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Chapter 3 - Housing

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TB page 62 to 99:
Why does housing shortage occur?
What are the consequences of housing shortage?
How can cities provide homes for all?

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Chapter 3 - Housing

  1. 1. Housing: How to Provide Homes for All? Housing How To Provide Homes For All? Chapter3 1
  2. 2. Key ideas to explore and learn about: 1. What is housing shortage? 2 2. Which cities in the world experience housing shortage? Why does housing shortage occur? 3. What are the consequences of housing shortage in cities? 4. What are some strategies used by cities to manage housing shortage and build inclusive homes?
  3. 3. 1. What is housing shortage?  Insufficient housing to accommodate the population in an area: • When the supply of houses cannot meet the demand for houses (demand > supply); • When housing is unaffordable for those who need it. 3
  4. 4. 1. What is housing shortage? How do we know that there is housing shortage? 4 (a) Presence of homeless people (b) Presence of slums & squatter settlements
  5. 5.  (a) Homelessness • A lack of shelter in which to sleep & carry out basic activities (eg. bathing). • Homeless people suffer from poor health and illnesses. 5 3. What are the consequences of housing shortage in cities?
  6. 6. 6  (b) Slums and squatter settlements What is it? • Urban areas which are heavily populated; • May have developed without permission 3. What are the consequences of housing shortage in cities?
  7. 7. 7  (b) Slums and squatter settlements What is it? • Dwellers build their homes at any available space using scrap materials; • The residents have poor quality housing (usually made of scrap materials) 3. What are the consequences of housing shortage in cities?
  8. 8. 8  (b) Slums and squatter settlements What is it? • Also known as shanty towns / favela (in Brazil) / barong-barong (in Philippines) ‘favela’ ‘barong-barong’ 3. What are the consequences of housing shortage in cities?
  9. 9. 9  (b) Slums and squatter settlements • Have insufficient basic services Insufficient basic services such as: Because they lack infrastructure such as: Electricity Power lines Clean water / consistent supply of water Water pipes Proper sanitation & waste disposal facilities Toilets & waste management facilities 3. What are the consequences of housing shortage in cities? Going to the toilet in the Kenya Slums: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h65tGO2tojQ
  10. 10. 10 Lack of waste disposal facilities Absence of proper sanitation facilities
  11. 11. 11 Lack of clean water supply Absence of proper sewage
  12. 12.  (b) Slums and squatter settlements i. Environmental pollution • The introduction of substances into the natural environment. • Damages the environment and human health. 12 3. What are the consequences of housing shortage in cities?
  13. 13. Presentation Title runs here l 00/00/0013 Land pollution / soil pollution Water pollution
  14. 14.  (b) Slums and squatter settlements ii. Low level of health due to poor living condition • No access to safe drinking water • Vulnerable to diseases • Overcrowded conditions  rapid spread of diseases • eg. dysentery (intestine infection) • eg. malaria / dengue 14 3. What are the consequences of housing shortage in cities?
  15. 15. 15 A garbage-filled body of water next to a slum in Delhi, India
  16. 16.  (b) Slums and squatter settlements iii. Vulnerability 16 3. What are the consequences of housing shortage in cities? Slum houses often made of flammable materials High risk of fires Injuries, deaths, loss of propertySlums often found on steep slopes Landslides Slums often built on land without permission from authorities Evictions Loss of property, lack of sense of security, social tension http://www.ndtv.com/vi deo/player/news/mumb ai-slum-fire-slumdog- star-loses- home/192753
  17. 17. 17  (b) Slums and squatter settlements iii. Vulnerability Walls and roofs • tend to be made of poor quality materials (eg zinc and cardboard) • these materials are flammable; an increased risk of fires. Foundations • Weak & unstable walls • may collapse easily during natural disasters (eg floods & earthquakes). 3. What are the consequences of housing shortage in cities?
