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Industrial pollution

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Industrial pollution

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Industrial pollution

  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CHAPTER ONECHAPTER ONE Granch Berhe
  2. 2. IMPORTANCE OF ECOLOGICAL BALANCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
  3. 3. Ecology - study of ecosystems. May be disturbed due to the introduction of new species, the sudden death of some species, natural hazards or man-made causes. The science of ecology defines “ecosystems” as interdependent populations of organisms interacting with their physical and chemical environment The science of ecology defines “ecosystems” as interdependent populations of organisms interacting with their physical and chemical environment Ecological balance –  Dynamic equilibrium within a community of organisms in which genetic, species and ecosystem diversity remain relatively stable, subject to gradual changes through natural succession. A stable balance in the numbers of each species in an ecosystem." Ecological balance –  Dynamic equilibrium within a community of organisms in which genetic, species and ecosystem diversity remain relatively stable, subject to gradual changes through natural succession. A stable balance in the numbers of each species in an ecosystem."
  4. 4. Life in cites during the middle ages, and through the industrial revolution, was difficult, sad, and usually short. Waterborne diseases have become one of the major concerns of the public health. Today the concerns of public health encompass not only water but all aspects of civilized life, including food, air, toxic materials, noise, and other environmental insults. Some ecosystems are fragile, easily damaged, and slow to recover; Some are resistant to change and are able to withstand even serious perturbations; Others are remarkably resilient and able to recover from perturbation if given the chance. Some ecosystems are fragile, easily damaged, and slow to recover; Some are resistant to change and are able to withstand even serious perturbations; Others are remarkably resilient and able to recover from perturbation if given the chance.
  5. 5. Our biosphere is under constant threat from continuing pollution. Impact on its atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere by anthropogenic activities can not be ignored. Recently, different approaches have been discussed to tackle man made environmental hazards. •Clean technology, •Eco-mark and •Green chemistry Some of the recent environmental issues include Green house effect, Loss in bio-diversity, Rising of sea level, Abnormal climatic change and Ozone layer depletion etc. Man made activities on water, air and land have negative influence over biotic and abiotic components on different natural ecosystems. Ecological Balance and Environmental Protection are key feature to be free of the above risks and threats
  6. 6. CLIMATE-GREENHOUSE EFFECT
  7. 7. Greenhouse Effect & Global Warming • The “greenhouse effect” & global warming are not the same thing. – Global warming refers to a rise in the temperature of the surface of the earth • An increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases leads to an increase in the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. (Called enhanced greenhouse effect) – This results in global warming
  8. 8. Greenhouse effect of the atmosphere • Light from the sun includes the entire visible region and smaller portions of the adjacent UV and infrared regions. • Sunlight penetrates the atmosphere and warms the earth’s surface. • Longer wavelength infrared radiation is radiated from the earth’s surface. • A considerable amount of the outgoing IR radiation is absorbed by gases in the atmosphere and reradiated back to earth. The gases in the atmosphere that act like glass in a greenhouse are called greenhouse gases. The natural greenhouse effect causes the mean temperature of the Earth's surface to be about 33o C warmer than it would be if natural greenhouse gases were not present.
  9. 9. What makes a gas greenhouse gas? • Able to absorb infrared light • Must have molecular vibration(s) – This excludes monoatomic gases as greenhouse gases. (That is why argon, the third most abundant atmospheric constituents is transparent to infrared irradiation) • The molecular vibrations must be non-symmetric, i.e. infrared active – Homonuclear diatomic molecules only have symmetric vibrations. That’s why N2, O2 are not greenhouse gases.
  10. 10. What are the major greenhouse gases? • H2O • CO2 • CH4 • N2O • O3 • CFCs • SF6
  11. 11. What determines the contribution of a greenhouse gas to global warming? • Concentrations – H2O and CO2 are the two biggest contributors to the atmospheric warming because of their higher concentrations. • Lifetime – The longer-live a gas is, the higher the contribution. e.g. N2O contribution > CH4 • Effectiveness as an infrared absorber – For example, CFC-11 and CFC-12
  12. 12. Enhanced greenhouse effect When concentrations of greenhouse gases increase, more infrared radiation is returned toward the earth and the surface temperature rises.
  13. 13. Carbon Footprint is a way to quantify the amount of CO2 being produced. Amount of GHGs (converted to CO2 ) which are emitted by a process May include production (including raw materials), use and disposal of a product or provision of a service Not only products are assigned a carbon footprint but also services or miles travelled have a carbon footprint. What can we do with this “abstract“ number? Compare or reduce.
