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Learning research methods with video

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Muller et al. (2007) suggest that video used in learning physics too often just presents just the correct explanations and there is no way of telling if the learner has internalised this correct view or has maintained any pre-existing misunderstanding. Their research suggests that people learn physics better from video explanations when first they are presented with incorrect understandings of the phenomena. Can this approach work in the social sciences?

I chose the area of social research methods and in particular depth interviews and survey sampling to test out these ideas. In the interview case, the viewer is presented with a poorly undertaken interview and is asked to find the faults, helped by an outline of good practice and a (later) commentary on the interview. Then an interview exemplifying good practice with commentary follows. In the sampling case, both incorrect explanations by teachers and students’ own attempts at explaining key ideas in sampling are presented first before a model-based explanation of the correct principles is given.

Early evaluation of the interview video suggests that the poor example enables them better to understand the advantages of the examples of good practice in the following interview.


Ref.
D.A. Muller, J. Bewes, M.D. Sharma, & P. Reimann (2007) “Saying the wrong thing: Improving learning with multimedia by including misconceptions’ Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24 pp. 144-155

Presentation given at the HEA Social Sciences Conference 2014, The Studio, Birmingham, UK, 21-22 May 2014

Published in: Education, Technology
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Learning research methods with video

  1. 1. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. Learning research methods with video Graham R Gibbs University of Huddersfield
  2. 2. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. Outline • Video use can be simple and non-challenging • But viewers are intelligent and content can be designed to be challenging • Tackle mistaken theories first, before exposition • Two examples: Research interview, random sampling.
  3. 3. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. Transmission model • Video – demonstrations, lecture capture etc. seen as a form of transmission of knowledge • Learners as passive receivers
  4. 4. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. Mistaken theories • Learners rarely start with no understanding • But often start with mistake theory – inaccurate conception of what is happening • Much evidence for this in science and mathematics • Students think they understand, but close questioning shows inaccurate explanations • Chi et al. 1994; Vosniadou 1994; Duit & Treagust 2003; diSessa 2006 • Saw this myself in verbal protocol testing of software • Video may exacerbate this (Yeo et al. 2004)
  5. 5. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. But – Intelligent learning • Video image conveys extra – Enthusiasm of lecturer/teacher – Pacing of the material – Explanations addressing special difficulties • Videos provide sense of embededness in real situations • Students use video in interactive ways (pausing, replaying etc.)
  6. 6. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. Video can address mistaken theories • Muller et al. (2007), in Physics, suggest people learn better, when presented first with incorrect understandings. • Learners identify with this mistaken view. • Video then challenges these mistakes. • See also https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=L7u9fKtb6s4
  7. 7. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. Derek Muller’s videos (Veritasium)
  8. 8. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. QUESTION • Will this work in the Social Sciences? • Range of theories • Contested subject matter. • Thus focus on research methods because subject matter more agreed upon.
  9. 9. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. Two approaches • Skills based activity • Tutor points out mistakes • E.g. Undertaking Depth Interviews • Knowledge based learning • Others express mistaken views • Then video addresses these. • E.g. Designing random survey samples
  10. 10. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. The Research Interview
  11. 11. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. Example with corrections • Mini lecture on good practice • Bad example interview • Bad example with interspersed voice commentary • Good example with text annotations
  12. 12. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. Student feedback • From YouTube • “This video is really very enlightening. Now I will be more careful not to make some of the mistakes pointed out in the clip, Sometimes it is easy to get carried away and forget important interview good practices” • “I do believe I would have made all of the errors pointed out had I not watched this instructional before my upcoming interviews. Seeing the vivid contrast of the two examples are definitely going to work in my favor. I feel more confident now. Thank you!”
  13. 13. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. Teacher feedback • “Excellent sample that can be used to encourage discussion and demonstrate good practice in a education research setting”.
  14. 14. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. Stage 2 • Video on Random Sampling for Surveys • Still to be made. • Inspired by: – Dubious contents of Kahn Video – Very odd interpretation of stratification in YouTube video • Will use these and some interviews (Veritasium style)
  15. 15. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. Big Problem • How to assess change in knowledge and understanding • In Physics there are existing, validated tests. None in social sciences ?? • Before and after test needed.
  16. 16. HEA Social Sciences Conference, 21 -22 May 2014, the Studio, Birmingham. References • Chi M.T.H., Slotta J.D. & De Leeuw N. (1994) ‘From things to processes: a theory of conceptual change for learning science concepts’. Learning and Instruction 4, 27–43. • Davis, S. J., Connolly, A., Linfield, E. (2009) Lecture capture: Making the most of face-to-face learning. Engineering Education: Journal of the Higher Education Academy Engineering Subject Centre, 4 (2), 4-13 [http://www.engsc.ac.uk/journal/index.php/ee/article/viewArticle/132/170] • diSessa A.A. (2006) ‘A history of conceptual change research: threads and fault lines’. In Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (ed. K. Sawyer), pp. 265–282. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Duit R. & Treagust D.F. (2003) ‘Conceptual change: a powerful framework for improving science teaching and learning’. International Journal of Science Education 25, 671–688. • Hampe, B. (1999) ‘Video Literacy Series: What Video Does Well in Education–and What It Doesn’t’ Syllabus Magazine, Vol. 13 No 1 (August). Video and Presentation Technologies • D.A. Muller, J. Bewes, M.D. Sharma, & P. Reimann (2007) “Saying the wrong thing: Improving learning with multimedia by including misconceptions’ Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24 pp. 144-155 • Vosniadou S. (1994) ‘Capturing and modeling the process of conceptual change’. Learning and Instruction 4, 45–69. • Yeo S., Loss R., Zadnik M., Harrison A. & Treagust D.F. (2004) ‘What do students really learn from interactive mul- timedia? A physics case study’. American Journal of Physics 72, 1351–1358.

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