spiral of the de-multiplier effect which countries find themselves in with people not spending money as they normally do because of fears over their wages in the medium term producing financial uncertainty. There is plenty of useful advice here as well as an analysis of the situation. Image: Kit Rackley of GeogRamblings - used with permission Caiti Walter has produced an excellent free resource here: It accompanies a programme on BBC Sounds. g) Remittances Thanks to Paul Ganderton for this article on Remittances. 34
  35. 35. d-home-in-cash-135602?fbclid=IwAR3K7Girt-N6Mlvx1bTCm2b53qKeChyv1jKTswS3MMkf0 xL1QrgR6lsfEig These are the financial flows which head back to countries like the Philippines from those residents who work in other countries, and often earn more money than they could if they stayed at home. These payments help support large numbers of families, whose spending is then ‘multiplied’ in the economy. How will the reduction in flows of people and finances potentially impact on those families involved. Migrant workers aren’t as well supported during the pandemic, and also are likely to contemplate a return home if that is possible. In 2019, an estimated 200 million people in the global migrant workforce sent home                            US$715 billion (£571 billion). Of this, it’s estimated ​US$551 billion supported up to 800                            million households living in low- and middle-income countries.  h) Corporate Social Responsibility  There’s an element of this in the previous work on garment workers / links to globalisation, but it’s worth considering this as a new topic for discussion when teaching about industry and the role of TNCs. Some companies are particularly affected. Primark had no sales at all in April: s-248m-stock-hit/ The way firms treat their workers will be remembered after this is over. i) The death of the Office as a workplace An excellent piece in the Economist, with wonderful illustrations (this is a golden period for those to be created) on the death of the office and why we don’t need it anyway… j) The social contract Start with this on the social contract from the Financial Times 35
  36. 36. "Governments will have to accept a more active role in the economy. They must see public services as investments rather than liabilities, and look for ways to make labour markets less insecure." "As western leaders learnt in the Great Depression, and after the second world war, to demand collective sacrifice you must offer a social contract that benefits everyone.” What is clear is just how awfully the Government handled the pandemic from mid-February onwards. Their lack of action has massively increased the death toll. And the last line of that article: Beyond the public health war, true leaders will mobilise now to win the peace. And we will need to keep our distance for quite some time. This Lancet piece places the clapping in context. It’s simply not good enough. wAR2AiQeb38O4UcMewUjXuRz7eRImg-g8JlaMp8fvqVqq7uMhQP3RSXuC-RE “Allegiance, after all, has to work two ways; and one can grow weary of an allegiance which is not reciprocal.” James Baldwin 10. Development and Inequality Inequality​ is as big an issue as ever. The definition of key workers was explored by ​George Monbiot ​in a tweet. Some are reminding us that there is a gap between those of us that can quarantine because of the jobs that we have, or our ability to work from home. Also mentioned in this piece here: g-world-were-not-all-in-coronavirus-together?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other China points out the ​digital divide: k&module=RelatedLinks&pgtype=Article The ​Joseph Rowntree Foundation reminds us that this is also the case in the UK of course: Along with this article: The Food Foundation report is here: ​ 36
  37. 37. YouGov Report is here: ​ You can browse through all the graphics here: Social distancing is a dream for many, particularly in Indonesia, refugee camps and other such places. e.g.​ ng-a-looming-disaster-135436?fbclid=IwAR2n3VTWJW9LXn7NK3Q6UJIx-0h41DYiOGE619 dVaV0ibgn6UHTWU9Rgfr8 A race element to the pandemic began to emerge in the USA too 37
  38. 38. With this piece from the Washington Times (click for limited free articles each month to read it) avirus/?arc404=true A powerful quote: And this report has images of empty hotels in Las Vegas, and yet the homeless sleep in taped off boxes in a car park: Even in London, this is not easy sometimes - interesting use of Datashine here to identify areas with crowded households and little access to open space without some sort of intervention... Here’s ​Emily Maitlis​ on Newsnight doing a very good job of debunking the myth that this is a ‘great leveller’ - some people are at greater risk, some people are always at greater risk. Wealth inequality is visualised here - thanks to Paul Turner This was a theme followed up by Owen Jones: oom-cleaners-offices?fbclid=IwAR0bdkacNKk-kgfJIV2HcgxXjsV_un34fRE9NGx6YP2bztPRt 3le4Uk7WR4 38
