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  1. 1. Business Model Generation Written by Alexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur 2010 2/21/20161 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  2. 2. Table of content 1. Canvas 2. Patterns 3. Design 4. Strategy 5. Process 6. Outlook 7. Afterword 2/21/20162 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  3. 3. 1. Canvas 1. Definition of a business model 2. The 9 building blocks 3. The business model canvas template 2/21/20163 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  4. 4. 1. Business Model 2. Elements of a Business Model A business model describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers and captures value Customer Segments Customer Relationship Value Proposition Channel Revenue Stream Key activities Key partners Key resources Cost structure 2/21/20164 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  5. 5. CS. Customer segment Different group of people or organizations an enterprise aims to reach and serve Segments defined by:  Customer needs  Reach  Relationships  Profitability  Willingness to pay Dominant forms:  Mass market (e.g. Wal- Mart)  Niche market (e.g. Apple)  Segmented (e.g. Microsoft Home/ Office/ Enterprise)  Diversified (e.g. Amazon Cloud)  Multi-sided platforms (e.g. eBay) 2/21/20165 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  6. 6. VP. Value Propositions Bundle of products and services that create value for a specific customer segment Ways of value creation:  Newness  Performance  Customization  Getting the job done  Design  Brand/ status  Price  Cost reduction (on usage)  Risk reduction  Accessibility  Convenience/ usability 2/21/20166 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  7. 7. CH. Channels How company communicates with and reaches its customer segments to deliver value proposition Channel phases:  Awareness  Evaluation  Purchase  Delivery  After sales Own Partner Direct Indirect Sales force Web sales Own stores Partne r stores Whole salers 2/21/20167 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  8. 8. CR. Customer Relationships Type of relationship a company establishes with specific customer segments Nature of customer relationships:  Personal assistance (e.g. call centers)  Dedicated personal assistance (e.g. private banking HNIs)  Self-service (e.g. online banking)  Automated services (e.g. customer rating/ review)  Communities (e.g. PatientsLikeMe.com )  Co-creation (e.g. YouTube.com) 2/21/20168 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  9. 9. R$. Revenue Stream Cash a company generates from each customer segment (transaction revenue or recurring revenue) Revenue models:  Asset sales (e.g. automobiles)  Usage fee (e.g. telecom)  Subscription fee (e.g. gym)  Lending/ renting/ leasing (e.g. car rental)  Licensing (e.g. patent royalties)  Brokerage fee (e.g. credit cards)  Advertising (e.g. media industry) Pricing mechanisms Fixed menu pricing Dynamic pricing List price Product feature dependent Customer segment dependent Volume dependent Negotiation Yield management (e.g. airline seats) Real-time-markets Auctions 2/21/20169 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  10. 10. KR. Key Resources The most important assets required to make a business model work Categories of resources include:  Physical (e.g. facilities, buildings, machines, systems, networks)  Intellectual (e.g. brands, proprietary knowledge, patents and copyrights, partnerships and customer databases)  Human (e.g. knowledge intensive and creative industries)  Financial (e.g. cash, lines of credit, stock options) 2/21/201610 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  11. 11. KA. Key Activities The most important things a company must do to make its business model work Key business activities could include:  Production  Problem solving (e.g. service/ utility industries)  Platform/ network (e.g. matchmaking platforms, software, etc) 2/21/201611 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  12. 12. KP. Key Partnerships Network of partners or suppliers that make the business model work Types of partnerships could be:  Strategic alliance between non-competitors  Coopetition, as alliances between competitors  Joint ventures for developing new products  Buyer- supplier relationships to assure reliance supplies General motives are:  Optimization and economies of scale  Reduce risk and uncertainty (e.g. Blu-ray)  Acquisition of particular resources and activities 2/21/201612 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  13. 13. C$. Cost Structure Cost incurred in operating a business model Dominant cost structures  Cost driven (e.g. low-price value proposition, automation, outsourcing)  Value driven (e.g. premium value creation, and high degree of personalization) Characteristics of cost structure:  Fixed costs  Variable costs  Economies of scale  Economies of scope 2/21/201613 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  14. 14. 3. Business model canvas template Key Partners Key Activities Value Proposition Customer Relation Customer Segments Key Resources Channels Cost Structure Revenue Streams 2/21/201614 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  15. 15. Apple iPod/ iTunes business Model Key Partners  Record companies  OEMs Key Activities  Hardware design  Marketing Value Proposition  Seamless music experienc e Customer Relation  Lovemark  Switching cost Customer Segments  Mass market Key Resources  People  Apple brand  iPod hardware  iTunes software  Content and agreement Channels  Retail stores  Apple stores  iTune stores  Apple.com Cost Structure  People  Manufacturing  Marketing and sales Revenue Streams  iTunes stores  Large hardware revenue  Some music revenue 2/21/201615 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  16. 