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New PC Geographies version 9.0

New PC Geographies version 9.0

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New PC Geographies version 9.0

  1. 1. 1 New Geographies : New Curriculum PC (Post Coronavirus) School Geographies A provocation & some curriculum making ‘Geography, likeall dynamic areas of disciplinary thought, isin a constant state of becoming’. (Lambert & Morgan, 2010) Alan Parkinson V9.0 Late August 2020 Cover image copyright: Tony Cassidy - used with permission All Alan Parkinson’s text shared under CC license - other material copyrighted.
  2. 2. 2 Moments of crisis, such as the one we are living, are deeply painful in ways that cannot be underestimated. The social and emotional impacts of Covid-19 will be felt even after we return to normal global health conditions. We will emerge, albeit more slowly, from the unprecedented economic paralysis. The question is how we emerge: whether we return to the ways of the past or whether we derive valuable lessons, to emerge wiser and better equipped to continue to deal with our longstanding emergency of climate change. The coronavirus tragedy has shown that we are only as safe as the most vulnerable among us and that cross-border threatsrequire global, systemic solutions, as well as individual behaviour changes. Over the past few weeks, governments and businesses have acted swiftly to mandate drastic, but necessary measures to stem thecoronavirus, keeping people indoors, grounding air travel, cancelling events and closing borders. Citizens, equally, are uniting to shift their behaviour en masse, by working and teaching their children from home, washing their handsmore frequently, protecting the elderly, and helping neighbours shop for food. The Covid-19 pandemic hasunleashed humanity’s instinct to transformitself in theface of a universal threat and it can help us do the same to create a livable planet for future generations. Christiana Figueres, former chair of UNFCCC Source of the quote: https://www.carbonbrief.org/coronavirus-what-could-lifestyle-changes-mean-for-tackling-climate- chanhttpsge Pestilence is so common, there have been as many plagues in the world as there have been wars, yet plagues and wars always find people equally unprepared. Albert Camus ‘La Peste’ (1947) “The lessonforpeople tounderstandis this is the year of living differently.Not,‘OK,it’s over’.Youhaven’tjustbeenletoutof school.You have done well.Youhave reallybroughtdown your numbers.So,now isthe momenttocelebrate thatbybeingsupercareful.” Dr Margaret Harris, WHO,June 23rd 2020 And we’re prepared, and we’re doing a great job with it. And it will go away. Just stay calm. It will go away. Donald Trump, President of the USA on 10 March 2020
  3. 3. 3 The powerful front cover of the New York Times for 24th May 2020
  4. 4. 4 Contents - Contents p. 4 Introduction p. 7 Thinking through the changes p. 17 Geographical themes and possible changes p. 21 Physical Geography topics 1. Landscape processes and change p. 21 2. Land use p. 22 3. Weather and climate / air quality / weather hazards p. 23 4. Tectonics p. 25 5. Our relationship with nature / Ocean Plastics p. 28 6. Plate Tectonics p. 31 7. Biodiversity p. 31 8. Water Cycle and Hydrological Processes p. 32 At the interface between physical and human 9. Climate Change / Emergency p. 33 Human Geography topics 10.Urbanisation p. 34 a) Urban spaces and hierarchies (and the return of communities) b) LIC urban areas c) Sounds of the city d) Future city centres and urban design e) The role of neighbourhoods f) Urban resilience g) Desire lines h) Recovery from the Coronavirus 11.Employment: primary, secondary and tertiary p. 50 a) Retail & the changing High Street b) Gig Economy c) Agriculture d) Service sector e) Garment workers f) Supply chains g) Remittances h) Corporate social responsibility i) The death of the Office as a workplace j) The social contract k) Games Industry booming
  5. 5. 5 l) Droning on m) After the furlough ends... 12.Development and Inequality p.74 including #BlackLivesMatter p.84 13.Changing leisure time and working hours p.85 14.Demographics p.87 a) Natural increase - a baby boom or bust? b) Migration c) Non Covid-19 mortality d) Twentysomething issues e) Population pyramids f) Gender issues 15.Globalisation & Geopolitics p.90 16.Carbon footprints p.94 17.Tourism - a changed industry p.96 a) Tourism closing down b) Tourism reopening again 18.Crime p.104 19.Transport p.106 20.Geographies of Convenience p.112 21.Sustainable Development Goals p.112 22.Food Security, Food Banks & the importance of diet p.113 23.Superpowers: Hard and Soft Power p.119 - The UK as an emerging market? 24.Sense of Place p.122 25.Energy p.122 26.New communities p.123 27.Surveillance (link to D3 Erasmus project) p.123 28.Geography of Disease p.125 29.Borders p.131 30.Van lifers - modern nomads p.131 31.The ultimate ‘postcode lottery’ p.132 32.The island mindset p.133 33.Geographies of the Anthropocene p.134 34.GDP - time for another measure of the economy? p.134 35.Culture p.136 36.The Earth Project p.137 37.Politics p.138 38.Overseas Aid p.139 Geographical Skills and Tools 39.Fieldwork p.139 40.Geographical Information Systems (GIS) p.141 41.Statistical Literacy p.143
  6. 6. 6 Pedagogical Approaches and thinking incl. DPSIR p.145 ★ DPSIR ★ Erasmus Projects - D3 and GI-Pedagogy ★ Geographical Enquiry ★ Image stimulus ★ Critical Thinking ★ Group Work in Teams - new ways of working PC Curriculum Making - some early thoughts p.149 ★ Do we need a curriculum of recovery? ★ Teaching about Covid-19 - GeographyalltheWay ★ International perspectives ★ NEAs Back to school - September 2020 thoughts p.161 ★ A curriculum for learning outside the classroom Changing exams in 2021, and an early update for the Specifications? p.162 A better world ahead? p.164 Profiting from the pandemic? p.171 Reading list and References incl. ‘Slowdown’ p.172 Appendices p.181 - Lockdown Dérive by Claire Kyndt Testimonials p.185
  7. 7. 7 Copyright: Brian Stauffer https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/12/coronavirus-killing-globalization-nationalism-protectionism- trump Introduction Welcome to V9.0 of this document, which has been re-edited and had substantial additional content blended in during July and August 2020, as we moved into an unusual summerbreak, schools broke up and ongoing discussions over mask usage continued. The Eat Out to Help Out scheme was launched, and we saw headlines suggesting that pubs would have to close to keep the schools open. Some international borders reopened and tourists headed abroad, shops reopened, beaches were rammed, and we waited for the 2nd spike. During this time we passed the grim global milestone of ten million cases and over 800 000 deaths from Covid-19 globally. I’ve continued to embolden what I think is particularly valuable content, which is feeding into a final ‘resource’ outcome from this project. Some key trends and areas are starting to emerge now and this is going to connect with the work the GA are doing on their GEO project. I’ve been in touch with several people including an Awarding Body, and have been asked to start to put some ideas down in a form which can be used to ‘update’ teaching for GCSE Geographers. I’ve also been working on updating my KS3 curriculum for
  8. 8. 8 2020-22 and factoring in content from here. To mark the areas I’m developing, I’m making use of one of the new UNOCHA icons for the Covid-19 response. When you see this icon, it marks an area of the document which I’m starting to write up as a new resource. If you have seen or read earlier versions of the document, you will perhaps notice several new sections in this version. It’s good to see in the long tradition of academic geographers informing the school subject that this is also a feature of the next phase of curriculum development. There’s a continued shift towards possible contexts for curriculum making and outputs from academic geographers. I’ve also changed the laterstages ofthe document as I look aheadto returningto school in some way in September. Early on in the process, Steve Brace led me to a George Monbiot article, published in ‘The Guardian’ on May 12th, where he referred to elements of the Geography curriculum that geography students current and recent will be very familiar with: “No one is embarrassed when a “well-educated” person cannot provide even a rough explanation of the greenhouse effect, the carbon cycle or the water cycle, or of how soils form.” Of course, anyone currently learning GCSE geography is familiar with those things and George was in danger of joining others at this time providing unwanted advice to teachers on how to do their jobs - something that we are the experts at. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/may/12/coronavirus-education-pandemic- natural-world-ecology The title of the article suggests that we need to rethink everything, starting with education: This document makes a start on thinking about what that might look like for geography education at least. Pandemics may well end up being the mother of invention as with previous global crises: https://www.1843magazine.com/design/rewind/why-global-crises-are-the-mother-of- invention
  9. 9. 9 Why did I create this document? The idea to create this document came about from some thinking through the weeks of lockdown about the eventual return to school and teaching back in the classroom at some future point. I added a post to the LivingGeography blog on March 13th, with the title ‘The Eve of the War’ connecting to a section in HG Wells ‘War of the Worlds’ where ordinary life carries on as normal although the Martians were already here. This was a strange week, and lockdown happened at the end of it. In my final week at school before I self-isolated in mid- March, I was teaching what had previously seemed to be ‘important’ topics but was constantly thinking as each day passed “this doesn’t really matter anymore…” or rather that the context had changed and meant they were not as significant. This is significant as a choice to teach a particular topic at KS3 means a decision not to teach something else. It also has a bearing on the powerful knowledge students are introduced to, and then encouraged to explore further. I started thinking in particular about what I/we (as a subject community) will be teaching in Geography when we return in the Autumn term. The actual logistics of this are being developed through the summer, and also potentially going to continue for a few months. While writing a biography of every President on my GA Presidents Blog, which can be read at http://gapresidents.blogspot.com I’ve encountered numerous occasions where the subject has changed in response to particular global events or new ways of thinking. The pandemic has already had an impact on many geographical topics, and places that are studied at all key stages, and may result in another ‘turn’ in the subject. For the GCSE and ‘A level (and equivalent) exam specifications, they will remain as they are - there have been no plans to change them, no consultations on those changes, and probably no desire to either. The assessment plans for 2021 are changing, as I discuss later in the document. Some elements of the geography in the specifications will have changed out of all recognition by the time we return, as will many of the topics taught lower down the school. Our own motivation for continuing to select those same subjects to devote curriculum time to will also change. To give one example, jobs which we previously thought of as being important to protect in the garment industry may well be swept away by the cancellation of contracts, and the contraction of the industry. The close confinement of sweatshop workers would also increase their vulnerability to the virus, and stories soon started of desperate workers travelling to find work and having to face impossible decisions: to continue working, or to starve. It was also a reminder that some people in the UK, who may have voted for political decisions which tried to stop migrants from making the effort to escape war zones, were now struggling to cope with the fact that the pubs were shut and they might have to stay at home and read a book, or were fighting over toilet roll and preventing those who had worked all day to save lives from buying the basics for themselves. Others moaned about the need to wear a mask to protect others, including retail workers who faced significant increased risks of contracting the virus. Here then is a chance to challenge the status quo or press the ‘reset’ button on a few topics. It may also be a time to explore a stronger connection with the idea of the
  10. 10. 10 Anthropocene. This virus emerged as a result of human lifestyles and was transmitted rapidly by our globe-trotting lives and access tocheap air travel. The document also shows the impact of human decisions, political and otherwise on the extent to which certain human-defined areas of the planet (we’ll call them countries)were impacted. New Zealand returned to ‘normal’ quickly, the USA is seeing a spiralling death toll presided over by Trump. What we are likely to be teaching when we return will need to be adjusted. I’m already thinking that I want to ‘firm up’ the geography in what I teach, and reflect the changes that will have happened during school closure/lockdown and remove some of what could be called the more ‘trivial’ geographies that are in the National Curriculum and other school based curricula which (I and others) have developed over recent years. John Morgan has previously referred to these as ‘zombie geographies’ - they refuse to die and are still found in curriculum documents: https://www.open.edu/openlearn/ocw/pluginfile.php/631194/mod_resource/content/1/geog_t 1_10t_3.pdf A few themes have emerged since March in the growing number of items I've been reading for what may also become some ‘new geographies’ or even new theories of the way that things work in future economies and society. I started to pull together somethoughts and ideas in the first phase of this work (versions 1-6 ish and now from version 7 onwards I have started to move towards the creation of some new curriculum materials for the return to school in some format for a new PC Geography curriculum. These ideas also fed into a book I wrote during this period on why geography matters. I am not an academic geographer, and I know that geography academics in their different geographical specialist areas are thinking about their own area of expertise and how it may change their teaching too. I’ve comeacross some of those ideas, but I would love to hear from you if you have started developing your own ideas in this area and have made a start on the thinking, or have identified someof these stories emerging in the media, or via your own social media contacts. There is a free editorial in the RGS’ ‘Transactions’ which has some of these emergent ideas: https://rgs-ibg.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/tran.12389 - PDF The climate emergency will require even more concerted global action, and this must be a major element of the new curriculum. With the cancellation of COP26 which the UK was due to host, this has built in further delays into the world getting together to solve this crisis which is far more ‘visible’ and urgent to many. Greta Thunberg completed her 100th climate strike Friday during July 2020. Another thought is will we actually want to teach about Coronavirus (preferring to try to forget it about it, particularly if our family or friends, or members of the wider school community have been touched by tragedy, and inevitably those of our students and colleagues). Is it too raw for a good while to be an object of study, or is it something that we just should be teaching? Just as earthquake drills are taught and practised in earthquake-prone areas, perhaps we will need to cover pandemics and their spread so that we are ready to act more promptly if there are further similar events in the future. Lessons are being learned currently, so should these lessons also be learned (and taught) and what role do geography teachers have in this role?