  18. 18.  (b) Slums and squatter settlements iii. Vulnerability 18 3. What are the consequences of housing shortage in cities? Slum houses often made of flammable materials High risk of fires Injuries, deaths, loss of propertySlums often found on steep slopes Landslides Slums often built on land without permission from authorities Evictions Loss of property, lack of sense of security, social tension http://www.telegraph.co.uk/ne ws/worldnews/southamerica/br azil/10524739/Camera- captures-Brazil-favela-house- collapse.html
  19. 19. 19 • Houses often built on unsuitable sites: eg. on steep slopes  prone to landslides eg. in low-lying areas  prone to flooding • Houses built in dense and disorderly manner  difficult to evacuate during emergencies  (b) Slums and squatter settlements iii. Vulnerability 3. What are the consequences of housing shortage in cities?
  20. 20.  (b) Slums and squatter settlements iii. Vulnerability 20 3. What are the consequences of housing shortage in cities? Slum houses often made of flammable materials High risk of fires Injuries, deaths, loss of propertySlums often found on steep slopes Landslides Slums often built on land without permission from authorities Evictions Loss of property, lack of sense of security, social tension
  21. 21. 21 2a. Which cities in the world experience housing shortage? Los Angeles, USA Cairo, Egypt Beijing, China Kigali, Rwanda Mumbai, India TB pg 70
  22. 22.  Housing shortage more severe in cities of less developed countries with large populations.  More than 50% of the world’s urban population lives in Asia.  Extent of homelessness varies between cities in the same country. 22 2a. Which cities in the world experience housing shortage?
  23. 23. 23  Slums & squatter settlements are usually found at: • At the edge of cities; • Near the city centre (because there are job opportunities); • Along major transport routes (so that residents can travel conveniently) 2a. Which cities in the world experience housing shortage?
  24. 24. Presentation Title runs here l 00/00/0024
  25. 25. 25  (a) Rapid population growth (especially in cities) • Urbanization: the growth of people living in cities 2b. Why does housing shortage occur?
  26. 26. 1950 2000 Population living in urban environment (ie. cities) 2050 Grown rapidly & still growing!
  27. 27. Urbanisation: The increase in proportion of people living in cities
  28. 28. 28  (a) Rapid population growth • Leads to rapid increase in demand for housing • When demand > supply = housing shortage 2b. Why does housing shortage occur? Explain why housing shortage occurs [2m] Housing shortage occurs when there is a rapid population growth which causes a rapid increase in demand for housing. Housing shortage results when the demand exceeds the supply of housing.
  29. 29. Presentation Title runs here l 00/00/0029 Describe the trend in the rural population [2m]
  30. 30. 30  (b) Migration • The movement of people from one place to another to stay for at least a year. Rural-urban migration: • The movement of people from rural areas into cities 2b. Why does housing shortage occur?
  31. 31. 31  (b) Migration • People migrate due to ‘push’ or ‘pull’ factors. • The decision to migrate is often a combination of both factors. 2b. Why does housing shortage occur? ‘Push’ factors are the undesirable qualities of a place people wish to leave. ‘Pull’ factors are the attractive qualities of a place people would like to move to.
  32. 32. 32 Discuss with your partner what are some of the ‘push’ and ‘ pull’ factors for rural-urban migration. ‘Pull’ factors (‘pull’ people towards urban areas) ‘Push’ factors (‘push’ people away from rural areas)
  33. 33. Housing: How to Provide Homes for All?33 • Promise of work • Better schooling & further education • More hospitals and doctors • Perception of exciting city life • Political stability • Lack of job opportunities • Poor educational facilities • Lack of medical attention • Famine • War ‘Push’ factors (‘push’ people away from rural areas)
  34. 34. RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION CHINA Presentation Title runs here l 00/00/0034 Manila: The pull of the city https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XFSAc9cpgjs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PgRgjw-kJvU 2b. Why does housing shortage occur?  (b) Migration
  35. 35. 35  (c) High birth rates • High birth rates leads to the increase in the population.  Housing shortage occurs when the supply of houses cannot meet this increased housing demand. 2b. Why does housing shortage occur? More babies born Increased population Need more houses!
  36. 36. 36  (d) Competing land use • Land is used for many purposes: 2b. Why does housing shortage occur?