  39. 39. And a reminder that ​some will be profiting at this time​, including business with connections to prominent politicians although price gouging is presumably still being monitored: onavirus-crisis The link between inequality and pandemics is explored in this Guardian article: MP=fb_cif&fbclid=IwAR2_UK2fXIZGQ4ArF7KO4Vi21I1hdfFjYT5BWmN_2vosEg7YXFv5rCLr PEU Perhaps the best piece on this was written by the remarkable Rebecca Solnit who always seems to get the right tone. She wrote in a piece in the Guardian. acism-sexism-inequality Read this. Nearly everyone on Earth is, or will be, affected by this pandemic but each of us is affected differently. Some of us are financially devastated, some are gravely or fatally ill or have already died; some face racism outside the home or violence within it. ​The pandemic is a spotlight that illuminates underlying problems – economic inequality, racism, patriarchy. ​Taking care of each other begins with understanding the differences. And when the virus has slowed or stopped, all these problems will still need to be addressed. They are the chronic illnesses that weaken us as a society, morally, imaginatively, and otherwise. And on the 1st of May, we had confirmation of the inequalities within the UK being reflected in Coronavirus deaths. It is becoming clear that we acted too late, and without a clue of who was infected because of no testing and tracing, we had no chance unless we locked ourselves away… and now they want teachers to be the next profession in line? reas-in-england-and-wales 39
  40. 40. Graph copyright: The Guardian With 55.1 deaths per 100,000 people in the most deprived places compared with 25.3 in the least deprived, the King’s Fund health thinktank demanded the government focus new resources to reverse health inequalities as the crisis eases. This could be connected to other health factors which are also found in the more deprived areas of course. rus-is-mounting-even-if-youre-young-137081 Here’s the London borough of Newham: k-worst-affected-area?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other NESTA was hoping for a more inclusive Scotland after Covid-19 - this piece is developing over time: 11. Changing relationship with leisure time and working hours With people adapting to home working, if productivity stays the same will more people want to work from home in the future and this will change the nature of work-life balance perhaps, and also the nature of the ‘separation between work and home’ which commuting offers along with associated nature of costs / insurance / tax implications. 40
  41. 41. 79.html Hopefully we may see an end to celebrity culture as well, although they are desperate to remain in the public eye by ‘teaching us’ how to do stuff, and even trying their hand at being teachers. aining-coronavirus/608452/ Workers who are clearly the most valuable will hopefully have a large pay rise, particularly those in the NHS. Let’s also consider the wage rate levels which allow workers to remain in the UK. And perhaps cancel Brexit while we’re at it. Will the internet be able to cope? This New York Times article has an excellent illustration by Pete Gamlen exploring whether the infrastructure will be able to cope with us all working from home. ml?referringSource=articleShare 12. ​Demographics a) Natural Increase: a baby boom or bust? One would imagine that if people were in the house together for weeks there would perhaps be a baby boom nine months later. But will people actually keep their distance within the home as well? There was even a page on the BBC News website answering questions people were asking about whether sex was still safe. From seeing images of people outside carrying on as normal even in late March, one would suspect that there may be a mini baby boom in December / January - more Capricorns, which is the best star sign. These experts think there won’t be a baby boom: Could there be a slight change to the population pyramid in some countries if the virus disproportionately affects older people? "There's no way that the number of births is going to go up," says Kenneth Johnson, a professor of sociology and demographer at the University of New Hampshire. "This is not the kind of environment in which people say, 'Let's bring a child into the world now.'" b) Migration Where are people heading during this time? Did extra migration happen because resources were diverted elsewhere. Coronavirus as a reason for migration and as unwanted as other people 41