  14. 14. Carbon Footprint
  15. 15. Consequences of global warming….. • Sea level rise – Beach erosion – Coastal wetland loss – Loss of low-lying territories • Water resources change – Precipitation pattern shift – Increases instances of heavy precipitation – New burdens on water capture, storage and distribution system to be expected. • Effects on agriculture – Changes in the length of growing season – Growth of undesirable plant species
  16. 16. …..Consequences of global warming • Effects on air quality – Increase in reaction rates and concentrations of certain atmospheric species increase in O3 in urban areas – More droughts widespread forest fire worsen air quality – Change in how pollutants are dispersed. • Impacts on human health – Changes in patterns of sickness and death. – Respiratory problems affected by air quality change • Biodiversity – Some species may grow too quick and overshoot their reproductive period (e.g. reef corals) – Forest could be devastated if the rate of climate change outpaced the rate at which forest species could migrate. • Change in the pattern of ocean current
  17. 17. Climate Change vs. Variability Even in a stable climate regime, there will always be some variation (wet/dry years, warm/cold years) A year with completely “average” or “normal” climate conditions is rare Climate variability is natural The challenge for scientists is to determine whether any increase/decrease in precipitation, temperature, frequency of storms, sea level, etc. is due to climate variability or climate change. The challenge for scientists is to determine whether any increase/decrease in precipitation, temperature, frequency of storms, sea level, etc. is due to climate variability or climate change.
  18. 18. The state of climate change science The Earth’s natural greenhouse effect is required to support life on earth. Aerosol particles are important in formation of clouds. Human activities are contributing to increases in greenhouse gases and aerosol loading. The Earth’s surface has warmed during the last century and is projected to continue warming. Maintaining Ecological Balance and Environmental Protection are thus important to have comfortable natural environment and climate.
  19. 19. DEFINITION OF POLLUTION
  20. 20. Definition of Pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change, in the form of killing of life, toxicity of environment, damage to ecosystem and aesthetics of our surrounding . Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change, in the form of killing of life, toxicity of environment, damage to ecosystem and aesthetics of our surrounding . An unwanted change in the environment which involves the physical, biological and chemical changes involving air, water and land which affects the human life in one way or the other”. An unwanted change in the environment which involves the physical, biological and chemical changes involving air, water and land which affects the human life in one way or the other”. Pollution has become a serious issue after World War II in developing countries due to unchecked rapid industrialization. Pollution has become a serious issue after World War II in developing countries due to unchecked rapid industrialization. Pollution is the root cause of many diseases that kill and disable living organisms. Pollution is the root cause of many diseases that kill and disable living organisms.
  21. 21. 21 By-product of process or service that may or may not be harmful or toxic Waste?Waste? Pollutant?Pollutant? Wastes or products that harm either human, animal health or the environment ....Mostly they are used interchangeably.
  22. 22. Pollution is everywhere.....
  23. 23. A Broader View of Pollution
  24. 24. TYPES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, THEIR EFFECT AND CONTROLS
  25. 25. Types of Pollution There are different types of Pollution • Air Pollution • Water Pollution • Soil Pollution • Noise Pollution • Light Pollution • Radio Active Pollution • Thermal Pollution
  26. 26. AIR POLLUTION
  27. 27. Air Pollution Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that spreads very fast and spreads in the air and causes SKIN & LUNGS diseases. Some of the most important air pollutants are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and airborne particles, with radioactive pollutants probably among the most destructive ones (specifically when produced by nuclear explosions). Due to increase in the volume of these gases in atmosphere the ozone layer is depleting because of which the ultraviolet rays of sun are reaching us and causing damage to our skin, eyes and other organs. Some of the most important air pollutants are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and airborne particles, with radioactive pollutants probably among the most destructive ones (specifically when produced by nuclear explosions). Due to increase in the volume of these gases in atmosphere the ozone layer is depleting because of which the ultraviolet rays of sun are reaching us and causing damage to our skin, eyes and other organs.