  11. 11. 11 Just to say that I do not intend teaching about Covid-19 as a topic, at least in the short term. What about some of the other topics we’ve traditionally taught which are also potentially problematic for some students and colleagues. Should we be more empathetic, and focus on more positives? I’ll explore that idea too and use some of David Alcock’s emergent ideas on Hopeful geographies. It’s worth remembering that the risk of Pandemic influenza has always been there. Do we use this to explore topics like resilience, and disaster management - the Sendai Framework perhaps? Another thing to consider is the student voice as well. Will there be students who are happy with the way that they have been learning during lockdown and want to avoid a return to what they had before? Or will the majority crave a return to teacher-led instruction and someone telling them what to do - even the rest that comes from listening to the teacher talking, which means you can sit there and do nothing for a few minutes. How will our bubbles work? John Morgan has talked about the NZ situation and the rise of ‘disruptive education’. https://schoolingcapitalism.wordpress.com/2020/06/20/we-dont-need-no-disruptive- education/ He quotes Andreas Schleicher: ‘You’regoing to havea lot of young peoplewho haveexperienced differentformsof learning in the crisis, learning thatwasmorefun,moreempowering.They will go backto their teachersand say:can we do thingsdifferently?’ But concludes: A genuinely ‘disruptive’ approach to schooling, I conclude, would pay much more attention to what students’ learn, rather than where and how they learn. He talks about the changing nature of the public’s view of teachers and the curriculum and concludes. Now, more than ever, we require ‘disciplined understanding of disciplines’: making sense of Covid 19 – a triple crisis of public health, economy, and social continuity –requires frameworks for understanding the ‘ways of the world’ These can come from Geography of course. Well worth reading, and provides a real rationale for continuing with this work. I was reminded by someone who posted a section of Hans Rosling’s essential ‘Factfulness’ book that Hans had warned us that Pandemics were something we did need to worry about. What a huge pity it is that Hans is not here to guide our response and work with WHO as he did during the Ebola outbreak that he helped with in 2015. However his son Ola came out with some useful thoughts, and they were included in the 4th version of the document and later. Hear Hans talking so clearly about the work here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=60H12HUAb6M In it, he describes a number of things that we should be concerned about and Pandemic is in there alongside Global Warming, as those who have read ‘Factfulness’ may remember. There’s also an understanding of the risk of Pandemics in the Government’s own Risk Register
  12. 12. 12 - something I referred to previously in a unit we taught called ‘Risky World’, which I guess will be one we reevaluate next time round. Here’s an image taken from the 2017 version of the document, which Brendan Conway reminded me of recently, which has pandemics illustrated at the top of the intensity scale. There was even a ‘practice-run’ evaluation of systems a few years ago. And yet knowing this, few preparations were made, and vital equipment wasn’t stockpiled when it should have been. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-risk-register-of-civil-emergencies-2017- edition Image copyright: Gov.uk - National Risk Register of Civil Emergencies Lives were lost needlessly as a result: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jun/07/uk-failure-to-lock-down-earlier-cost-many- uk-lives-top-scientist-says Tory sleaze has piled on sleaze with decisions benefitting companies connected with various individuals and wasted money on a shocking scale after years of austerity when apparently there was no money: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-53672841 There has been a lot talked about the climate crisis, and the actions of Greta Thunberg and others to popularise and publicise the desperate need for change have started to galvanise young people, and geography is the appropriate place for this to happen in the school curriculum. I’d like to see more personal action being part of the Geography curriculum: practising what we are preaching perhaps. Our lockdown means an end to many of the practices that we have become used to: easy consumption, take-away coffees, pub lunches, air travel, clothes shopping etc. Several important articles have started to shape my thinking. Geographyis firmly back on the agenda, as outlined in this essential Wired piece by David Wolman:
  13. 13. 13 https://www.wired.com/story/amid-pandemic-geography-returns-with-a-vengeance/ - not that it ever went away, or had vengeance in mind of course.. Pandemicthrowstheimportanceof spacebackinto sharp relief. We’re thinking aboutit at the smallest scale,navigating supermarketaislesorconverting closetsinto serviceablehomeoffices. Erik Steiner The theme was also picked up by Marshall Shepherd in Forbes https://www.forbes.com/sites/marshallshepherd/2020/03/05/why-the-discipline-of-geography- is-a-key-part-of-the-coronavirus-fight/ And on the death of nostalgia: https://www.economist.com/1843/2020/07/20/the-death-of- nostalgia?fsrc=scn/tw/te/bl/ed/coronavirusthedeathofnostalgia1843 Lewis Dartnell, author of ‘Origins’ wrote a piece for the BBC at the start of July on some of the changes that might be here to stay: https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20200629-which-lockdown-changes-are-here-to-stay The curriculumneeds to be considered as a process, and a continual work in progress. My curriculum is always changing from year to year in an iterative fashion. Rosalind Walker reminds us of this in this well written piece: https://rosalindwalker.wordpress.com/2020/04/24/curriculum-is-forever-but-not-how-you- think/ Dylan Wiliam spoke at an event organised by ResearchED about the current overloading in the curriculum. He said, quoted in the TES: "There is no doubtthatthere’sfartoo much stuff in ourcurriculum – I’vewondered aboutwhy thisis, and my conclusion isthatcurriculumdeveloperscannotbearthethoughtthatanychildren mighthave spare time on their hands. So they actually make sure there’s enough stuff in the curriculum for the fastest-learning studentsto beoccupied allyear.And so there’sfartoo much formoststudents - some teachersjustteach thecurriculum,they metreit outand they go frombeginning to end and20percent of the kids get it and the rest don’t – I think that’s logically consistent but immoral. When the curriculum’s too full, you have to make a professional decision about what stuff you’re going to leave out, and the important point here is that not all content is equally important.” So perhaps now is the time to drop someof that ‘trivial’ stuff I mentioned earlier to make space for greater thinking about futures and a changed world. At the same time, we are waiting for a vaccine, which may well be the most rapidly produced in medical history - a good thing. Bill Gates, writing in ‘The Economist’ set out some important things to consider including the fact that we have a long way to go. https://www.economist.com/by-invitation/2020/04/23/bill-gates-on-how-to-fight-future- pandemics “When historianswritethe bookon the covid-19 pandemic,whatwe’velived through so farwill probably takeup only the first third or so. The bulkof the story will bewhathappensnext.”
  14. 14. 14 There have also been 2 editorials in RGS journals on the Pandemic: Progress in Human Geography https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0309132520920094 by Noel Castree, Louise Amoore, Alex Hughes, Nina Laurie, David Manley, and Susan Parnell There are several questions asked in this document. This one is particularly relevant: How might attempts to make sense of COVID-19’s geographies affect the way we do Geography and define ‘progress’ in the discipline? As part of this, are there older approaches, ideas or methods that might usefully be revisited? Conversely, what might we need to invent in order to address absences in our cognitive and normative tool box? The journal Transactions of the IBG had a different approach. https://rgs-ibg.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/tran.12389 They have a virtual edition from May 2020 which is worth exploring by those who want a higher level analysis of the geographical connections.