  42. 42. 8 How were migrants coping? Even social distancing could be argued to be a luxury. Migration is featured here. Coronavirus is described as ​the great amplifier. 13. Globalisation and geopolitics Our increasingly interconnected world has contributed to the spread of the virus. Will this be an end to globalisation? Several commentators have talked about this issue, and it is likely to form part of a future geography curriculum to explore the unravelling of some of its strands. Borders have been shown to be meaningless in many ways, but in some cases have also been locked down to prevent access e.g. Iceland banned flights. Will this mean an end to Globalisation? Parag Khanna, who wrote the book ‘Connectography’ comments on this in an interview with Andrew Keen 42
  43. 43. Listen to the interview and read the article It’s also worth keeping an eye on the tweets of ​Klaus Dodds: This LSE piece is useful and has some relevant quotes: -test-posed-by-the-covid-19-crisis/ The use of the term, the “Chinese Virus” by President Trump is an example of the geopolitical theme here (could also relate to ideas of soft power) The final sentence is useful: “We are likely entering a new phase of the globalization drama, but it is not at all certain that it will be one defined by countries around the world building walls and pulling up drawbridges.” Emmanuel Macron piece is also relevant here. In the FT which offers limited reads of articles: ​ In terms of approaches to the virus, there’s an interesting piece here on whether different types of governments handle pandemics better - is authoritarian better than democratic? pandemics-better-pub-81404?fbclid=IwAR3IU7lqD2p0gcR45gscFvHrlZUK2mD1zbTCa1_JO yHeOYEvJj2kPt-xFlE If a leader is a denier like Jair Bolsonaro this can have major implications: A piece by Madeleine Albright which returns to her previous points about Geography being particularly important. 43
  44. 44. 14. Carbon Footprints At the moment we are driving a lot less and travelling less generally. Industries are shut down, lights are turned off in millions of retail premises and these producers of carbon are much reduced. What is the link between the increased streaming of data we are all using, and the production of carbon. How much carbon are we creating by staying at home? Each Google search produces carbon, so how much does Netflix streaming generate? flix Carbon Brief have tackled this theme as they have other carbon related topics and fact checked some other claims. It seems the amount of carbon produced is a lot less than some people estimated, and isn’t counteracting the benefits of staying at home and doing some of the other activities that we have started to do instead. Greta Thunberg - some recent tweets on this theme. Thanks to Kate Stockings for this idea to use these quotes from Greta’s book to spark discussion about the continued threat that this poses, not least as we enter hurricane season. 15. Tourism The issues with tourism have been forgotten in those locations which used to have them. There is a realisation of how many jobs were reliant on the visitors. I’ve seen some tweets saying how people miss the tourists... Totnes - Ben King has been sharing images on his morning exercise through this Devon town. Here’s a view which one would hardly ever see, taken by Ben King. 44
  45. 45. Image copyright: Ben King - used with permission Some people are concerned that areas like Devon and Norfolk will see surge in cases after lockdown is lifted as people travel there in large numbers. They could also be the areas where there are the most job losses: ost-lockdown-job-losses?fbclid=IwAR2F3VoW3RcoJsqyfqR8WQ1fpi6ktyxac15bb9yXo3Uqg 8Bt9GON4UFjwQw Will we see more virtual travel? VR is being used by some during lockdown to try to escape from their reality. uring-pandemic-and-beyond/ Travelling to places may also have its issues e.g. seating arrangements on planes, boarding, disinfecting etc. iotic-social-distancing-rules?CMP=share_btn_tw Indeed airlines may well be forced to merge or close down: ts-as-covid-19-bites-1.4237445 I wonder what the impact will be on the price of international travel. Some reports suggest ​second-home owners are accessing the business support that is meant for small businesses as well, although they are unlikely to be living there: And in the meantime, it seems unlikely that with 14 day quarantine restrictions