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I HONESTLY BELIEVE THAT THE NEXT BIG LEAP IN IMMERSIVE
TECHNOLOGY WILL BE VERY MUCH LIKE BRAINSTORM……
Brainstorming is a group or individual creativity technique by which
efforts are made to find a conclusion for a specific problem by gathering a list
of ideas spontaneously contributed by its member(s). The term was
popularized by Alex Faickney Osborn in the 1953 book Applied
Imagination.Osborn claimed that brainstorming was more effective than
individuals working alone in generating ideas, although more recent research
has questioned this conclusion. Today, the term is used as a catch all for all
group ideation sessions.
Advertising executive Alex F. Osborn began developing methods
for creative problem solving in 1939. He was frustrated by employees‟ inability
to develop creative ideas individually for ad campaigns. In response, he
began hosting group-thinking sessions and discovered a significant
improvement in the quality and quantity of ideas produced by employees.
Osborn outlined the method in his 1948 book 'Your Creative Power' on
chapter 33, “How to Organize a Squad to Create Ideas.”
Define and agree the objective.
Brainstorm ideas and suggestions having agreed a time limit.
Assess/analyse effects or results.
Priorities options/rank list as appropriate.
Agree action and timescale.
Control and monitor follow-up.
Set the problem
Before a brainstorming session, it is critical to define the problem. The problem must be clear, not too
big, and captured in a specific question such as "What service for mobile phones is not available now,
but needed?". If the problem is too big, the facilitator should break it into smaller components, each with
its own question.
Create a background memo
The background memo is the invitation and informational letter for the participants, containing the
session name, problem, time, date, and place. The problem is described in the form of a question, and
some example ideas are given. The memo is sent to the participants well in advance, so that they can
think about the problem beforehand.
The facilitator composes the brainstorming panel, consisting of the participants and an idea collector. A
group of 10 or fewer members is generally more productive. Many variations are possible but the
following composition is suggested.
Several core members of the project who have proved themselves.
Several guests from outside the project, with affinity to the problem.
One idea collector who records the suggested ideas.
Create a list of lead questions
During the brainstorm session the creativity may decrease. At this moment, the facilitator should
stimulate creativity by suggesting a lead question to answer, such as Can we combine these
ideas? or How about looking from another perspective?. It is best to prepare a list of such leads before
the session begins.
Brainstorming is not just about generating ideas for others to evaluate and select. Usually the group itself will, in
its final stage, evaluate the ideas and select one as the solution to the problem proposed to the group.
The solution should not require resources or skills the members of the group do not have or cannot acquire.
If acquiring additional resources or skills is necessary, that needs to be the first part of the solution.
There must be a way to measure progress and success.
The steps to carry out the solution must be clear to all, and amenable to being assigned to the members so
that each will have an important role.
There must be a common decision making process to enable a coordinated effort to proceed, and to reassign
tasks as the project unfolds.
There should be evaluations at milestones to decide whether the group is on track toward a final solution.
There should be incentives to participation so that participants maintain their efforts.
Osborn claimed that two principles contribute to "ideative efficacy," these being :
2.Reach for quantity.
Following these two principles were his four general rules of brainstorming, established with intention
reduce social inhibitions among group members,
stimulate idea generation
increase overall creativity of the group.
Focus on quantity: This rule is a means of enhancing divergent production, aiming to facilitate problem
solving through the maxim quantity breeds quality. The assumption is that the greater the number of
ideas generated, the greater the chance of producing a radical and effective solution.
Withhold criticism: In brainstorming, criticism of ideas generated should be put 'on hold'.
Instead, participants should focus on extending or adding to ideas, reserving criticism for a later 'critical
stage' of the process. By suspending judgment, participants will feel free to generate unusual ideas.
Welcome unusual ideas: To get a good and long list of ideas, unusual ideas are welcomed. They can
be generated by looking from new perspectives and suspending assumptions. These new ways of
thinking may provide better solutions.
Combine and improve ideas: Good ideas may be combined to form a single better good idea, as
suggested by the slogan "1+1=3". It is believed to stimulate the building of ideas by a process
BRAINSTORMING – A COLLECTION OF IDEAS
What is it?
The term „Brainstorming‟ has been used since the 1890's: first to mean a mental disturbance, then by the
1920s to mean a brainwave, then from 1938 in Osborn's sense of group brainstorming.
The current use of the term brainstorming is as a technique that encourages creative thinking and the
generation of ideas.
When to use it
Generating a list of ideas
Identifying possible data requirements
Developing objectives for solutions
Generating possible solutions
Developing action plans
What does it achieve?
Providing the rules and principles are carefully followed, brainstorming can achieve the following:
Many ideas are produced in a short timeframe
Enable participants to both contribute individually and to benefit from the ideas generated by others.
Encourage the generation of „unusual‟ ideas
Encourage deeper thinking about particular problems
Create the environment that will enhance group activity and teamwork
Create a more positive environment in which to approach problem solving
Encourage and ideas - freewheel
Quantity of ideas first
Record all ideas
Reflect on ideas - incubate
BRAINSTORMING AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
Quality improvement experts often look at brainstorming in the same
way, using it as a method to lead them to potential reasons for a product or
process defect. Sometimes Lean Six Sigma teams will meet and use
structured tools, like fishbone diagrams (also known as Ishikawa or causeand-effect diagrams), or even just a pen and paper to brainstorm.
FISHBONES (4S, 8P, DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS, AND MAN MACHINES
FISHBONES LET YOU BRAINSTORM POSSIBLE CAUSES OR A PROBLEM AND SEE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG
POTENTIAL CAUSES (THIS IS ESPECIALLY BENEFICIAL FOR MANUFACTURING). USE THE GREEN BOXES TO
REPRESENT CATEGORIES OF CAUSES
THE IDEA MAP IS HELPFUL FOR STRUCTURING AND ORGANIZING YOUR BRAINSTORMING
RESULTS. THE CENTRAL QUESTION OR MAIN IDEA IS IN THE CENTER.
USE CT (CRITICAL-TO-QUALITY) TREES TO IDENTIFY AND ORGANIZE INPUTS FOR A CRITICAL-TO-QUALITY
Brainstorming is a popular method of group interaction in both educational and business settings.
Although it does not provide a measurable advantage in creative output, conventional brainstorming is
an enjoyable exercise that is typically well received by participants. Electronic brainstorming effectively
overcomes barriers inherent in group work like production blocking mainly through anonymization and
parallelization of contributions. Other variations of brainstorming that do not require an electronic system
may also prove superior to the original technique. How well these methods work, and whether or not
they should be classified as brainstorming, are questions that require further research.