  15. 15. 15 Impressively, the Summer 2020 issue of ‘Geography’ - the GA’s key academic journal - also included an introductory piece on the impacts of Covid-19, written by Steve Puttick, which was very well written and ties in perfectly with the spirit of this document’s creation, talking about the link with the geographical concept of scale: The movement between scales is dizzying, from measurements in micrometers, through hyper- connected international travel infrastructure to millions of infections, hundreds of thousandsof deaths, and trillions of dollars. And from the global dashboards through which we view the charting of infections, deaths, recoveries, and forecasts, back into the space-times of our homes, where – at the time of writing, at least – most of us must stay. COVID-19 has brought the deeply unequal nature of our world into sharp relief as these experiences of ‘staying home’ continue to mean wildly different things across all-too-common gendered, racialised, and classed fault lines Image copyright: Geographical Association Download a digital copy here - and don’t forget to join the GA: https://www.geography.org.uk/Journals/Geography The School of Geography at the University of Melbourne got stuck in with a useful contribution in late July. https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/the-geographies-of-covid-19
  16. 16. 16 This has also been described in the Conversation piece here as a ‘sliding doors’ moment: we can go one way or the other - getting better or far worse. https://theconversation.com/coronavirus-is-a-sliding-doors-moment-what-we-do-now-could- change-earths-trajectory-137838 Also, interesting piece by Tim Harford on our potential memories of the lockdown: https://www.ft.com/content/32d79c87-1ade-4b63-8d14-7af1a553d963 In early July, the OECD published a report on the impact of coronavirus on education. Thanks to Karl Donert for posting a link to this. It may well have somerelevance for the thinking of many educators, beyond the practical procedural thinking that has gone into preparing for reopening in August or September 2020 and will no doubt continue over the summer as government guidance, and the local rate of infection changes. OECD report is here: https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/view/?ref=133_133390-1rtuknc0hi&title=Schooling-disrupted- schooling-rethought-How-the-Covid-19-pandemic-is-changing- education&utm_source=Adestra&utm_medium=email&utm_content=Learn%20more&utm_c ampaign=OECD%20Education%20%26%20Skills%20Newsletter:%20June%202020&utm_t erm=edu&fbclid=IwAR1LBwv99YfI-- xvP2mp5CdAX9LSy7Seewhc9CJIi_oPtx9LGpaR4TVWg8I Economist podcast: FOR MANYof the 1.5bn pupils affected by school closures,fewer lessonsjustmeansmore labour—or worse. That spells a lifetime of lost earnings, and lost childhoods. https://www.economist.com/podcasts/2020/07/16/ten-million-children-in-poorer-countries- may-never-return-to-school-after-this-closures-high-cost Schooling disrupted, schooling rethought
  17. 17. 17 It includes 15 suggestions for things that schools need to do. We’ve heard a lot about the need to rebalance the system. We will certainly need to ensure that geography remains part of the curriculum. With that in mind, it’s time to get on with the geographical thinking and curriculum making for Post-Corona Geographies. Thinking through the changes One of the prompts that initially got me started on the production of this document was a tweet from Helen Young: the original GeographyGeek.
  18. 18. 18 I wondered whether there were indeed studies going on, although fieldwork is going to be difficult - data collection via Google Form / Survey 123 etc. could be possible, and I’ve used some myself. There was also a Guardian article by Adam Tooze on the link with the economy which was one of the first I added into v1.0 of this document, and very early on identified the tension between protecting lives or protecting the economy - now there’s an enquiry section in time. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/mar/20/coronavirus-myth-economy-uk- business-life-death This piece by Neal Lawson provided further ideas at this early stage of v1.0: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/mar/19/coronavirus-stripping-state- society I was also really interested in this piece by Stuart Dunn on the Digital Humanities - he works in the field of GIS which also connects with the GI Pedagogy ERASMUS project that will be mentioned later in the document and has been ongoing during this time, and needed to adapt to the changing circumstances of course, as with all the work I’ve completed. https://stuartdunn.blog/2020/04/03/what-and-versus-how-teaching-digital-humanities-after- covid-19/ Stuart’s post led me to an existing roundup of posts in the same field as this document, but at a higher level of education: https://digitalhumanitiesnow.org/2020/03/editors-choice-covid-19-roundup/ Along with some thoughts on separating the signal from the noise from Futures https://jfsdigital.org/2020/04/03/triple-a-governance-anticipatory-agile-and-adaptive/ Further important thoughts came from Paul Ganderton on the Facebook group set up to support Geography Teachers during Covid-19 by Matt Podbury: https://www.facebook.com/groups/geographycovid19 Follow the Australian educator Paul Ganderton here: https://twitter.com/ecogeogfor a lot more on this topic. It’s worth saying that thanks to my employment and the excellent librarian Dr. Inga Jones at my school’s Porta library, I have subscriber access to New Scientist, The Economist and the Wall Street Journal. This means I have included reference to some articles which you may not have full access to. I’ve also got a personal subscription to the New York Times, which is very much recommended for an alternative perspective on world events, including the Pandemic of course. GA eConference 2020 Teachmeet
  19. 19. 19 I used the production of this booklet as my theme for the Teachmeet which formed part of the GA’s eConference 2020 which replaced the face-to-face event due to take place in Surrey from 16th-18th of April 2020. I put together a quick 2 minute LOOM video for use in the event. You can see the link to the video here and watch if you like: https://www.loom.com/share/2dad4d5d47a64d2e833d3d3d2e3483dc Here’s another LOOM video - this time for the Discover the World Education Teachmeet which was held in early June - a variation on the GA one as a different audience. https://www.loom.com/share/88d5e3fda2114f69ba902945794ccad1 I also used it at the first GA Sheffield Branch Teachmeet in early July. Ben Hennig and Tina Gotthardt, over at WorldMapper have been tracking the cases and producing regularly updated maps and animations. Check in for the latest maps and animations. They are all shared under CC license. You are also able to support their work if you feel able to. https://worldmapper.org/map-animation- covid19/ The latest update was added on the 31st of July 2020 https://worldmapper.org/maps/coronavirus-cases/
  20. 20. 20 Cases January - June 2020 Mortality rates Images copyright: Worldmapper - shared under CC license New animation of cases were updated on the 3rd of August. https://worldmapper.org/map-animation-covid19/#&gid=1&pid=1 You can see the second waves in the pulses of the animation. Also check out some aerial images which show the impact: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/06/coronavirus-covid-19-pictures-aerial-pandemic- above
  21. 21. 21 Geographical Themes and possible changes These ideas are currently presented separately, but in reality, a piece of work in a classroom would often need to connect several of these together, and bring in further appropriate questions, analysis of text and images and some sort of final presentation format and review. There would be options to create separate elements for GCSE and ‘A’ level units. From version 7 onwards, there has been a shift towards curriculum making. A: Physical Geography themes 1. Landscape processes These will largely be unchanged of course, and may be our refuge with memories of the landscapes we could visit when we were allowed out sustaining many through the lockdown, dreaming of mountains we wanted to climb and places we wanted to return to after an absence. Several of us made lists of the places we intended to visit as soon as we were able. Rivers have continued to behave as always for the last few months, and waves have reached the shore as usual. Rivers will still flow downhill, and waves will still hit the coat every few seconds. The landscape can be one permanence in our lives, and in the curriculum… I’m working on a unit on the development of The Fensas a consequenceof the pandemic, to encourage people to get out into this landscape explained so well by Francis Pryor in his recent book on ‘The Fens’, and using a couple of other relevant books as well. Watch this space for links to that new unit, which I will share as always once it is ready. Landscapes being reclaimed by the wild. Goats reclaimed the streets of a Welsh village - coming down from the Great Orme into Llandudno. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/apr/02/llandudno-goes-from-ghost-town-to- goats-town Ghost town to goats town - the new kids on the block etc. were the headlines. https://edition.cnn.com/2020/03/31/europe/wild-goats-wales-streets-lockdown-scli- gbr/index.html Spanish officials sprayed a beach with bleach. Not sure if that would speed up chemical weathering in the area, but worth discussing perhaps. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/28/spanish-official-apologises-for-spraying- beach-with-bleach-coronavirus Coastal Management
  22. 22. 22 Many sand dune ecosystems need management including fencing to avoid trampling of the marram that holds them together. The Maspalomas Dunes on Gran Canaria are apparently recovering their natural look after years of damage from tourist visitors: https://www.greenme.it/informarsi/natura-a-biodiversita/dune-maspalomas/ Isolation caused by relief The mountains of Wales may have helped Ceridigion have the lowest rates of infection in Wales: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-53142088 "Ceredigion hasat least in partbeen protected by its geography,"agreed Prof MichaelWoodsof AberystwythUniversity."Weknowthecoronavirusspreadsprimarily through closecontactbetween peopleand the lower population densityin rural areasmakesit more difficult.The relative remotenessalso meansfewerpeoplehere were travelling backand forth to places with high numbersof caseslike southWales,the West Midlandsand Merseyside." 2. Land Use I would be interested to see how the landscape is changed as a result of decisions made during lockdown. e.g Agricultural use of land. This Tim Lang book came out March 2020. Has it already been overtaken by events? ● Forestry land left unmanaged. ● Reduction in construction projects. ● Floodplain development reduced. ● Housing densities questioned. Would the UK’s land-use as recorded by Daniel Raven Ellison in his wonderful ‘The UK in 100 seconds’ be different if he was to remake it in a few years’ time? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0drvdLYGNuc&feature=youtu.be https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5i1vuFK7ZQw A debate started about opening access to golf courses for open space, which connects with ideas of public and private land ownership, and rights of way. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/fca14214-7bcb-11ea-b535- 542bda4e2a5f?shareToken=c31eca40f84593cdc35621d7b79271f2 Dan mentioned this on his Twitter feed as well, showing how much land was being taken up by golf courses which were closed at the time. Farm tracks were sometimes closed to prevent people walking near to the farm houses.