in place for those wanting to enter most countries, that overseas tourism is unlikely to restart in 2020 nst-race-to-restart-tourism-idUSKCN22806H Thousands of Icelanders have lost their jobs including many coach drivers for Gray Line who serve the schools that visit the island. Some places are looking at this as an opportunity to reboot, such as the Austrian ski resort of Ischgl which is planning to ditch its party tourism reputation after it became a cluster for infections in the early days of the pandemic: y-tourism-after-covid-19-lockdown One theme has emerged over the last week in this area. However, the real ‘winners’ may be the resorts in the UK as overseas travel is unlikely to be as easy therefore the STAYCATION is likely to be the norm for a while ​and some places are poised to hopefully return to successful trading and a boom in visitors (with the short term associated risks involved) 45
  46. 46.!preferred/0/package/21 1/pub/211/page/105/article/37685 Global travel will reduce for a while, affecting the many people globally who rely on tourism. Case Studies on this will have to change. 16. Crime Smartphones track us wherever we go, often without people realising. Surveillance will be used to ensure that people don’t break curfews. We have cameras to check average speeds on roads which tag cars using ANPR, so those who drive when they are supposed to be at home can be identified as they appear on numerous cameras which are far from their home area. When I travelled to school during lockdown, which is an almost 50 mile journey I made sure I had my lanyard, ID, teacher union membership card etc. Yuval Noah Harari mentions this in his piece for the FT: There was a very good report on the BBC News in mid-April showing the extremes of surveillance and control in China, including monitoring of people leaving apartment blocks in cities with thermometers to check on fever etc. ALthough the temperature checking may not be as effective as people think, it is this surveillance and compliance which some countries are used to, and others aren’t. A US commentator reminded people that some of the measures introduced after 9/11 which was in 2001 are still in place 19 years later, giving the government additional surveillance powers. Civil liberties need to be balanced against the other regulations. It showed how mobile phones can be used to trigger warnings when people find themselves in particular locations which may be more risky. ance-to-tackle-outbreak 46
  47. 47. As one would imagine, recorded Crime is well down as people are all at home. rop-in-recorded I imagine ​car crime​ is also down as people’s cars are outside their homes / inside garages. However, with so many businesses closed down and not perhaps checked on for some time, there may well have been some commercial / business premises which have been targeted by criminals. Tracking is being used in South Korea: ctions?fsrc=scn/tw/te/bl/ed/emergencyexitgovernmentsarestartingtoeaserestrictionsinternatio nal&__twitter_impression=true A linked resource here (pun intended) 17. Transport The key type of transport to be affected by this is air transport of course. ng-global-air-traffic ear/ Heathrow is closing one of its runways in early April -close-british-airways-latest-news-a9444556.html Road traffic reductions have taken traffic back to 1955 levels apparently, and traffic speeds are up as a result, particularly when it comes to the ‘rush hour’. Designing streets that save lives 47
  48. 48. Addition by Helen Young: This article by the BBC considers whether working from home will be the new norm for many, questioning the need for improvements to transport infrastructure: Jo Ward is a transport planner and shared her thoughts here: Travelling for business - will Zoom replace many meetings in the future as people realise that they can still meet and make important decisions? How secure are these meetings? Or will travelling become the preserve of the rich? Meanwhile CityMapper has a Mobility Index for cities around the world. This was useful as cities started to shut down. Drag the top banner with 1 week ago, 2 weeks ago etc to see the figures rise as we go back to before the lockdown. This article on the use of Smartphone Data has an image of the Oculus irus-privacy-advocates-n1162821 Compare with my image taken on April 15th 2019 48