16. 2. Patterns 1. Unbundling business models 2. The long tail 3. Multi-sided platforms 4. Free as a business model 5. Open business models 2/21/201616 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  17. 17. 1. Unbundling business models Early market entry enables charging premium prices and acquiring large market share; speed is key High cost of customer acquisition makes it imperative to gain wallet share; economics of scope are key High fixed costs make large volumes essential to achieve low unit costs; economics of sale are key Battle for talent; low barriers to entry; many small players thrive Battle for scope; rapid consolidation; a few big players dominate Battle for scale; rapid consolidation; a few big players dominate Employee entered; coddling the create stars Highly service oriented; customer- comes-first mentality Cost focused; stresses standardization, predictability and efficiency Product Innovation Customer Relationship Management Infrastructure Management Economics Competition Culture Examples: mobile telecom industry, private banking industry 2/21/201617 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  18. 18. 2. Long tail business models 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 18  Selling less of more; large number of niche products, each of which sells relatively infrequently  Moving away from only selling ‘hit’ products  Examples: Netflix, eBay, YouTube, Facebook, Lulu.com (book publishing), Lego Factory  Drivers  Democratization of tools of production (e.g. movie making)  Democratization of distribution (on Internet)  Falling search cost of connecting supply with demand
  19. 19. Long tail explained for music industry 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 19
  20. 20. 3. Multi-sided platforms 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 20  Brings together two or more distinct but interdependent groups of customers. Product value by:  Facilitating interactions  Network effect (more leads to more) Same-side effect and other-side effect  One side generates revenue, and other side is subsidized  Examples: Visa, Google, eBay, Microsoft Windows SDK, Financial Times, Wii game console, Metro (free newspaper)
  21. 21. Google business Model Key Partners Key Activities  Platform management  Managing services  Expanding reach Value Proposition  Targeted ads  Free search  Monetizin g content Customer Relation Customer Segments  Advertisers  Web surfers  Content owners Key Resources  Search platform Channels Cost Structure  Platform cost Revenue Streams  Keyword auction  Free 2/21/201621 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  22. 22. PSP/ Xbox versus Wii focus 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 22 Key Partners Key Activities Value Proposition  High performa nce console  Console audience Customer Relation Customer Segments  Hardcore gamers  Game developer s Key Resources Channels Cost Structure Revenue Streams  Hardware sales at a loss  Royalties from developers Sony PlayStation Microsoft Xbox Key Partners Key Activities Value Proposition  Family console  Access to console users  Cheap game development cost Customer Relation Customer Segments  Casual gamers  Game developers Key Resources Channels Cost Structure Revenue Streams  Profitable hardware sales  Royalties from developers Nintendo Wii
  23. 23. 4. ‘Free’ as a business model 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 23  Non-paying customers are financed by another part of the business model or by another customer segment  Examples: Metro (free paper), Flickr, Open Source, Skype, Google, Free Mobile Phones, Insurance  Some models are:  Advertising (one side of multi-sided platform pays)  Freemium (free basic offerings, and optional premium services)  Bait and hook (free or inexpensive trials)
  24. 24. Red Hat Linux business model Key Partners  Linux Open Source developmen t community Key Activities  Software support services  Software visioning and testing Value Proposition  Free (Linux) open source based software  Continuous upgraded, services and guaranteed software Customer Relation  Self service and direct access to engineers Customer Segments  Advertisers  Web surfers  Content owners Key Resources  Red Hat (Linux) software Channels  Redhat.co m  Red Hat global branches Cost Structure  Elements of a service company Revenue Streams  Professional subscription  Free software 2/21/201624 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  25. 25. Skype business model Key Partners  Payment providers  Distribution partners  Telco partners Key Activities  Software development Value Proposition  Free Internet and voice calling  Cheap calls to phones (SkypeOut) Customer Relation  Mass customized Customer Segments  Web users globally  People who want to call phones Key Resources  Software developers  Software Channels  Skype.com  Headset partnership s Cost Structure  Software development  Compliance management Revenue Streams  SkypeOut pre-paid or subscription  Hardware sales 2/21/201625 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  26. 26. Gillette: ‘Bait and hook’ business model 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 26 Key Partners  Manufacturers  Retailers Key Activities  Marketing  R&D  Logistics Value Proposition  Razor handle  Blades Customer Relation  Built-in ‘lock-in’ Customer Segments  Customers Key Resources  Brand  Patents (blocking) Channels  Retail Cost Structure  Marketing  Manufacturing  Logistics  R&D Revenue Streams  One time hand purchase  Frequent blade replacement