  23. 23. 23 Public space is going to prove valuable as town centres reopen: https://news.trust.org/item/20200615091609-7dluu/ More on this in the urban section. It will also need to change: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2020-06-29/what-happens-to-public-space-when- everything-moves- outside?utm_content=citylab&utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=soci alflow-organic The notion of being in public or the idea of publics is explored here: https://www.societyandspace.org/articles/spaces-of-publicness There was a similar theme to many stories regarding people travelling to rural areas. Rights of Way which run close to farms have been chained off, and somepoliticians have been forced to resign for breaking lockdown (whereas some people kept their job). https://theconversation.com/coronavirus-holidays-stoke-rural-fury-135779 - this also relates to the use of second homes in rural areas and the impact on rural communities, but gives the story a different dynamic. Thanks to Claire Kyndt for this story. This I think will become more significant when the lockdown lifts even more significantly and the school holidays start, as people will head to places like Devon and Norfolk, for example, bringing the virus with them into areas with relatively low population density. There were signs that locals weren’t happy about this in many locations with hand made signs going up early in the lockdown. The loss of local jobs may once again change the perception here. 3. Weather and Climate / Air Quality / Weather Hazards We should consider the short term impact in carbon reduction and whether it might help any country towards meeting carbon emission and air quality targets. Europe’s air was certainly getting clearer during lockdown: https://twitter.com/i/status/1248669136676425735 (video on this link) Skies have emptied of planes - will we (be able to) go back to flying when this is all over? In late June it emerged that Boeing was scrapping its fleet of 747s ahead of schedule (they had been due to disappear by 2024) Will there still be the same number of airlines / competition for flights / cheap flights? It seems unlikely. https://www.carbonbrief.org/coronavirus-what-could-lifestyle-changes-mean-for-tackling- climate-change Car pollution also briefly halved according to this study: https://www.breakingnews.ie/ireland/ucc-study-shows-pollution-from-cars-halved-since-start- of-the-lockdown-laws-1000392.html In India, there were visual signs that the air was clearing as well: https://www.sbs.com.au/language/english/audio/himalayas-visible-for-first-time-in-30-years- as-pollution-levels-in-india-drop https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/apr/11/positively-alpine-disbelief-air- pollution-falls-lockdown-coronavirus In early June however, as the lockdown eased and ‘normal’ life resumed, air quality levels rose back to pre-Covid levels in China very quickly, and Europe will soon follow suit:
  24. 24. 24 https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jun/03/air-pollution-in-china-back-to-pre- covid-levels-and-europe-may-follow This was perhaps because people were avoiding public transport so congestion increased. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jun/11/carbon-emissions-in-surprisingly- rapid-surge-post-lockdown https://www.mprnews.org/episode/2020/08/04/what-the-pandemic-has-revealed-about- climate-change-views-activism Can cities keep their air clean? Some ‘blue-sky thinking’ is needed perhaps: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jun/07/blue-sky-thinking-how-cities-can- keep-air-clean-after-coronavirus The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) is concerned about the impact of Covid-19 on the observation system. It also describes some of the effects of reduced air traffic which they have already observed, for example in flight observations of temperature and wind speed are an important part of the observation network. https://public.wmo.int/en/media/press-release/wmo-concerned-about-impact-of-covid-19- observing-system Also check satellite data here: https://www.lobelia.earth/covid-19 Imagine the issues of trying to deal with a disaster (I’ll avoid involving the word ‘natural’ there) with all the additional complications of the coronavirus. https://edition.cnn.com/2020/04/18/politics/coronavirus-natural-disaster-response- fema/index.html Typhoon Vongfong hit the Philippines in mid-May https://news.yahoo.com/typhoon-forces-risky-evacuations-virus-hit-philippines- 095530725.html
  25. 25. 25 There may be some short term changes to our carbon emissions, but not the long term ones required to change the climate - by which I mean decade long reductions towards net zero. Cyclone Amphan hit Bangladesh and India, forcing the evacuation of 1 million people: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/18/india-prepares-to-evacuate-a-million-as- cyclone-amphan-nears and June saw the start of the Hurricane season. Sylvia Knight recorded a podcast for the RGS-IBG, which included a section on links between the weather and Covid-19 - listen here: https://www.rgs.org/schools/teaching-resources/a-royal-meteorological-society-update-on- weather,/ https://soundcloud.com/rgsibg/a-royal-meteorological-society-update-on-weather-climate- and-covid-19-dr-sylvia-knight 4. Tectonicsand disasters The lack of human activity has reduced a lot of the background noise which seismometers have to be calibrated to ignore / account for https://www.theguardian.com/science/2020/apr/06/lockdown-has-cut-britains-vibrations- seismologists-find https://weather.com/en-IN/india/coronavirus/news/2020-04-05-coronavirus-lockdown- reduces-earth-seismic-vibrations https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-52509917 There are also fears that other hazards such as earthquakes may happen, and people will be unable to help each other for risk of infection. This is a real fear as we move into Hurricane season as mentioned previously, and Cyclone Amphan has battered Kolkata. Ilan Kelman seminar on his book: Disaster by Choice - recommended reading https://youtu.be/ITnv52i3S4Q “A situation requiring outside support for coping” is his definition of a disaster Bangladesh was suffering in late July with monsoon flooding following a supercyclone: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2020/jul/24/a-critical-situation-bangladesh- in-crisis-as-monsoon-floods-follow-super-cyclone?CMP=Share_AndroidApp_Tweet Also 3 Atlantic hurricanes heading for the Caribbean. 5. Our relationshipwith Nature... The closureof so-called ‘wet-markets’,which are found all over the world and not just in China, for the sale of ‘bush meat’ and other animals needs to be stopped to avoid another pandemic emerging in the future. We had another outbreak at a market in China in mid-June as a reminder of this possibility. At the root of the problem is a social phenomenon called “human- wildlife conflict”. This is when the interests of humans and the needs of wildlife overlap in a negative way. https://theconversation.com/most-laws-ignore-human-wildlife-conflict-this-makes-us- vulnerable-to-pandemics- 135191?fbclid=IwAR37QneFaWgUeG7KQ3JpEgBjEj_Ub72HTpTmzfDd58qJEf4Z3XqVFx- SZGM
  26. 26. 26 Wildlife trade needs to stop - including imports of bushmeat and other species. In terms of food sourcing, cultural norms over bush meat and wildlife markets may now have to face more legislation if this does turn out to be the source of the outbreak, as it appears: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/06/ban-live-animal-markets-pandemics-un- biodiversity-chief-age-of-extinction - biodiversity A food related connection is discussed here: https://www.barillacfn.com/en/magazine/food-and-society/people-and-nature-lessons- learned-from-the-covid19-pandemic Can we make more space for nature? https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2020/jun/30/britain-beyond-lockdown-can-we-make- more-space-for-nature There is also a suggestion we may see more wild flowers. Council services are being cut, and focussing on the vital services, so verge cutting etc. may be stopped. The people with the closestlink with nature perhaps are the indigenous peoples suchas those who live in the rainforest areas such as the Amazon Basin, who live in harmony with the forest - they are its guardians in many respects - and who practice their farming techniques which many students will have learned about. Check out the Emergence magazine podcast here: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/negative-love-daisy- hildyard/id1368790239?i=1000488459974 This article suggests the virus may lead to the extinction of some of these groups: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-52139875 Worth remembering that tackling some issues with landscapes may also reduce risk of future pandemics - image from UN
  27. 27. 27 Image copyright: UN This relationship is explored in this piece from the 7th of May on our ‘promiscuous treatment of nature’. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/may/07/promiscuous-treatment-of-nature- will-lead-to-more-pandemics-scientists There has also been an increase in fly-tipping as council recycling centres are closed. https://www.edp24.co.uk/news/environment/lorry-load-of-waste-dumped-in-thetford-forest-1- 6613641 Many people cleared out their houses and wanted to do DIY which has created extra waste. Some councils are also burning recycling as there are fears over virus contamination of cardboard etc. Costing the Earth on BBC Radio 4 had some thoughts in an episode hosted by Tom Heap https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/m000h7yb Tom Heap talks through the environmental issues emerging during the coronavirus pandemic and asks what the legacy might be. He's joined by climate change expert Dr Tamsin Edwards from King's College, London to examine the effect of the lockdown. With millions of people now working from home, planes being grounded and fewer cars on the roads, what level of environmental improvement has there been, and will that be reversed once our lives return to normal? With the help of experts from the fields of climate change, remote working, ecology and environmental standards, we track the changes in air pollution and global temperature. What will the return to ‘normal' look like? With the UK aiming to be carbon neutral by 2050, Tom asks whether the pandemic can be seen as a trial run for a zero-carbon world. And, with the international climate meeting COP26 postponed, Tamsin considers how international climate targets might be affected. You can download the programme. I like how Tamsin is introduced as a geographer and Tom also declares himself as a geographer. It mentions removal of EPA environmental protections in the USA which may lead to further pollution.
  28. 28. 28 The world’s oceans are now much quieter places because of the reduction in the movements of shipping with fewer passenger vehicles e.g. cross channel ferries. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/apr/27/silence-is-golden-for-whales-as- lockdown-reduces-ocean-noise-coronavirus Perhaps time to fast forward some rewilding projects, such as Wild East https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/rewilding-east-anglia-wildeast-project-bison- lynx-beaver-reintroduction-uk- a9620696.html?fbclid=IwAR0P4EwPMqItNO3dQ_0VoGUTA3kL2iDHSNFIID6yu- 8CidYMMYNKUjQlrFQ https://www.wildeast.co.uk/the-mission Andy Owen shared this link to some satellite imagery showing areas which were paused - changing human behaviour in certain environments. https://www.planet.com/gallery/ I was interested in the collapse in price of legal abalones: an unusual ‘crop’: https://www.hakaimagazine.com/news/south-africas-abalone-black-market-is-being- squeezed-by-covid-19/ On the plus side, oceans are getting quieter due to fewer vessel movements: good for cetaceans, and the cleaner water is helping animals such as seahorses in Studland Bay: https://www.bournemouthecho.co.uk/news/18492172.studland-bay-seahorses-thriving- lockdown/ Any thoughts that we might have come to love and appreciate nature more during lockdown were immediately dispelled when guidance meant we could travel as far as we wanted, following the Dominic Cummings scandal. People flocked to Bournemouth beach several days running, and left human waste in burger boxes or in RNLI stations. People crowded into Liverpool when their football team won the Premiership football league. And signs like this needed to go up in London’s parks: ...and Ocean Plastics There has also been a dramatic rise in Ocean Plastics with the use of PPE / disposable gloves / endless tape and 2m distancing stickers on the floor outside premises which will degrade in the rain and sun: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/jun/08/more-masks-than-jellyfish- coronavirus-waste-ends-up-in-ocean - “more masks than jellyfish”
  29. 29. 29 https://www.euronews.com/living/2020/06/08/world-oceans-day-is-pandemic-protection- worth-the-plastic-pollution Image from LA Times article here: https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2020-06-13/coronavirus-pandemic-plastic-waste- recycling Image taken on the Soko Islands near Hong Kong. A Conversation piece: https://theconversation.com/coronavirus-face-masks-an-environmental-disaster-that-might- last-generations- 144328?fbclid=IwAR3s1AeDCXjsVRrPei5GTQiwLE9b_vdWIfYXNa6gc4UO_lhMFSGJ5mGo Mhc A sea of troubles and plastic as the “asbestos of the sea” in this article: https://www.economist.com/international/2020/06/22/covid-19-has-led-to-a-pandemic-of- plastic-pollution Single use protective equipment has been sold in hundreds of millions and people won’t want to keep it around as it is potentially infected (at least in the short term) Just imagine the plastic and glass to produce test equipment. What about those swabs… I guess they have plastic in them. A vaccine if developed would use all the world’s glass and more to store it. Are we starting to make those vials now? I doubt it… https://www.economist.com/international/2020/06/22/covid-19-has-led-to-a-pandemic-of- plastic-pollution Even discussions over UK vaccine manufacture and Russian hackers in late July 2020 https://news.sky.com/story/coronavirus-any-uk-vaccine-to-be-made-in-britain-for-fear-us-will- take-it-scientists-say-12030691 Professor Stephen Scoffham wrote a piece on the changing relationship with nature for the Canterbury Christchurch University’s Expert Comment blog in early June 2020: https://blogs.canterbury.ac.uk/expertcomment/learning-from-covid-19/ Andrew Mitchell wrote a piece for ‘Geographical’ magazine in mid June
  30. 30. 30 https://geographical.co.uk/opinion/item/3659-coronavirus-nature-s-10-trillion-dollar-wake-up- call-to-the-finance-sector Economists estimate the economic fallout from the Covid-19 virus pandemic could approach $10 trillion dollars, or around one eighth of global GDP. To prevent a recurrence of this crisis, we need to look less into human health, than into the collective blindness among regulators and within the financialsectorof the hugedependenciestheglobaleconomy hason biodiversity,and thedevastating impactson us all when our effect on these dependencies,becomesincreasingly unsustainable.Covid- 19 is nature’s $10 trillion dollar bite back, and this is just the beginning. Based on this earlier report: https://www.weforum.org/reports/nature-risk-rising-why-the-crisis-engulfing-nature-matters- for-business-and-the-economy Global Risk Report https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-risks-report-2020 Risk is also increasing as a result of contaminated waste. https://www.politico.eu/article/coronavirus-contaminated-waste-puts-garbage-workers-on- the-line/ BBC in late June published this piece and introduced the term “anthropause” which is quite neat. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-53113896 The UK-led team's aim is to study what they have called the "anthropause" - the global- scale, temporary slowdown in human activity, which is likely to have a profound impact on other species. Michael Batty from CASA UCL has written this important piece here. In it he references a short story by E.M.Forster called ‘The Machine Stops’ - this has been discussed by me previously on my blog, and also by fellow Primary geographers Steve Rawlinson and Tessa Willy at a recent Charney Primary Geography Conference: http://spatialcomplexity.blogweb.casa.ucl.ac.uk/files/2020/05/The-Post-Pandemic-City.pdf One to revisit and see the parallels for yourself. You can find the short story online in various places. An RGS piece by SImon Willcock from Bangor University on how we connected (or not) with nature: https://blog.geographydirections.com/2020/07/23/connecting-with-nature-during-covid- 19/?utm_source=Twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=SocialSignIn People have paused: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2020/jun/13/overcoming-fears-discovering-nature-what- i-have-learned-from-lockdown Some don’t want to go back to their previous lives.