  49. 49. Many people are enjoying the reduced traffic flow to be able to enjoy cycling and even walking more safely. The associated pollution is not something people are missing. Daniel Whittall ​sent me this article on the city of Milan, which is going to expand its cycle network in the future - Belgian cities have been ahead of the curve on this for years. traffic-pollution We could also see more adoption of the banning of cars with older, more polluting engines as again happens in many European cities, with LEZ (Low Emission Zones) I can see an activity perhaps where students map where these should go in their own home town or city. Ironically, London has currently suspended the Congestion charge to support key workers travelling to work, as have cities in other parts of the world. The Congestion Charge in London is £11.50 per day, Monday to Friday. ad-user-charging-schemes-in-london The death of the car? Probably not: wAR36t8mGkpqlltZuVX5K18z_jqS8nj6enhHe_Wi50Q1S-oQ8dkdP-XYZZSc 49
  50. 50. Ola Rosling of the Gapminder Foundation appeared this week with a new video exploring the realities of the impact of flight reductions on carbon dioxide emissions and climate change. Can be viewed on YouTube: ​ Apple’s mobility data came out in late April. Here’s the graph for London. 50
  51. 51. 18. Geographies of Convenience Speaking of convenience, public conveniences usually have a supply of toilet paper, which was more than could be said for supermarkets in the run up to the enforced home isolation for many, as the shelves were cleared. This later moved on to flour and yeast as everyone started baking. Using local services where possible. Village shop = higher prices? Or did people find that the local butcher was competitive on price after all. I’ve had in mind a unit on Geographies of Convenience on my KS3 curriculum for some time - perhaps now is the time for it to make an appearance. 19. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Will this stall progress on the Sustainable Development Goals? It seems very likely. The United Nations published a report in March 2020 19.pdf Since then several pieces have talked about the humanitarian tragedy that is going to unfold in places like India, and others which have an informal economy which is driven by personal contact. 51
  52. 52. Here’s an image via Koen Timmers 20. Food Security The world’s food system is in a fragile state. Multinational companies have written to members of the G7 and G20, asking them to keep borders open so that food flows. There are fears that this might double the number of people who are malnourished. Currently this stands at around 820 million people but it could well double according to some estimates, and those 110 million most at risk are in even greater danger. The letter ends with this phrase: Getting the food system right is central to a resilient recovery across the world, creating the potential for millions of new jobs, less hunger, greater food security and better management of key natural resources: soil, water, forests and the oceans. -going-hungry?fbclid=IwAR2MDfzASEWp5MFO7GmCddh_0DhvkKoijnTr6wi9LVHSCBYzG4 eDA4SF5sI Worth checking out the Twitter discussions around this. 52
  53. 53. Led me to this useful piece with some quotable quotes: ecurity-by-thanawat-tiensin-et-al-2020-03 What and how we eat affects our health and wellbeing. We depend on farmers to                              continue working their fields, on supermarket cashiers to show up at their jobs, and on                              drivers to deliver our food to markets or front doors. But there are strains. In some                                places, nutritious food is becoming scarce. Among other concerns, food is being                        hoarded, leaving little on shelves for consumers.  All of us must act. We must work together to save lives, meet immediate needs through                                emergency responses, and plan for longer-term solutions to support recovery and                      build resilience. Governments and responsible leaders need to promote and protect                      reliable, safe, and affordable food supplies, especially for the world’s most vulnerable.  Diagram above is from Professor Corinna Hawkes And here’s the FAO: cial+media&utm_campaign=fao 53