  37. 37. 37  (d) Competing land use • If land is dedicated for one purpose, it will not be available for housing development. • Conflict of interest  conflict! (eg. nature in the city; Senoko in 1992-1994) 2b. Why does housing shortage occur?
  38. 38. Presentation Title runs here l 00/00/0038 The SG government Nature lovers “Senoko had been earmarked for ‘housing needs’ ” 1) ‘… give me a petition… 17,000 applications…, then we will keep the Senoko land and keep it for the birds’ 3) ‘with the pressing needs of Singaporeans, I think Singaporeans’ needs come before birds’ Senoko is ‘the richest bird site in Singapore in terms of species and numbers’ 2) Managed to get 25,000 people to put their names on the appeal letter. Senoko, 1993-1994 Source: The Straits Times, 1993
  39. 39. 39 • Singapore government has committed 17% of land supply to housing needs. Source: http://www.mnd.g ov.sg/landuseplan/ e-book/#/14-15/
  40. 40. 40  (e) Limited land supply 2b. Why does housing shortage occur? • Restricted by physical features • eg. seas, rivers, mountains.
  41. 41. 41  (e) Limited land supply • Steep slopes are not ideal for housing development • Expensive to construct • Landslides can damage buildings 2b. Why does housing shortage occur?
  42. 42. 42  (e) Limited land supply • Cities may have small land size • There is a limit to how much land that can be reclaimed from seas • eg. Singapore, Hong Kong 2b. Why does housing shortage occur?
  43. 43. Key ideas to explore and learn about: 1. What is housing shortage? 43 2. Which cities in the world experience housing shortage? Why does housing shortage occur? 3. What are the consequences of housing shortage in cities? 4. What are some strategies used by cities to manage housing shortage and build inclusive homes?
  44. 44. 44 4a. What are some strategies used by cities to manage housing shortage? Support with examples WHERE is the strategy used? HOW is the strategy implemented? WHAT are the successes & limitations? Describe the strategy used use case studies
  45. 45. Let’s flip to textbook page 90  Match them! 45 Slum upgrading Provision of public housing Provision of inclusive housing Government’s effort to provide housing units Include facilities for all Improve quality of housing in slum areas (left column) Strategies to manage housing shortage and build inclusive homes (right column) description
  46. 46. 46 Partnership of STAKEHOLDERS Government Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) Private companies Residents
  47. 47. Partnership of stakeholders Government Private companies Residents Slums: Maharashtra Government Plans to Acquire Private Land Published On: December 30, 2014 | Duration: 3 min, 31 sec http://www.ndtv.com/video/player/the-property-show/slums-maharashtra- government-plans-to-acquire-private-land/350490?relatedviaplayer
  48. 48.  (i) Slum Upgrading • To improve the living conditions in slum areas: • Ways to upgrade slum: 48 4a. What are some strategies used by cities TO MANAGE HOUSING SHORTAGE? Improve quality of housing Improve basic services Clear sites Relocate residents temporarily
  49. 49. Presentation Title runs here l 00/00/0049 Relocate residents temporarily Example in textbook page 92 Slum residents move temporarily to an area with new housing units equipped with services Vacated slum area would be upgraded Residents can return to their original sites when upgrading is completed In Nairobi, Kenya (partnership between the government of Kenya and UN-HABITAT) New flats built for Kibera residents under the initiative of the Kenya slum upgrading programme
  50. 50.  (i) Slum Upgrading • To improve the living conditions in slum areas: • Ways to upgrade slum: 50 4a. What are some strategies used by cities TO MANAGE HOUSING SHORTAGE? Improve quality of housing Improve basic services Clear sites Relocate residents temporarily Provide financial assistance to fund upgrading
  51. 51. Presentation Title runs here l 00/00/0051 Provide financial assistance to fund upgrading Example in textbook page 91  (i) Slum Upgrading SELF-HELP SCHEMES  Help low-income households improve the conditions of existing housing / build their own houses. Government do not provide housing directly, BUT provide assistance in other forms instead (eg. providing construction materials/basic services)
  52. 52. Presentation Title runs here l 00/00/0052 Refer to textbook page 91: What are some advantages and limitations in the Rocinha Project?