  31. 31. 31 6. Plate Tectonics One would expect little change to the layout of countries, although Twitter user Karl Sharro https://twitter.com/KarlreMarks suggested how the world map would change in this tweeted image with socially distanced countries: 7. Biodiversity Given the fact tourists weren’t travelling to Thailand, there were benefits to some of the rare turtles such as the Olive Ridley who weren’t being affected quite as bad as in previous years:. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/apr/20/coronavirus-lockdown- boosts-numbers-of-thailands-rare-sea-turtles There is a connection here to work done previously for TUI with the Better World Detectives. That has all been placed in perspective now. May be worth writing a little update for the resources on the impact of the pandemic on the area. https://www.tui.co.uk/better-world-detectives/ 2020 is also the landmark year for biodiversity. That effort has been hampered by the arrival of the virus. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-52648577 A fascinating article was published in National Geographic in early July. It referred to horseshoe crabs, fascinating creatures. They have a primitive look to them.
  32. 32. 32 It seems they are also vital for our search for a vaccine. According to the article: Every year,pharmaceuticalcompaniesroundup half a million Atlantichorseshoe crabs, bleed them, and return them to the ocean— afterwhich many will die. This practice,combined with overharvesting of thecrabsforfishing bait,hascaused a decline in the species in the region in the pastfewdecades. Worth reading the whole piece: https://api.nationalgeographic.com/distribution/public/amp/animals/2020/07/covid-vaccine- needs-horseshoe-crab-blood 8. Water Cycle and hydrological processes In many cities, workers were out early spraying disinfectant. Benches, cash points and shop fronts are among touchable surfaces being sprayed with disinfectant. Councils want to reassure workers and shoppers that things are clean, but where does this disinfectant go but into drains and thus into rivers. What impact will it be having on riparian ecosystems in the long term? There was also a worrying report regarding potential mass graves in South Africa which would have an impact on groundwater supply - I suspect this would be an issue for other locations too: https://news.trust.org/item/20200515083907-r01e3/ There are also burial plot shortages in many cities https://news.trust.org/item/20200420071556-8usm5 At the interfacebetweenphysicaland human,we have severalother major issues: 9. Climate Change - the big one! Climate Change will still need to be at the heart of the curriculum when we return, perhaps even more so. The Greenhouse: What We're Learning I’ve avoided too much on this theme as it’s a whole extra booklet by itself. The reduction in carbon emissions through industrial closedown and far fewer journeys was obvious.
  33. 33. 33 https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/apr/12/global-carbon-emisions-could-fall-by- record-25bn-tonnes-in-2020 We’re also likely to see changes to school and hospital meals as a result of supply chains, but also the drive for less meat - one campaign here is the #20percentlessmeat campaign which has had some significant success. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/apr/16/school-and-hospital-caterers-vow-to- cut-meat-served-by-20 About a quarter of the UK’s population eats the food from these caterers https://www.publicsectorcatering.co.uk/psc100 in a typical working week http://20percentlessmeat.co.uk/let%E2%80%99s-do-what%E2%80%99s-right Check out the free Harvard Online courses in this area: This one explores the health impacts of climate change. https://online-learning.harvard.edu/course/health-effects-climate-change?delta=0 Perhaps we at least will see an end to ‘big oil’ https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/21/business/energy-environment/coronavirus-oil-prices- collapse.html?referringSource=articleShare There was a useful podcast for Earth Day 2020 discussingparallels between Coronavirus and Climate Change: https://podcasts.google.com/?feed=aHR0cHM6Ly9mZWVkcy5hZGtuaXQuY29tL2FwcC1zZ WFyY2gvY25uL2Nvcm9uYXZpcnVzLWZhY3QtdnMtZmljdGlvbi9hbGwvNzIwLzIwMC8&epis ode=Mjk2YTI0ZmQ2MTNiZTcxOGRhNTQxY2EwOWM1NGZlMDEubXAz&hl=en- GB&ved=2ahUKEwiSheWK7_7oAhXToXEKHShSCIQQjrkEegQIChAI&ep=6 Don’t forget to take Paul Turner’s Climate Change Ignorance Test https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSe_ucwzm5MfjprKxYqrr5mX8AVX2sS4SSh- O4hR9pQAyWaX1Q/viewform Mark Maslin’s piece too on the reports of warming climates in the future. https://theconversation.com/will-three-billion-people-really-live-in-temperatures-as-hot-as- the-sahara-by-2070-137776 https://app.educcateglobal.org/blogs/342403/experts-see-parallels-between-coronavirus- crisis-and-climate-change?fbclid=IwAR2h7IwBI8L4WCMhCcR4RJYASbuU-zmKGGlhlUNhx- tbJHZ6asTzJZBMa1A Also check out the RGS Policy paper on Net Carbon Zero published in early May https://www.rgs.org/geography/news/briefing-report-financing-net- zero/?utm_source=Twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=SocialSignIn For more on this, Paul Turner and Phil Bell organised the Big Climate Teach In for the 4th of July. Videos of the event remain online after the event has finished at the YouTube link here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z6Pzzt9d9yY&feature=youtu.be
  34. 34. 34 B: Human Geography themes 10. Urbanisationand Urban Spaces “This was the week our cities died” is the title of this provocative piece which got me going on somethinking in this regard, and the nature of our teaching on urban models and structure. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/mar/20/after-coronavirus-well-be-poorer- and-more-broken-but-we-might-be-more-tender-too Melbourne is also featured here. https://www.theage.com.au/national/victoria/it-s-a-tumbleweed-town-with-data-showing-cbd- getting-emptier-each-day-20200318-p54be7.html#comments Daniel Whittall suggested we are seeing new iterations of ‘the city’ or ‘urban spaces’ and we will see another iteration ‘post-covid’. I guess this document is suggesting we will have another iteration of the geography specifications and agreed powerful knowledge. a) Urban Spaces and Hierarchies (and the return of communities) Thanks to Claire Kyndt for this link, which started some thinking about the way we use urban spaces and how we live within them. https://theconversation.com/coronavirus-locked-down-italys-changing-urban-space-133827 Those people who live in rural areas have greater options when it comes to social distancing and finding a safe space to exercise. I am fortunate, in this respect, to live in a small rural village, eight miles from the nearest town but equally that means longer ambulance response times. Where we live is influenced by what we can afford.
