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Personalized Gameful Design

Several research studies have been showing that personalized gameful solutions can lead to higher engagement and performance. However, personalized gameful design faces two challenges: deciding how to select game elements and activities that are appealing to different users, and deciding how to adapt the experience to each user. In this talk, Gustavo reports on the latest research and his own experience designing personalized gameful solutions. To solve the first challenge (design), he will show how to use the classification of gameful design elements, the gameful design heuristics, and the user types models to create solutions that are appealing to different users. For the second challenge (adaptation), he will discuss strategies for customization (letting the user adjust their experience at will) or personalization (having the system automatically learn about the user and make adjustments).

Keynote presented at Gamification Europe 2020.

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Personalized Gameful Design

  1. 1. Personalized Gameful Design Gustavo F. Tondello, PhD gustavo@motiviux.com @GustavoTondello www.motiviux.com www.gamefulbits.com November 2020
  2. 2. Personalized Gameful Design The tailoring of the gameful design elements to boost the achievement of the goals of the gameful system 2
  3. 3. Types of Personalization 3 User-initiated (customization) System-initiated (personalization) Access Lotteries Boss Battles Because you recently completed a challenge: Unlock restricted areas of the system You can earn amazing rewards in our lottery Test your skills with these highly difficult tasks * Gustavo F. Tondello. 2019. Dynamic Personalization of Gameful Interactive Systems. PhD Thesis, University of Waterloo.
  4. 4. Examples of Applied Personalized Gamification
  5. 5. Quest Selection in a Gameful Course 5* Business Systems Analysis course taught by Gustavo F. Tondello at the University of Waterloo. 5
  6. 6. Skill Tree in a Gameful Course 6* User Interfaces course taught by Gustavo F. Tondello at the University of Waterloo. * Gustavo F. Tondello and Lennart E. Nacke. A Pilot Study of a Digital Skill Tree in Gameful Education. GamiLearn 2019. 6
  7. 7. Image Tagging Platform 77* Gustavo F. Tondello and Lennart E. Nacke. Validation of User Preferences and Effects of Personalized Gamification on Task Performance. Frontiers in Computer Science 2, 2020.
  8. 8. Image Tagging Platform 88* Gustavo F. Tondello and Lennart E. Nacke. Validation of User Preferences and Effects of Personalized Gamification on Task Performance. Frontiers in Computer Science 2, 2020. Customized application: 90% more images 33% better experience (compared to the generic version)
  9. 9. Article Classification Microtasks 99* Pascal Lessel, Maximilian Altmeyer, Marc Müller, Christian Wolff, Antonio Krüger. Measuring the Effect of “Bottom-Up” Gamification in a Microtask Setting. Academic Mindtrek 2017. Customized application: 66% more tasks completed (vs fixed gamification) 120% more tasks completed (vs without gamification)
  10. 10. Enable or Disable Gamification 1010* Pascal Lessel, Maximilian Altmeyer, Lea Verena Schmeer, and Antonio Krüger. 2019. “Enable or Disable Gamification?” – Analyzing the Impact of Choice in a Gamified Image Tagging Task. CHI 2019. Results: 76% more tags generated (+/− gamification) 36% more tags generated (+/− choice, − gamification) − gamification − choice + gamification − choice − gamification + choice + gamification + choice
  11. 11. Avatar Customization for Digital Mental Health Intervention 1111* Max Birk and Regan Mandryk. Improving the Efficacy of Cognitive Training for Digital Mental Health Interventions Through Avatar Customization: Crowdsourced Quasi-Experimental Study. J Med Internet Res 21(1), 2019. Customized avatar: • Increased avatar identification • Increased engagement with cognitive training (attention bias modification) • Reduced anxiety after exposure to negative images
  12. 12. Personalized Fitness Recommender System 1212* Zhao Zhao, Ali Arya, Rita Orji, Gerry Chan. Effects of a Personalized Fitness Recommender System Using Gamification and Continuous Player Modeling: System Design and Long-Term Validation Study. JMIR Serious Games 8(4), 2020.
  13. 13. Personalized Fitness Recommender System 1313* Zhao Zhao, Ali Arya, Rita Orji, Gerry Chan. Effects of a Personalized Fitness Recommender System Using Gamification and Continuous Player Modeling: System Design and Long-Term Validation Study. JMIR Serious Games 8(4), 2020.
  14. 14. Personalized Challenges for Gameful Smart Cities 1414* Reza Khoshkangini, Giuseppe Valetto, Annapaola Marconi, Marco Pistore. Automatic generation and recommendation of personalized challenges for gamification. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 2020. Procedurally-generated challenges: • Higher impact on sustainable behaviours • More economical (improvement vs reward cost) (in comparison to manually- generated challenges)
  15. 15. How to Design Personalized Gameful Systems
  16. 16. What can we personalize? 16 Activities Game Elements Persuasive Strategies Difficulty Rewards * Gustavo F. Tondello. 2019. Dynamic Personalization of Gameful Interactive Systems. PhD Thesis, University of Waterloo.
  17. 17. Groups of Gameful Design Elements 17 Individual Motivations Immersion Progression External Motivations Risk/Reward Customization Incentive Social Motivations Socialization Assistance Altruism * Gustavo F. Tondello, Alberto Mora, Lennart E. Nacke. Elements of Gameful Design Emerging from User Preferences. CHI PLAY 2017.
  18. 18. Groups of Gameful Design Elements 18 Narrative or Story Levels or Progression Challenges Avatars Rewards or Prizes Leaderboards Power-ups or Booster Knowledge sharing
  19. 19. Customization 19
  20. 20. Recommender Systems 20 Recommendation User Profile Demographics User type Personality Items Activities Game elements Strategies TransactionsUsers x Items Contexts Location Time … Ratings Users x Items Content-based recommender Collaborative filtering Context-aware recommender Hybrid recommender * Gustavo F. Tondello, Rita Orji, Lennart E. Nacke. Recommender Systems for Personalized Gamification. UMAP 2017 Adjunct.
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  22. 22. Personalized Gameful Design Gustavo F. Tondello, PhD gustavo@motiviux.com @GustavoTondello www.motiviux.com www.gamefulbits.com November 2020

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