  53. 53.  (ii) Provision of public housing • Government efforts to provide housing units with basic services (usually for low- income households, elderly & disabled) • How it works: 53 4a. What are some strategies used by cities TO MANAGE HOUSING SHORTAGE? More reasonably priced Subsidised Public housing projects are planned, carried out & funded by government
  54. 54.  (ii) Provision of public housing • How to provide public housing? 54 4a. What are some strategies used by cities TO MANAGE HOUSING SHORTAGE? Build new apartments Old flats rented at low price Abandoned buildings converted for residential use
  55. 55. 55 Eg. Providing HDB flats to meet Singapore’s increasing population (1960s)
  56. 56. 56 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wxe6tW5JdIs (first 2 min)
  57. 57. 57 What are some successes of Singapore’s public housing programmes? Percentage of Singapore’s population living in HDB flats Source: HDB Annual Report (2013) TB page 94
  58. 58. Presentation Title runs here l 00/00/0058 Partnership of STAKEHOLDERS GovernmentPrivate sector Bairro Carioca Project Provide 2,240 apartments for 10,000 people in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil    Hired to: • build basic infrastructure (eg roads, sewerage & water systems) • design & build housing units
  59. 59.  Meaning, no one feels disadvantaged/left out.  Everyone’s needs are taken into consideration. Ethnic Integration Policy (EIP)  when? Introduced in 1989  for what? To promote racial integration & harmony  how? Different races to live in the same housing estate (ethnic quota) 59 4a. What are some strategies used by cities TO BUILD INCLUSIVE HOMES?
  60. 60.  (i) Affordable housing • Housing that is priced at a reasonable cost such that residents still have enough money for other basic needs. • Diff housing types for diff income groups: 60 4a. What are some strategies used by cities TO BUILD INCLUSIVE HOMES?
  61. 61.  (i) Affordable housing • Diff housing types for diff needs: 61 4a. What are some strategies used by cities TO BUILD INCLUSIVE HOMES? Different needs: Type of housing: Higher income group Condominiums, Private houses Middle income group HDB flats Elderly/Seniors Studio apartments Smaller families Three-room flats
  62. 62.  (i) Affordable housing • Financial schemes to subsidise cost of flats: 62 4a. What are some strategies used by cities TO BUILD INCLUSIVE HOMES? Financial scheme: Purpose: Additional CPF Housing Grant (AHG) To help low-income families buy their first flat (those earning less than S$5,000/month enjoy grant of up to S$40,000)
  63. 63.  (ii) Facilities and amenities for all ages • Providing a range of facilities and amenities for different age groups. 63 4a. What are some strategies used by cities TO BUILD INCLUSIVE HOMES?
  64. 64.  (ii) Facilities and amenities for all ages • 3-Generation (3G) facilities – to cater to needs of multigenerational families 64 4a. What are some strategies used by cities TO BUILD INCLUSIVE HOMES?
  65. 65.  (iii) Strong sense of place and belonging • Sense of place: the meaning and value people attach to a place because… • they had good experiences & memories living there; • the place is unique & special to them. 65 4a. What are some strategies used by cities TO BUILD INCLUSIVE HOMES? The ‘Dragon Slide’ playground in Toa Payoh
  66. 66.  (iii) Strong sense of place and belonging • Sense of place: the meaning and value people attach to a place because… • the place has distinctive landmarks / physical features that gives it a unique identity 66 4a. What are some strategies used by cities TO BUILD INCLUSIVE HOMES? Buildings with rounded balconies in Tiong Bahru
  67. 67. 67 4a. What are some strategies used by cities TO BUILD INCLUSIVE HOMES?  (iii) Strong sense of place and belonging Identify a place in your neighbourhood to which you feel a strong sense of place and belonging. List the reasons why you have a special regard for the place and attach a picture of it. Picture Reason Reason Reason Reason

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