  35. 35. 35 Lynsey Hanley has produced an essential piece of writing on the class divide here as a consequence. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/apr/07/lockdown-britain-victorian-class- divide?CMP=share_btn_tw In it she references another great thinker Joe Moran, in a piece from 2004. She also talks about the value of public parks and open spaces. Space– howit’sapportioned,howit’sgoverned,how it’smadeavailableto someand denied to others – is alwayspolitical.The middleclasses,accustomed to constantmobility whilevalorising thehomeas a place of comfort and safety, balk at the thought of being unable to up sticks at will. We are going to need parks and open spaces more. New Statesman: Why people need parks https://www.newstatesman.com/2020/07/why-people-need-parks We will also have to change the relationship we have with public spaces as businesses look to move outside and perhaps occupy pavements or squares: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2020-06-29/what-happens-to-public-space-when- everything-moves- outside?utm_content=citylab&utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=soci alflow-organic It seems that the Bartlett Centre of UCL is also definitely ‘on it’ with some thinking in the sort of areas that Helen wondered about earlier. “peoplesurvive difficultyby coming togetherascommunitiesof care, notpulling apartin a retreat into individualism” OluTimehin Adegbeye,2020 “Housing is a condition to theright to life” Laia Bonet,2020 The quotes above are an entry into this piece by Catalina Ortiz and Camillo Boano on housing as the key infrastructure of care, and the difficulty for many of social distancing in some housing designs. https://blogs.ucl.ac.uk/dpublog/2020/04/06/stay-at-home-housing-as-a-pivotal-infrastructure- of-care/ Check out this piece by Michael Batty of CASA in early July. http://spatialcomplexity.blogweb.casa.ucl.ac.uk/files/2020/05/The-Post-Pandemic-City.pdf A must read piece. The virus is now being used as a convenient reason to remove planning structures which are in place to protect land from unsuitable developments. Robert Jenrick has been busy saying various things over the first week of August. He has ignored advice on the “new slums” that will be built - he won’t have to live in them of course: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-53650657
  36. 36. 36 The piece is part of a series on Post Covid 19 Urban Futures put together by UCL - a useful blog and webinar series which will grow over time. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/bartlett/development/post-covid-19-urban-futures Journal of Futures Studies: https://jfsdigital.org/2020/08/18/pandemic-3-0-from-crisis/ The Alexandra Panman blog is also excellent: https://blogs.ucl.ac.uk/dpublog/2020/04/01/urban-economics-in-the-time-of-covid-19-what- happens-when-the-thing-that-makes-cities-great-also-makes-them-dangerous/ Inequalities are explored here: https://news.trust.org/item/20200217002430-yvuj7 This piece by Gaby Hinsliff suggests social pods of people as a future model. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/apr/23/social-distancing-social-pods- coronavirus-lockdown One particular urban space which may become at a premium is a space for a burial. Some cities have limited cemetery space, and that space is running out - I won’t make my usual joke here about cemeteries being ‘the dead centre of town’: https://news.trust.org/item/20200420071556-8usm5
  37. 37. 37 I think we may also see a move to the suburbs for space rather than small expensive flats in city centres: https://news.trust.org/item/20200602091720-utel6/ - for those who can afford to of course. This will also connect with greater take up of home working - if you don’t need to commute into the city centre you don’t need to live in the expensive commuter belt. Rightmove’s data shows searches for one bedroom flats have been replaced by searches for houses with gardens or some sort of open space: https://www.estateagenttoday.co.uk/breaking-news/2020/6/flats-fall-out-of-favour-with- buyers-says-latest-rightmove-publicity An exodus from London - counterurbanisation example for UK cities: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/jun/24/covid-19-sparks-exodus-of-middle-class- londoners-in-search-of-the-good-life A piece in the FT cautions city dwellers from the move. The idea of the rural idyll is one explored in the past by Richard Yarwood and others for the GA: https://www.ft.com/content/5d162f40-1825-4786-a278-d5f26bb68641 https://www.ft.com/content/449dd0af-438d-423d-9c94-249dfbd914bb - where to move for longer, fewer commutes Working from home in the countryside: https://www.ft.com/content/5dc60b96-669c-11ea-800d-da70cff6e4d3 b) LIC Urban areas Will the virus lead to a growing exodus from cities or will people still want to live close to services (and each other)? Here’s a SouthAfrican waste-picker on life under lockdown and the impossibility of continuing to work without risk. https://news.trust.org/item/20200407102057-bcmya/ Diana Mitlin also picked up someof the issues facing cities in the ‘global South’ in this blogpost https://www.iied.org/dealing-covid-19-towns-cities-global-south For those in Kibera, no work means no food, and quarantine is not an option: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/03/work-food-kibera-dwellers-quarantine-option- 200320052738905.html Follow Faith Taylor’s work as she maps Covid-19 interventions in the slums of Kibera: https://www.kcl.ac.uk/how-do-you-manage-covid-19-with-a-population-density-of-130000- people-per-square-kilometre However, could the climate which has caused issues for countries for decades have been a factor in low numbers of cases? https://www.ft.com/content/e9cf5ed0-a590-4bd6-8c00- b41d0c4ae6e0?fbclid=IwAR0BZXMh8Ab1RnA9bicGHumdK_voINyA1mKCZT- eftcQ8kOWv6qI7y6TiIk The Financial Times piece here is definitely worth reading. It is free to read and not behind the paywall.
  38. 38. 38 The article describes the potential impacts of warmer climate, a lifestyle where people are outdoors more, measures taken by governments and also the fact that African countries have the most youthful populations - something we explore with Year 9. In this pandemic,themaskrevealsfarmorethan ithides.Itexposestheworld’spoliticaland economic relations for what they are: vectors of self-interest that ordinarily lie obscured under glib talk of globalisation and openness.Forthedemagogueswho governso much of theworld,thepandemichas provided an unimpeachable excuse to fulfil their dearest wishes: to nail national borders shut, to tar every outsideras suspicious, and to act as if their own countries must be preserved above all others. Further reports have picked up on that same theme - the youthful nature of Africa’s population means that it has been affected much less than many were fearing. An important demographic theme to explore perhaps when looking at population pyramids. Perhaps another benefit of a wide-based population pyramid. c) Sounds of the city The virus is changing the aural map of cities. Bird song is louder. The skies are quieter. The Cities and Memory website has been collecting sounds of cities and now has a new lockdown sounds map to capture cities in these very different circumstances. https://citiesandmemory.com/sounds/ https://citiesandmemory.com/covid19-sounds/ - check out some of the sounds in a growing archive of entries as we moved into June. This article from Places Journal talks about the experience of the city through sound, a process called Auscultation. https://placesjournal.org/article/urban-auscultation-or-perceiving-the-action-of-the-heart/ An excellent read, with thanks to Stephen Schwab. Coughs and sneezes turn paranoid heads; ventilators whoosh in hospital rooms; streets go suddenly quiet,aspeopleshelterinside.Kidshomefromschoolcreatea new daytimesoundtrack,and neighbors gatheron balconiesin theevening,to sing togetheror applaud health workers.Asphysiciansmonitor the rattle of afflicted lungs, the rest of us listen for acoustic cues that our city is convalescing, that we’ve turned inward to prevent transmission. Urban areas may also be noisier from construction which may be allowed to continue later: https://news.sky.com/story/coronavirus-building-sites-to-increase-working-hours-til-9pm-in- residential-areas-11987801 It also featured on Radio 3’s ‘Late Junction’ programme: https://audioboom.com/posts/7560668-stayhomesounds-on-bbc-radio-3-late-junction For some home is not a safe place. Katherine Brickell explores this in a piece here for RGS blog: https://blog.geographydirections.com/2020/07/08/stay-home-stay-safe-a-political-geography- of-home-in-covid- times/?utm_source=Twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=SocialSignIn d) Future city centres and urban design
  39. 39. 39 https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/26/life-after-coronavirus-pandemic-change- world https://blogs.ucl.ac.uk/dpublog/2020/04/01/urban-economics-in-the-time-of-covid-19-what- happens-when-the-thing-that-makes-cities-great-also-makes-them-dangerous/ - mentions Edward Glaeser and the importance of density, and the comments thread is also interesting. Some cities are giving over space to transport other than the car: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/11/world-cities-turn-their-streets-over-to- walkers-and-cyclists Rachael Unsworth mused on the potential for improving things as regards transport: http://www.createstreets.com/moving-on-moving-better/ It included a quote from this Carbon Brief collection of views: https://www.carbonbrief.org/coronavirus-what-could-lifestyle-changes-mean-for-tackling- climate-change#5mike Also efforts to reduce light pollution in future cities: https://www.citylab.com/life/2019/11/dark-sky-night-stars-netherlands-light-pollution-map- nacht/601846/?utm_content=citylab&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter&utm_campai gn=socialflow-organic Paris is planning to give less space to cars to help with the 15 minute city idea, which was introduced by city Mayor Anne Hidalgo in February, influenced by Carlos Moreno. This will be one of the first resources that I produce as part of the next phase of this resource. “ville du quart d’heure” https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2020/04/paris-cars-air-pollution-health-public-transit- bike-lanes/610861/ Melbourne has a similar 20 minute model. https://www.planning.vic.gov.au/policy-and-strategy/planning-for-melbourne/plan- melbourne/20-minute-neighbourhoods I’m investigating the work of Carlos Moreno in this area for an early resource as part of this document’s impact into the classroom. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jun/14/cafe-society-spills-on-to-paris-cobbles-as- drivers-bid-to-reclaim-post-lockdown-streets
  40. 40. 40 https://www.citylab.com/environment/2020/02/paris-election-anne-hidalgo-city-planning- walks-stores-parks/606325/ Hidalgo’s manifesto promises: https://annehidalgo2020.com/le-programme/ A Paris to live in, a Paris that innovates, a Paris that breathes, A Paris in common. An interview with Anne Hidalgo in July in Time magazine had some useful quotes for this piece as well regarding not wanting to go back to how the city used to be. https://time.com/5864707/paris-green-city/ There’s also a related article in the ‘Globe and Mail’, featuring a number of Canadian cities. A very useful piece. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/editorials/article-want-to-build-a-better-city-it-only- takes-15-minutes/ With the Olympics set to open in Paris in 4 years time this is an interesting time to follow developments in this city for the next few years perhaps with students who are setting off on their KS3 journey in September 2020 - a longitudinal case study…. The games are planned to be close to the city centre using existing venues. https://www.paris2024.org/en/# - see menu top left to access more information. Master plan below (draft) - the paralympic plan also available from the same site: This is an area to be further developed. C40 Cities - they have a Knowledge Hub: https://www.c40knowledgehub.org/s/?language=en_US https://www.c40.org/
  41. 41. 41 https://twitter.com/c40cities Financial Times piece: https://www.ft.com/content/c1a53744-90d5-4560-9e3f-17ce06aba69a The World Economic Forum has published a very useful piece on how future cities will change, including its architecture and organisation. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/05/coronavirus-change-cities-infrastructure ● With city dwellers forced to stay home during lockdowns, some architects are rethinking urban infrastructure to promote a more local lifestyle and help people adapt to a post-pandemic world. ● "The benefits of a well-planned compact city include shorter commute times, cleaner air, and reduced noise and the consumption of fossil fuels and energy." ● From making city cycling safer to promoting social distancing green spaces, these are the changes we could see in the coming years. Connections are key to transmission: https://www.economist.com/graphic- detail/2020/05/16/phone-data-identify-travel-hubs-at-risk-of-a-second-wave-of-infection
  42. 42. 42 Image source: The Economist A reminder of Tobler’s First Law of Geography - “near things are more related than distant things” - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tobler%27s_first_law_of_geography Rowan Moore on how to design better cities: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/may/24/will-covid-19-show-us-how-to-design- better-cities Geographers started to be consulted at the end of May, with a BBC piece exploring how working from home might change the city. Paul Cheshire from the LSE and other experts are quoted in this piece: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-52767773 which connects with the idea of building on Green-belt land. Paul Chatterton from the University of Leeds has written a very useful blog on how Leeds could become a more sustainable post-Covid-19 city. https://aboutleeds.blog/2020/05/28/we-can-build-a-more-sustainable-leeds-after-covid-19- heres-how/ - ideal for OCR B Geographers. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/22/coronavirus-will-reshape-our-cities-we-just- dont-know-how-yet?CMP=share_btn_tw - an excellent piece here with some good links to explore on urban futures and resilience. “It’sgoing to be terrible fora while,” saysSanjoy Chakravorty,a professorof geography and urban studiesat Temple University.“Peoplehaveto getused to the idea of sitting closely again.Then they haveto haveenough job securityand money to blow 100 quid on an evening of interpretative dance.”