  54. 54. As well as the issues with food shortages there are also examples of food surpluses in some countries, with Belgians being asked to eat frites twice a week to tackle a potato mountain: oronavirus-potato/ In the short term, food security has been helped by access to Food Banks, but they are being hit because of a shortage of donations and also availability of volunteers. They are also seeing an increased demand because of the lack of free school meals for many who are entitled to them but can’t go to school. Vouchers are also not working smoothly for some. Here’s a statement from the Trussell Trust which operates many food banks. People are turning to them who have never been before, such as furloughed workers a9432501.html 21. Superpowers: Hard and Soft Power The changing power dynamics of countries. How will China, Russia and America be changed economically by the virus - what about soft power? onavirus?fbclid=IwAR0qsPC6fe1hWDmOK17EvPJ7eVjyFw31DORjnAgRJIHfbjhx2kR0fs0D2 GQ emergencies/ Where will Britain be on this table in a year or two’s time? ​ China’s links with other countries and debt: debt-hold-on-struggling-nations?fbclid=IwAR3MixnZjSkOfOAIEDtMwoDnpAuhjPa1nbfUWr6q h1Cqq_uRFa2N3-u16Ig 54
  55. 55. 22. Sense of Place Thanks to Paula Owens for the lead to this excellent article which I have now referred to several times in other work as well. I contacted the author as well, who it turns out majored in Geography: AR22kAWXebfVp3LQc8asO9hBgQ2J9lJJwFwodx6ODkmPzu2-ynG67wALAio THE PANDEMIC IS redefining our relationship with space. Not outer space, but physical space. Hot spots, distance, spread, scale, proximity. In a word: geography. Suddenly, we can’t stop thinking about where. People are engaging in placemaking with their rainbows, painted stones, yarnbombing etc. 23. Energy Before the lockdown it was suggested that we might all be using so much energy there would be power cuts, but of course we don’t have the industrial and transportation usage of energy and public buildings are closed. We now have far more domestic energy use - bills are going to rise for sure. There are also some peaks through the day, such as lunchtime and early evening. Remember that you can keep track of how our energy is being generated on the trackers of the National Grid and you may be able to see these peaks. Might make a good activity I guess if someone wants to put it together I can add it here. The lockdown has also seen a major milestone in terms of coal use. Thanks to Claire Kyndt for this image: 24. New Communities A Corporate Social Responsibility piece in the Geog Mag by Mary Martin explores the potential impact on communities and how they may change: sses-aligning-their-goals-with-that-of-local-communities-dr-mary-martin Also the village of Eyam was back in the news, as an example of one who dealt with a previous plague. Paul Berry wrote a blogpost about the village and how it dealt with the plague. al-isolation-in-the17th-century/ 55
  56. 56. No community is going to be unaffected. Our village has a range of notice boards and help for elderly people. One aspect of many communities in picturesque areas is the number of second homes. While some may have holed up there, many owners will have been unable to visit for a while. These empty homes are not helping the local services who are needing support at this time. I’ve spent more in my local butcher than I usually do over the last month. 25. Surveillance (link to D3 Erasmus Project) This project explores the use of open data in daily life Google Mobility reports These are useful documents. - available for most countries. I’ve been exploring these. The 2nd set of reports was published on April the 9th with others coming out at intervals and sometimes being picked up by local newspapers e.g. the EDP in East Anglia picked up the 16th of April report. These were joined by other technology firms to start to trace the movements of 3 billion people in April and May: acing-to-3-billion-people Contact tracing is the phrase used, also explored by Hannah Fry in her 2018 GA Conference Keynote lecture at the University of Sheffield. Here’s how it works in a BBC video: d-how-does-it-work Thanks to ​Michaela Lindner-Fally for the tip off to this piece on the modelling of contact and spread for the city of Salzburg. This is a European centre for the use of GI, and I’ve been fortunate to visit many times and also to teach courses at the University there. A translated version of the article is here: Exc3tXZ5FKTGEMJgxxY1JLQA0 A Charlie Warzel piece in the New York Times on technology in March 2020 considered how it was starting to find a new audience in the lockdown. 56
