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Background about X-ray

Published in: Science
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  1. 1. X-RAY
  3. 3. On November 8, 1895, Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen (accidentally) discovered an image cast from his cathode ray generator, projected far beyond he possible range of the cathode rays.
  4. 4. • Further investigation showed that the rays were generated at the point of the contact of the cathode ray beam on the interior of the vacuum tube, that they were not deflected by magnetic fields, and they penetrated many kinds of matter.
  5. 5. • A week after his discovery, Rontgen took an X-ray photograph of his wife’s hand which clearly revealed her wedding ring and her bones.
  6. 6. Rontgen named the new form of radiation X- radiation or in short (X standing for “unknown”). X-ray
  8. 8. • X-rays are powerful invisible rays that can pass through various objects and that makes it possible to see inside things, such as a person’s luggage or the human body.
  9. 9. • X-rays are any of the electromagnetic radiations that have an extremely short wavelength of less than 100 angstroms and have the properties of penetrating various thickness of all solids, of producing secondary radiations by impinging on material bodies, and of acting on photographic films and plates as light does.
  10. 10. • X-rays are roughly classified into two types: soft X-rays and hard X-rays. Soft X-rays fall in the range of the EM spectrum between (UV) light and gamma-rays. Soft X-rays have comparatively high frequencies — about 3 × 1016 cycles per second, or hertz, to about 1018 Hz — and relatively short wavelengths — about 10 nanometers (nm), or 4 × 10−7 inches, to about 100 picometers (pm), or 4 × 10−8 inches. (A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter; a picometer is one- trillionth of a meter.)
  11. 11. • Hard X-rays have frequencies of about 1018 Hz to higher than 1020 Hz and wavelengths of about 100 pm (4 × 10−9 inches) to about 1 pm (4 × 10−11 inches). Hard X-rays occupy the same region of the EM spectrum as gamma-rays. The only difference between them is their source: X-rays are produced by accelerating electrons, while gamma-rays are produced by atomic nuclei.
  12. 12. Examples of X-rays
  13. 13. X-ray machines are used in both hospitals and airports.
  15. 15. • X-rays help us confirm the presence or absence of disease or injury. It is an essential tool for doctors so that they can use it to investigate the cause of our symptoms.
  17. 17. • X-rays makes our blood cells to have higher level of hydrogen peroxide which could cause cell damage. • A higher risk of getting cancer from X-rays. • The X-rays are able to change the base of the DNA causing a mutation.
  18. 18. THANK YOU Prepared by: Xergio San Jose