  43. 43. 43 But he is among thosewho arebullish on the prospectsof a resurgenceof city life. “The modern city is indestructible,”he says.“Fires, earthquakes,bombings,theblitzof London orthe siege of Stalingrad:thesecities lostpopulation,butthen they cameback.” The high number of cases in New York has also not got unnoticed, and the impact of density is something which may be worth exploring. I can think of various tools which can be used to uncover population density in urban areas in the UK and elsewhere. Would make a good enquiry topic I think. Steve Brace shared a Directions blog post (reposted from the Conversation website) by Colin McFarlane from Durham Universityon this very theme on the 4th of June, on how the urban poor have been particularly badly hit: https://blog.geographydirections.com/2020/06/04/the-urban-poor-have-been-hit-hard-by- coronavirus-we-must-ask-who-cities-are-designed-to-serve/ e) The role of neighbourhoods Social distancing is producing more of an engagement with our personal space and place currently, and also a recognition of some simple everyday pleasures such as a walk and meeting friends or going out for a pint: ● Queueing for long periods - a chance to talk, or isolating on mobile phones ● How is this playing out in other countries? ● Spacing in supermarkets changing these everyday interactions and negotiations in aisles and pausing - speeding up our shopping and buying fewer things perhaps in the future, except the huge queues outside IKEA and McDonalds as they reopened in June 2020 suggested otherwise A useful piece from Richard Florida on CityLab in April 2020 on the ‘Geography of Coronavirus’: https://www.citylab.com/equity/2020/04/coronavirus-spread-map-city-urban-density-suburbs- rural-data/609394/ CityLab also started sharing the first submissions of lockdown maps from readers: https://www.citylab.com/life/2020/04/neighborhood-maps-coronavirus-lockdown-stay-at- home- art/610018/?utm_content=citylab&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter&utm_campaign =socialflow-organic Negotiations will also happen (they already are) when meeting walkers and cyclists:
  44. 44. 44 https://www.citylab.com/life/2020/04/coronavirus-advice-healthy-living-social-behavior- public/609115/ Another new CityLab piece was released on June 11th, which connected with the idea of the ‘local’ and the changing neighbourhoods as lockdown began to be lifted, and anti-racist protestors filled the streets of many cities - an extra dynamic to the existing one: https://www.citylab.com/life/2020/04/neighborhood-maps-coronavirus-lockdown-stay-at- home-art/610018/ Source: Daniel Pardo, Maryland Bob Lang talked about this in a Discover the World Education Teachmeet. You can watch a repeat here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNw2LWOQcBg Bob Lang is on from 28 minutes in talking about his work with Survey123 to explore similar ideas with students. I’m on from 2 hours and 4 minutes in talking about this very document and the background to its formation. Channel 4 put together a series of scenes showing cities before and after - and I guess there will also need to be an ‘after after’: https://youtu.be/vFZZF39fgWM In some countries, houses vary in design. In Japan for example, houses are much smaller than many other countries. This Reuters piece with excellent graphics explores the issues in Tokyo for social distancing due to house design: a very pretty piece of work - thanks to Richard Allaway for this link.
  45. 45. 45 https://graphics.reuters.com/HEALTH-CORONAVIRUS/TOKYO- HOMES/dgkvlabxpbx/index.html Image copyright: Reuters Our health may well rely on our homes. We need a Healthy Homes Act this Geography Directions piece suggests: https://blog.geographydirections.com/2020/06/24/health-is-made-at-home-why-we-need-a- healthy-homes-act/ In other urban areas, there are concerns that the closure of public parks is disproportionately affecting the poorer residents who may not have large gardens to access for exercise, compared to the more affluent. Another aspect of urban spaces which has not been obvious to many for some time is the availability of public toilets. Many people who are able bodied and also able to pay to eat in a cafe or drink in a pub haven’t had to worry about finding a toilet even as public conveniences have been closed down in recent years. Now that pubs have been closed, the gaps are becoming obvious and public urination etc. have grown in recent weeks - again, this is one of those public/private conflict examples: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jun/27/britain-public-toilets-coronavirus- private- interests?utm_term=Autofeed&CMP=twt_gu&utm_medium&utm_source=Twitter#Echobox= 1593253845 This also connects with the ideas in Leslie Kern’s book on the ‘Gendered City’ which I am currently reading. Community also comes from sport: https://www.ft.com/content/00ed3676-842c-11ea-b872-8db45d5f6714 Check out how Google and Apple’s social-distancing maps work: https://www.wired.com/story/apple-google-social-distancing-maps- privacy/?fbclid=IwAR3F1Y7K1fY0HGv2v48913pq96sSt10gAWW3fOSPsQOTc3onkWEhvVP jwDI Compare Apple and Google’s maps. (You can see more of them later in this document)
  46. 46. 46 Also check out the Manchester Urban Institute Blog for a range of useful blog-posts including one on social distancing and parks, and one on the data which shows how our cities have changed over the last few months. https://blogs.manchester.ac.uk/mui/ https://blogs.manchester.ac.uk/mui/2020/04/21/how-has- coronavirus-changed-cities-using-urban-data-to- understand-lockdown/ f) Urban Resilience Seaside and ex-industrial towns have already had a tough time economically, and they are now potentially being affected more by the virus. This Sky News piece suggests they may also be worst hit by these: https://news.sky.com/story/coronavirus-coastal-and-ex-industrial-towns-most-economically- at-risk- 11977233?inApp=true&fbclid=IwAR1MUVtSN8Z7D2R1rkrZdf_dhkeHheEZBmWVSgo0_U_ W8w9_wgwAeMkk7cI A BBC piece from early June on how coastal resorts were faring - badly it seems: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-52924185 Even the city of LA, bastion of the car is apparently turning into a city of walkers https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/04/23/magazine/los-angeles-coronavirus- diary.html Tim Marshall took a cycle ride around London in mid-May and sent this tweet which could be useful for a ‘changing places’ topic. I’m collating images like this on a Pinterest board. We are seeing lots more of these ad-hoc adjustments to the situation: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-06-23/design-hacks-will-dominate- coronavirus-recovery?srnd=citylab-design
  47. 47. 47 There will definitely be some changes in urban areas. For this I recommend following the work of Paul Chatterton, who is Professor of Urban Futures at the University of Leeds. Twitter: @PaulChatterton9 https://environment.leeds.ac.uk/geography/staff/1015/professor-paul-chatterton https://aboutleeds.blog/2020/05/28/we-can-build-a-more-sustainable-leeds-after-covid-19- heres-how/ Events such as this Webinar show the groundswell for change in urban areas, with respect to housing (people in one-bedroom flats while houses remain empty, wealthy politicians in houses with extensive grounds preventing others from accessing parks etc. https://climate.leeds.ac.uk/events/net-zero-research-forum-how-to-build-back-better/ Professor Paul Chatterton presented a talk entitled ‘How to build sustainable cities after COVID-19’. The power of place. I referred to this in an IB Webinar I spoke in: Here’s the presentation (found in v6.0 and later editions) https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/12YThxAduvEPpOIj0Ivk- q6f4VLGSuw0k5y18uNp8ez4/edit?usp=sharing A chance to Build Back Better - here are the principles from: https://twitter.com/WEAll_Alliance Thoughts on working from home
  48. 48. 48 Image copyright: Weall Alliance g) Desire Lines A new addition for mid-June was an article in ‘The Guardian’ on desire lines. Once again there was a lovely illustration: Image copyright: Rose Blake / The Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2020/jun/14/paths-of-desire-lockdown-has-lent-a- new-twist-to-the-unofficial-trails-we-carve People are now finding new routes to avoid others - “elective easements” as Robert MacFarlane calls them. “In a near future, some of the Covid-19 effects on the urbanscapes will be part of this narrative, reminding us of the importance of human behaviour in shaping the city space.” Finding these routes might form part of a fieldwork activity as well. Explore local parks to see how they have been changed. Several people got in touch to share some local examples they had seen on their lockdown exercise routes. h) Recovery from the Coronavirus On the 15th of June many non-essential shops were able to reopen and the queues started to form. Picture of Primark prompted many comments, and Bicester village was rammed with
  49. 49. 49 no social distancing evident. Andy Beckett suggested that cities would recover because history suggests that they always do: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jun/15/coronavirus-britain-cities-urban-life Livinginacityisoftenaboutsharing,proximitytostrangers,andnotworryingtoomuchabouthygiene – about who previously sat in your bus seat. Some areas are going to struggle more than others. Coastal cities data: The Centre for Towns published a report on the future for the towns, from which this chart above is taken. Small coastal towns are not as resilient as other places perhaps if tourist income dries up this summer: https://www.centrefortowns.org/reports/covid-19-and-our-towns/viewdocument (PDF download) I’m also conscious that most of the links in the document are either UK or US specific so I am keen to have some other perspectives. Thanks to Rafael De Miguel González, President of EuroGeo for the link to this Spanish piece on how cities are likely to recover (translated from Spanish) through their rebirth. https://www.politicaexterior.com/el-eterno-renacimiento-de-las-ciudades According to a Deloitte survey,in London half of the construction companiesareplanning to reduce their projectsin the faceof an expected 20-30% drop in officeoccupancy rates. Bloomberg shared an excellent piece on our urban futures, with a nice moving image header: https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2020-coronavirus-transportation-data-cities-traffic- mobility/ 11. Employment: Primary,Secondaryand Tertiary
  50. 50. 50 The Economy has changed… which jobs will disappear forever? What will the UK / global unemployment rate be like after this? It is clear that it may be higher than any point since the 1980s, possibly earlier - the 1970s and the ‘3 day week’ has reared its head. For example, ask students to analyse this cartoon and explain what its meaning is - this has become more relevant actually as the weeks have passed - particularly for those who have fallen through the cracks of the furlough scheme: Source: Matt Kenyon/The Guardian I had an email update in early April from Kate Raworth, author of ‘Doughnut Economics’ (a speaker at the GA Conference in 2019) giving some suggestions for what they were doing around this area. Follow @KateRaworth to see what they are doing with regards to their economic thinking. They are currently working in Amsterdam to apply their doughnut model to the city. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/08/amsterdam-doughnut-model-mend-post- coronavirus-economy This alone would be enough for a whole unit of work based on some of the starting questions which Kate outlines here: https://www.kateraworth.com/2020/04/08/amsterdam-city-doughnut/
  51. 51. 51 They also recorded a chat on pandemic-resistant economics here which may be of interest. https://www.pscp.tv/w/1nAJEdVLLmnGL?q=revkin Check out recent work by Matt Podbury on the circular economy as well. Is this time for a transition to a green economy - perhaps the final chance and warning: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jun/05/world-climate-breakdown- pandemic People will also perhaps rememberthose companies that looked after staff by protecting them once the lockdown started, and those that didn’t. Furloughing is not going to benefit people evenly either. The BBC had a piece on which areas had the most people furloughed: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-53014192 This Australian piece shows how GIS can be used to see which areas of Melbourne have been worst hit financially - perhaps a model to use for an activity https://www.theage.com.au/national/victoria/data-shows-melbourne-suburbs-worst-hit-by- covid-19-financial-impact-20200608-p550kb.html Oxfam’s campaign also reminds us how many people globally are in danger of being pushed into poverty.