  28. 28. Causes effeCts • Discomfort, disease, or death to humans, animals, • Damage other living organisms such as food crops, • Damage the natural environment and Ecosystems Causes & Effects • Automobiles and Domestic fuels • Smoke from Industry chimneys • Automobile exhaust • Burning of fossil fuels • Forest fires • Household combustion devices
  29. 29. Specific Effects of Air Pollution a) Acid rain is precipitation containing harmful amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids. These acids are formed primarily by nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned. b) Haze is caused when sunlight encounters tiny pollution particles in the air. Haze obscures the clarity, color, texture, and form of what we see. c) Effects on wildlife. Toxic pollutants in the air, or deposited on soils or surface waters, can impact wildlife in a number of ways. Like humans, animals can experience health problems if they are exposed to sufficient concentrations of air toxics over time. Respiratory problems, reduced lung functioning are certain problems which can occur in the people. d) Ozone depletion- This is a layer present in the atmosphere which protects us from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun which can cause skin cancer. But due to the air pollutants this layer is getting depleted. e) These gases also cause the Green house effect and Global warming. f) The air pollutants also cause diseases in humans like lung cancer, asthma, Irritation of eyes, nose, mouth and throat, Disruption of endocrine, reproductive and immune systems and other respiratory ailments.
  30. 30. Controlling Air Pollution Maintaining healthy distance between industrial and residential areas Constructing chimneys tall in size Removing and recycling wastes in the industrial plants and refineries Planting plants that metabolize nitrogen oxides and other pollutants Designing automobiles with emission control system Timely servicing of the car and minimizing fuel exhaustion Using public transportation Using alternative energy sources (solar, hydroelectric, and wind)
  31. 31. Water Pollution…. WATER POLLUTIONWATER POLLUTION
  32. 32. Water PollutionWater Pollution It is the introduction of chemical, biological & physical matter into large bodies of water e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater that degrade the quality of life that lives in it & consumes it. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities
  33. 33. Water Pollutants… • Detergents • Chloroform • Food processing waste, (fats and grease) • Insecticides and herbicides. • Petroleum hydrocarbons, (gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuels, and fuel oil). • Lubricants (motor oil).
  34. 34. CausesCauses Causes & Effects • Oil spills, garbage, sewage water • Effluent outfalls from factories, refineries, waste treatment plants etc.. that emit fluids of varying quality directly into water bodies. • In villages people have baths in the river, they wash their clothes and utensils there. • In cities, people throw food wrappers and other wastes in the water bodies effeCtseffeCts • Disturbs ecosystems • Loss of aquatic life • Spread of Diseases
  35. 35. a) Water bodies like lakes and rivers are polluted which results in the death of marine animals like fishes, turtles, whales, dolphins etc. b) Oil spills not only harm marine animals but they also affect precipitation rate. c) If the polluted water is consumed by humans then water-borne diseases like typhoid, cholera, dysentery. d) When the pesticides after surface runoff reach the lakes, they lead to the growth of algae which after sometime covers the whole lake and due to lack of oxygen the animals die. Specific Effects of Water Pollution
  36. 36. Controlling Water Pollution Conserve water by turning off the tap. Mind what you throw down your sink or toilet. Don’t throw paints and oils in water channels. Use environment friendly household products, such as washing powder, household cleaning agents etc. Take great care not to overuse pesticides and fertilizers. Don’t throw litter into rivers, lakes or oceans. Help clean up any litter you see on beaches or in rivers and lakes, make sure it is safe to collect the litter and put it in a nearby dustbin. Minimising use of water by reusing and recycling Harvesting of rain water to meet water requirements Treating effluents before releasing
  37. 37. Treating Polluted Water Suspended, solid particles and inorganic material can be removed by the use of filters. Use of biological filters and processes can naturally degrade the organic waste material. After above two steps chemical additives are supplied to get rid of any left-over impurities.
  38. 38. SOIL POLLUTION
  39. 39. Soil pollution is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. Soil Pollution It is typically caused by a)Industrial activity b)Agricultural chemicals c)Improper disposal of waste.
  40. 40. Soil Contaminating Chemicals….. • Petroleum hydrocarbons. • Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. • Pesticides • Lead and Other heavy metals
  41. 41. Causes • Reduce Fertility of Soil • Pollute ground water • Foul odor • Death on living things Causes & Effects • Corrosion of underground storage tanks • Application of pesticides and fertilizers • Mining, Oil and fuel dumping • Disposal of coal ash • Leaching from landfills • Discharge of industrial wastes to the soil • Drainage of contaminated surface water into the soil effeCtseffeCts
  42. 42. Specific Effects of Soil Pollution a) The waste from landfill leaches and causes contaminates the groundwater. b) Certain animals eat waste like plastic bags and die. c) It emits foul odor and becomes breeding ground for mosquitoes. d) The waste on a landfill reduces the fertility of the soil. e) Pesticides, benzene, chromium and weed killers sprayed on the field are carcinogens which have been established to lead to all kinds of cancer. f) Long-term benzene exposure is responsible for irregular menstrual cycles in women, leukemia and anemia.
