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Learning research methods with video: Addressing mistaken practice

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Two approaches to using video in teaching social research methods and statistics. One focused on depth interviewing and the second on correlation and scatterplots. The second approach was evaluated in a two group, pre-test, post-test experiment.

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Learning research methods with video: Addressing mistaken practice

  1. 1. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Learning research methods with video: Addressing mistaken practice Graham R Gibbs Human and Health Sciences
  2. 2. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Outline • Video use can be simple and non-challenging • But viewers are intelligent and content can be designed to be challenging • Tackle mistaken theories first, alongside exposition • Two examples: from the social sciences: Research interviewing, Correlation.
  3. 3. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Transmission model • Video – demonstrations, lecture capture etc. seen as a form of transmission of knowledge • Learners as passive receivers
  4. 4. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . But – Intelligent learning • Video image conveys extra – Enthusiasm of lecturer/teacher – Pacing of the material – Explanations addressing special difficulties • Videos provide sense of embededness in real situations (Davis et al. 2009) • Students use video in interactive ways (pausing, replaying etc.) (Hampe 1999)
  5. 5. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Mistaken theories • Learners rarely start with no understanding • But often start with mistaken theory – inaccurate conception of what is happening • Much evidence for this in science and mathematics • Students think they understand, but close questioning shows inaccurate explanations (Chi et al. 1994; Vosniadou 1994; Duit & Treagust 2003; diSessa 2006) • Saw this myself in verbal protocol testing of software • Video may exacerbate this (Yeo et al. 2004)
  6. 6. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Video can address mistaken theories • Muller et al. (2007), in Physics, suggest people learn better, when presented first with incorrect understandings. • Learners identify with this mistaken view. • Video then challenges these mistakes.
  7. 7. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Derek Muller’s videos (Veritasium) http://youtu.be/2KZb2_vcNTg?list=PL772556F1EFC4D01C
  8. 8. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . QUESTION • Will this work in the Social Sciences? • Range of theories • Contested subject matter. • Thus focus on research methods because subject matter more agreed upon.
  9. 9. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Two approaches • Skills based activity • Tutor points out mistakes • E.g. Undertaking Research Interviews • Knowledge based learning • Mistaken views & their logic • Then video addresses these. • E.g. Understanding correlation
  10. 10. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . The Research Interview http://youtu.be/9t-_hYjAKww?t=5m3s
  11. 11. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Example with corrections • Mini lecture on good practice • Bad example interview • Bad example with interspersed voice commentary • Good example with text annotations
  12. 12. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Evaluation • 2 years on YouTube • >36,000 views • Nearly 3,500 views from colleges, universities etc. with video embedded in their own website • Feedback in comments and personal e-mails
  13. 13. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Student comments • From YouTube • “This video is really very enlightening. Now I will be more careful not to make some of the mistakes pointed out in the clip, Sometimes it is easy to get carried away and forget important interview good practices” • “I do believe I would have made all of the errors pointed out had I not watched this instructional before my upcoming interviews. Seeing the vivid contrast of the two examples are definitely going to work in my favor. I feel more confident now. Thank you!”
  14. 14. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Teacher feedback • “Excellent sample that can be used to encourage discussion and demonstrate good practice in an education research setting”.
  15. 15. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Approach 2 • 2 videos on Correlation, with same core explication • First version with 4 specific ‘common mistakes’ explicitly corrected i. confusion of correlation with causation ii. negative correlation seen as weaker than positive iii. strength of correlation not linear but measured by r2 iv. judging the size of probability in significance tests • Second version omitted mistakes but had extra, relevant material to make it similar length. • Used in pre-test, post-test, two groups experiment
  16. 16. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 .
  17. 17. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 .
  18. 18. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Big Problem • How to assess change in knowledge and understanding • In Physics there are existing, validated tests. None in social sciences ?? • Before and after test needed. • Fortunately there are some on correlation, used by Erica Morris.
  19. 19. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Correlation tests • Morris used tests on large number of undergrad students. • Included open-ended and fixed response questions. • Open-ended Q omitted in my version (BlackBoard limitations) • Added questions on statistical significance • Omitted questions not about common misunderstandings
  20. 20. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Results • Good evidence of improved scores after watching either video (F=90.29, 1 df, p<0.001) • Expt group started lower but ended with higher scores, but this not significant (F=0.040, 1 df, p=0.846). N=10.
  21. 21. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Discussion • Relevant learning effort produces learning • This also found by Morris comparing – Learning software (learning gain) – Relevant text book material (learning gain) – Non-relevant text book material (no gain) • But Muller et al. using video found no learning gain if errors were not explicitly addressed.
  22. 22. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Why? • Disciplinary differences – In Muller’s physics examples people had every- day explanations. Not so for correlations. • Different design of videos affects degree of identification – Young people expounding mistaken views – Old lecturer (me) and animated diagrams
  23. 23. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . Conclusion • Like lectures, videos can produce learning gains • Mayer’s principles - well established • Video can go beyond “knowledge acquisition” by addressing mistaken explanations • How to design this in videos needs more research.
  24. 24. Inspire Conference. Wednesday 11th January 2015. Lockside, LS2/11 . References • Chi M.T.H., Slotta J.D. & De Leeuw N. (1994) ‘From things to processes: a theory of conceptual change for learning science concepts’. Learning and Instruction 4, 27–43. • Davis, S. J., Connolly, A., Linfield, E. (2009) Lecture capture: Making the most of face-to-face learning. Engineering Education: Journal of the Higher Education Academy Engineering Subject Centre, 4 (2), 4-13 [http://www.engsc.ac.uk/journal/index.php/ee/article/viewArticle/132/170] • diSessa A.A. (2006) ‘A history of conceptual change research: threads and fault lines’. In Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (ed. K. Sawyer), pp. 265–282. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. • Duit R. & Treagust D.F. (2003) ‘Conceptual change: a powerful framework for improving science teaching and learning’. International Journal of Science Education 25, 671–688. • Hampe, B. (1999) ‘Video Literacy Series: What Video Does Well in Education–and What It Doesn’t’ Syllabus Magazine, Vol. 13 No 1 (August). Video and Presentation Technologies • Mayer, Richard E. (2009) Multi-media Learning, 2nd Ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. • Morris, E. J. (1999) The design and evaluation of Link: a CAL system designed to address psychology students' misconceptions about correlation, PhD Thesis, Institute of Educational Technology, Open University, Walton Hall, UK. • D.A. Muller, J. Bewes, M.D. Sharma, & P. Reimann (2007) “Saying the wrong thing: Improving learning with multimedia by including misconceptions’ Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24 pp. 144-155 • Vosniadou S. (1994) ‘Capturing and modeling the process of conceptual change’. Learning and Instruction 4, 45– 69. • Yeo S., Loss R., Zadnik M., Harrison A. & Treagust D.F. (2004) ‘What do students really learn from interactive mul- timedia? A physics case study’. American Journal of Physics 72, 1351–1358.

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