  57. 57. It’s been a big week for what I refer to as “​Hermit Tech.” Stock in technology companies that facilitate working from home have soared in a spiraling market otherwise anxious by an impending coronavirus pandemic. Netflix is preparing for the server strain of the bored but quarantined masses. Expensive Peloton stationary bikes and streaming workout services are seeing substantial spikes in interest. Tech guides are ​popping up suggesting ​everything from noise-canceling headphones, Wi-Fi signal boosters, and productivity hacks for families who’ll need to make close quarters work and life livable. Sometimes we want to know where we are of course: Explores the work of what3words (w3w) at this time as well. 26. Geography of Disease This unit in ‘A’ level specifications will obviously never be taught the same again. There will be one case study to rule them all... Pandemics are obvious risks, as mentioned in a previous section. eful-response-to-the-coronavirus-crisis/?fbclid=IwAR31Nz0lxHd-Vcx9UtLk4vfMxaAlq1PIJq7 KJ5r9TJ4r5eJHvJqfHJTOITw The Government’s advisors in SAGE had warned of them in 2019, and given specific guidance on preparations. This is connected with the work that we do when discussing disasters such as tectonic hazards and the preparation and planning that needs to be put in by communities at risk - in this case, ​every​ community is at risk. This blog post from 2016 also sounds a warning years ago about viruses that would emerge: ical-lives/ EUROMOMO​ is a useful collation of mortality statistics. The MOMO stands for mortality monitoring ​ There are graphs and maps showing excess deaths for countries across Europe. This could also be one occasion where smoking is actually good for you: an-non-smokers-to-fall-ill-with-covid-19?fsrc=scn/tw/te/bl/ed/covid19smokersseemlesslikelyt hannonsmokerstofallillwithcovid19scienceandtechnology&__twitter_impression=true The Lancet’s Covid-19 area: ​ Epidemiologists talk about the SEIR model 57
  58. 58. Source: The Economist 27. Borders There will be some interesting dynamics once countries re-open or ease lockdown, particular in border areas where one country does something different to another. There’s an extreme example here, which has featured in a number of textbooks of a complicated border, between Belgium and the Netherlands. It’s the area called Baarle Hertog and Baarle Nassau. There is a clothing shop called Zeeman which straddles the border, and one half is open while the other half remains closed: -coronavirus/ lgium/ Will this lead to new negotiations and tensions along borders? 58
  59. 59. C: Geographical Skills and Tools 28. Fieldwork Can we still do fieldwork in times of lockdown? The ​Geographical Association shared ideas on its ‘Geography from Home’ page which I put together: And how will fieldwork change afterwards? The ​Field Studies Council has their fieldwork live lessons running through the Summer term, starting on the 20th of April. See the link to my draft ​Outdoor Curriculum Document in the Pedagogy section of this document. I intend to teach outdoors as much as possible for the second half of the Summer term and the first half of the Autumn (Michaelmas) term. It’s a work in progress. Phil Smith shared an excellent idea for walking in a time of virus - quite psychogeographical of course. yuORLbvFONZk9qhwuo3JoARpIHFNKWZVJWD5G3JmERt3sBz2-s Thanks also to Sharon Witt for the tip off to ​Gillian Judson’s Walking Curriculum which is free for Kindle if you are an Amazon Prime subscriber. ties/ This contains a number of different walks on curriculum themes. What an opportunity and it can’t really be done at the moment, to explore the impacts of this on our public places as their usage declines. Google is doing this through ​data aggregation. 59
  60. 60. Those with an urban view e.g. overlooking a public place would be ideally judged to do this sort of work as well. ​Sophie Raworth​, the BBC newsreader shared images from her run commute to work: ​ Thanks for David Morgan from the FSC for the lead to a document produced by Deborah Lupton which provides some guidance on fieldwork during the lockdown, aimed at higher level students in social studies but useful for guidance nonetheless. /preview My colleague Claire Kyndt is working on a lovely idea of a dérive to look for signs of the pandemic: signs, rainbows in windows, painted stones, messages of support, instructions in shop windows etc. Perhaps an iSpy book as mentioned in the GA Geography from Home section. 29. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) This is coming into its own in terms of capturing and mapping the pattern of spread of the virus, and may now become more mainstream as a result. The ESRI dashboard for example has been viewed millions of times and the use of GIS to explore aspects of supply chains etc is also very helpful. 3467b48e9ecf6 ESRI have an area of their website dedicated to their response: 74327858225ef31baa019 60

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  • mew_win

    May. 7, 2020
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    Jan. 21, 2021

New PC Geographies (post coronavirus) v3.0


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