  43. 43. • Limiting use of fertilizers and pesticides • Creating awareness about biological control methods and their implementation • Using Proper preventive methods like shields in areas of wind erosion and wind breaks • Treating industrial and nuclear waste. • Proper disposing of plastics and other garbage materials. • Minimising, reusing and recycling wastes Controlling of Soil Pollution
  44. 44. Noise Pollution.. NOISE POLLUTION
  45. 45. Noise Pollution • Noise pollution is displeasing or excessive noise that may disrupt the activity or balance of human or animal life. • Noise means disgust or discomfort hearing from environment. Sources of Noise Pollution… • Machines. • Transportation systems. • Motor vehicles. • Aircrafts. • Trains. • Poor urban planning.
  46. 46. Specific Effects of Noise Pollution • Noise pollution affects both health and behavior. • Noise pollution can cause – Annoyance – Aggression . – Hypertension . – High stress levels . – Hearing loss. – High BP – Sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects.
  47. 47. Controlling of Noise Pollution • The Government should ensure the new machines that should be noise proof. • Industries should be setup outside residential area and not near schools. • Using Sound Absorber
  48. 48. Light Pollution LIGHT POLLUTION
  49. 49. Light Pollution Light pollution, also known as photo pollution or luminous pollution, is excessive, misdirected, or obtrusive artificial light. Pollution is the adding-of/added light itself, in analogy to added sound, carbon dioxide, etc. Light pollution Causes • Degradation of photic habitat by artificial light. • Alteration of natural light levels in the outdoor environment. • Due to indoor light pollution human health is compromised.
  50. 50. Controlling Light Pollution.. • Excessive lighting should be avoided. • For Lighting an applicable design should be followed. • Light engineering should be applied for streets.
  51. 51. RADIO ACTIVE POLLUTION
  52. 52. Radio Active Pollution  Pollution caused by the resultant substances from nuclear reactors and other radioactive substances.
  53. 53. Causes & Effects Causes • Nuclear Power Plants, Weapons • Disposal of nuclear waste • Uranium Mining effeCts • Cancer • Swelling of Bone Joints • Eye Problems
  54. 54. Controlling of Radio Active Pollution • Avoid Constructing Nuclear Power Plants • Avoid Using Nuclear Weapon • Have Proper Treatment for Nuclear Waste • Avoid mining for Uranium to a minimal
  55. 55. THERMAL POLLUTION
  56. 56.  Thermal Pollution existence of extra high or extra low (extra hot or cold) condition. Thermal Pollution Causes • Nuclear Power Plants • Volcanic eruption • Industries and factories • Forest Fires effeCts • Discomfort • Death on animals and plants Causes & Effects Controlling of Thermal Pollution • Avoid Constructing Nuclear Power Plants • Controlling and informing time of volcanic eruption
  57. 57. Total Textile Process at a Glance
  58. 58. METHODS OF MINIMIZING AND ELIMINATING WASTES
  59. 59. Why minimise waste?Why minimise waste? On-site recycling Off-site recycling disposal disposal source source waste No waste minimisation With waste minimisation, recycling and treatment to treatment waste
  60. 60. Preferred hierarchy of wastePreferred hierarchy of waste management optionsmanagement options Source reduction On-site/off-site recycling Treatment Final disposal Waste diversion
  61. 61. Source reduction opportunitiesSource reduction opportunities Source reduction Housekeeping improvement Product reformulation Input material alteration Technology alteration
  62. 62. Factors influencing wasteFactors influencing waste minimisationminimisation •Government policy and regulations •Technological feasibility •Economic viability •Management commitment and support
  63. 63. Waste minimisation - incentivesWaste minimisation - incentives •Reduced costs: •raw materials, energy, water •storage and handling •waste disposal •health and safety •Regulatory compliance •Improved efficiency •Improved corporate image
  64. 64. Waste minimisation - barriersWaste minimisation - barriers •Economic barriers •Technical barriers •Regulatory barriers
  65. 65. Waste minimisation opportunitiesWaste minimisation opportunities applicable to all operationsapplicable to all operations •Use higher purity materials •Use less toxic raw materials •Use non-corrosive materials •Convert from batch to continuous process •Improve equipment inspection & maintenance •Improve operator training •Improve supervision •Improve housekeeping

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