  52. 52. 52 https://www.oxfam.org/en/press-releases/half-billion-people-could-be-pushed-poverty- coronavirus-warns-oxfam This piece also points out the gender imbalance in impact as well. Women are on the front line of the coronavirus response and are likely to be hardest hit financially. Women makeup 70 percentof health workersglobally and provide75 percentof unpaid care,looking after children, the sick and the elderly. Women are also more likely to be employed in poorly paid precariousjobsthataremostatrisk.Morethan onemillion Bangladeshigarmentworkers –80percent of whomare women–havealready been laid off or sent homewithoutpay afterordersfrom western clothing brands were cancelled or suspended. The ILO (International Labour Organisation) is the organisation that is particularly interested in the impact on labour markets and collects statistics in that area. It’s thoughts on the potential impacts are here, and would be useful going forward to explore the impacts in a number of industrial areas. https://ilostat.ilo.org/topics/covid-19/ In mid-June we also had someindicators on the jobs situation, with over 600 000 people going off the pay-roll. This has a knock-on for tax revenue of course. Perhaps if very rich people paid more tax, or large companies operating in the UK? Just a thought.
  53. 53. 53 What follows are some examples of particular industries which may see dramatic change. a. Retail and the changing High Street Will the High Street survive the virus? An excellent article to start off the retail section. This is a key area for many discussions: https://www.esquire.com/uk/life/a31915611/coronavirus- timeline/?fbclid=IwAR2O_wGutNkiX_mIKDjxqjBqsAQSK7IZw55mmlVieRXAZ6IjagQxw4AuF 8o Changing retail patterns, with Tim Lang, Professor of Food Policy. “Supermarkets actually account for only about 60 percent of the food we [normally] consume,” says Tim Lang,professorof food policy atCityUniversity,London.Therestcomes fromyourFriday fish and chips, your Saturday brunch, and all those al desko Pret lunches (oh, falafel flatbread, how we miss thee).“If 40 per cent [of thefood supply] iscutoff,and 60 per cent hasto dealwith 100 per cent,well, you’vegotstressandstrains.It’sinevitable.Weneed to bethinking very carefully aboutrenationalising supply chains, out of resilience preparedness,” says Lang, the food policy expert. “We’ve developed, over 60 years, a culture that says,'I can eat what I like, when I like, and it’ll be cheap forever,and I’ll overeat as well.' That culture has got to change.” Tropical fruits will disappear from shelves and seasonal fruits will become so again, thanks to hold-ups at borders due to decreased freight flights. That means no more strawberries in winter. “Coronavirus is going to take a scythe through the normality of food." This Economist Article outlines how Coronavirus rewrote our shopping lists, and also introduced the German word for hoarding: hamsterkauf. https://www.1843magazine.com/food/panic-at-the-supermarket-how-covid19-rewrote-the- shopping-list
  54. 54. 54 Amazon meanwhile is benefitting (although in France, they are not allowed to deliver anything other than essential items) https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2020/apr/15/amazon-jeff-bezos-gains-24bn- coronavirus-pandemic The High Street may not recover from this setback and we may end up with Amazon and similar online retailers growing their monopoly. They are taking on many more staff. Delivery drivers are bringing our purchases to the door. This was taken up again by John Harris in the Observer on the 2nd of August, when we also were aware of Amazon’s plans to deliver groceries. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/aug/02/decline-high-street-amazon- power-tech-giant Amazon’s sheer scale means that the effects of what it does transcend the fortunes of the company and amount to deep social transformations. For its retail customers, consumerism is no longer a matter of venturing outside the home but the lonely transcendence of ordering and then getting. Most of Amazon’s workers, meanwhile, are either shut behind windowless walls, doing the minute and monotonous tasks that punctuate the workings of machines, or frantically delivering parcels. Complaints about the company’s treatment of its employees are now a constant, but – like those about Amazon’s record on tax – they rarely gain real traction. Prior to delivery, the average Amazon package is thought to require just one minute of labour: soon enough, this will surely dwindle even further. An excellent NYT piece suggested that we are going to see the endof the departmentstore, as many were already struggling before this crisis, and we are not shopping in the same way. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/21/business/coronavirus-department-stores-neiman- marcus.html?action=click&module=Top%20Stories&pgtype=Homepage There are limited reads of articles on the New York Times, but I recommend a cheap subscription to access the pieces (charge it to your departmental budget) This had an excellent graphic referencing the classic store Macy’s. This was later broken into during the events following the death of George Floyd, which has caused other large scale change and reevaluation since early June. Image copyright: Andrew Sondern/New York Times.
  55. 55. 55 There were also mentions of Hudson Yards, an exclusive shopping mall which I visited while in New York last year, which is likely to be suffering quite a lot. “The genre is toast,and looking atthe otherside of this,there are very few who arelikely to survive.” MarkA Cohen The High St of towns and cities across the UK will also be reshaped without some changes to retail trade / rents: https://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/apr/30/pandemic-will-vastly-accelerate-decline- of-uk-high-street-mps-told The Street will still be there, but what will the building use be along it? Several other chains announced hundreds / thousands of job losses in early July, with over 12 000 jobs lost in a day or so, followed by further job losses. We are buying certain items in higher quantities - putting together an activity on the ups and downs of the High St. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-53484355 - tea and biscuits and books Lewis Cotter has shared a resource which shows how High St. names treated their workforce and suppliers during the lockdown, and it may be that people will decide to support the companies who treated their workforce the best. https://www.lewiscotter.com/brands It’s also worth remembering that in the UK we have a choice of stores, from Aldi and Lidl up to Waitrose and M&S for food. In most of India, people shop at stores called kirana shops. https://medium.com/@VaidyRajamani/the-power-of-kirana-stores-transforming-indian-retail- f5ac198f7bbc https://www.rediff.com/business/interview/what-if-kirana-shops-run-out-of- stock/20200329.htm These have little stock, precarious supply chains and crowded interiors which are difficult to keep a social distance inside. There are apparently millions of these stores, and 90% of food is bought in them. This means there are few alternatives for food supplies. People in India have never seen their cities so quiet, as they are always teeming with people: https://www.rediff.com/news/report/mumbai-after-the-lockdown/20200322.htm WIthin a few weeks, in early May they were able to launch an online store offering deliveries and orders. Remarkable ingenuity. A growing part of the culture of the High St. was the presence of coffee shops - the independents such as Ginger in Broomhill, Sheffield or the big chains including Starbucks, Cafe Nero, Costa and others. The sudden closure of cafes has changed the way that people consume coffee, but in what ways? Jennifer Ferreira has research coffee for some years, and is now researching changing coffee consumption following the closure of cafes - one of the few research projects I’ve seen surrounding the virus: https://cafespaces.wordpress.com/2020/05/17/new-research-exploring-coffee-consumption- and-the-impact-of-covid-19-lockdown-restrictions/ Please help Jennifer with her research here:
  56. 56. 56 https://coventry.onlinesurveys.ac.uk/coffee-consumption-and-the-impact-of-covid-19- lockdown-res-3 One suggestion is that cafes may move outside and use street stalls rather than the previous layouts. This may be part of a changing retail offering: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/17/cafes-in-england-could-sell-food-and-drink- from-street-stalls Another concern is that independent coffee outlets may be less financially able to ride this out and close, leaving us with mostly chain coffee outlets in the future: https://medium.com/the-little-bicycle-coffee-shop/indie-coffee-shops-covid-19-pandemic- fb56d5e96738 - this may happen with other sectors of retail as well, reducing the diversity of offerings that we have in city centres and perhaps making them more of a clone town with more homogeneity. A Hubbub piece on our changing shopping habits - localism and the “fifteen minute city” https://www.hubbub.org.uk/blog/how-covid-19-has-changed-uk-shopping-habits The industry needs Govt. help, which is unlikely to be enough: https://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/jun/06/pandemic-leisure-retail-jobs- unemployment-recovery?CMP=Share_iOSApp_Other Apparently one fifth of all American retail workers have been furloughed: https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2020/06/03/american-retailers-have-laid-off-or- furloughed-one-fifth-of-their- workers?fsrc=scn/tw/te/bl/ed/dailychartamericanretailershavelaidofforfurloughedonefifthofthe irworkersgraphicdetail One idea for an activity here: Centre for Cities recovery tracker for UK cities - a data dashboard - an activity to develop I think: https://www.centreforcities.org/data/high-streets-recovery-tracker/ Monitor recover over the next few months May save some data now for local cities such as Cambridge and Norwich. Of course, there will always be somebody who will find a way to exploit a situation. One expression of this is a store in Miami, which offers Covid-19 essentials in one place: https://wsvn.com/entertainment/covid-19-essentials-pop-up-offers-in-demand-supplies-for- pandemic-in-one-place/
  57. 57. 57 Thanks to Oli Mould for the lead to this story Shopping malls may become residential developments: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-06-30/a-case-for-turning-empty-malls-into- housing There are some obvious links between working from home and the High St. If people head for the office, there is a greater chance that they will be physically in a town or city. They may walk from the railway station past other shops towards their place of work. This means that home workers aren’t buying a coffee, pastry, sandwich or other impulse purchases: the trays of doughnuts because it’s their birthday etc. are all lost sales. People need to be persuaded back into city centres if shops are going to survive. This is a changed High St environment. https://www.ft.com/content/e39931c0-8a6c-42db-b530-47d6f343df65 https://www.ft.com/content/e39931c0-8a6c-42db-b530-47d6f343df65 Questions from Stephen Schwab A piece in The Guardian by Gavin Chait in late July suggested shops would have to move to where the commuters were https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jul/23/shops-commuters-high-streets- workers For theCity of London,hometo 7,000 but place of workfor 400,000, a 10% decline in commuting could result in themigration of 17,000 officejobsand almost8,000 retail jobs.Butwhen peoplework at homethey need morefromwherethey live. By the end of July, there were suggestions that this would result in a movement of offices to the suburbs where people would work from home, and that this could revive the High Street. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-53582122 A list of job losses produced in late July 2020 - over 60 000 jobs lost in total.
  58. 58. 58 Again, this links to inequality: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jul/30/rishi-sunaks-planned-online-sales- tax-is-a-tax-on-disability b. Gig Economy This sector of the economy, which has grown dramatically in recent years, has been particularly affected by the virus. Uber has been badly affected - sharing a car is not felt to be safe - black cabs with screens are perhaps still relatively OK. Not sure if they have been running in London.

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