  27. 27. 5. Open Business Models 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 27 Closer Open The smart people in our field work with us We need to work with smart people both inside and outside our company To profile from research and development, we must discover it, develop it, and ship it ourselves External R&D can create significant value; internal R&D is needed to claim some portion of that value In we conduct most of the best research in the industry, we will win. We don’t have to originate the research to benefit from it If we create the most or the best ideas in the industry, we will win. If we make the best use of internal and external ideas, we win. We should control our innovation process, so that competitors don’t profit from our ideas We should profit from others’ use of our innovations, and we should buy others’ intellectual property whenever it advances our own interest Principles of innovation
  28. 28. Outside-in versus inside-out approaches 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 28 Key Partners  Other company’s IP  External scientists  Retires scientists Key Activities  Internal R&D Key Resources  Internal R&D Cost Structure  Leveraging internal R&D Value Proposition  IP for underserved diseases Customer Relation  Acquisitio n  Retention Customer Segments  Outside researchers Channels  Patent pools Revenue Streams  License fee Procter & Gamble: Connect and Develop GlaxoSmithKline: Patent Pools
  29. 29. InnoCentive 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 29 Key Partners  Major ‘seekers’ Key Activities  Platform manageme nt  Acquire solvers and seekers Value Proposition  Access to broad network of scientist ‘solvers’  Connect ‘seekers’ and ‘solvers’  Access to scientific challenges with cash rewards Customer Relation  Online profiles Customer Segments  Seekers (company)  Solvers (scientists) Key Resources  Brand  Patents (blocking) Channels  Innocenti ve.com Cost Structure  Platform management  Acquisition of solvers and seekers Revenue Streams  Free access to challenges  Fee to list challenges  Commission on rewards for solutions
  30. 30. 3. Design 1. Customer insights 2. Ideation 3. Visual thinking 4. Prototyping 5. Storytelling 6. Scenarios 2/21/201630 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  31. 31. 1. Customer insights 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 31 “If I had asked my customers what they wanted, they would have told me ‘a faster horse.’”- Henry Ford Empathy Map What does the customer SEE? What does the customer HEAR? What does the customer SAY and DO? What does the customer THINK and FEEL? PAIN GAIN
  32. 32. 2. Ideation 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 32 A creative process for generating a large number of (business model) ideas and successfully isolating the best ones. Generation Synthesis Suggested approaches: Epicenters of Business Model Innovation What if? Analysis
  33. 33. Epicenters of Business Model Innovation 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 33 Resource- driven Offer- driven Customer- driven Finance- driven Example: Amazon Web Services Example: Cemex (Mexican cement company) Example: 23andMe (personalized DNA testing) Example: Xerox 914 (lease at $95 per month, 2000 free copies, 5 cents per copy
  34. 34. Power of ‘what if’ questions 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 34 Examples  IKEA (buyers pick up components in flat packaging and assemble themselves)  Rolls-Royce (maintenance price for every hour an engine runs)  Skype (free voice calling over Internet)  Car2go by Daimler (car rental anywhere in the city)  Zopa (peer-to-peer landing system)  Grameen Phone (microfinance coupled with mobile devices)
  35. 35. Ideation Process 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 35 General approach  Team composition (diverse at all levels)  Immersion (home work on customer, technology, trends, business models)  Expanding (ideation with a focus on quantity, not quality)  Criteria selection (e.g. implementation time, revenue potential, possible customer resistance, and impact on competitive advantage)  Prototyping (creation of a business model for shortlisted ideas) Brainstorming rules  Stay focused on a well honed statement  Enforce rules, such as deferring judgment, go for quality, encourage wild ideas, etc.  Think visually with post- it notes, sketches, etc.  Prepare, with an immersion exercise beforehand
  36. 36. 3. Visual Thinking 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 36  Sketches- however rudimentary or amateurish- help people better describe, discuss, and understand issues. Suggested processes  Visualizing with Post-it notes  Visualizing with drawings  Understand the essence  Enhance dialogue  Explore ideas  Improve communication  Telling a visual story
  37. 37. 4. Prototyping 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 37  For pre-implementation visualization and testing  Tool of inquiry  Infuses a design attitude, which includes  Willingness to explore crude ideas  Rapidly discarding them  Take time to examine multiple possibilities  Accept uncertainty until design direction matures  Scale of prototypes  Napkin sketches  elaborate canvas  business case  field-test
  38. 38. 5. Storytelling 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 38 Why storytelling?  Introducing the new (provoke ideas/ justify change/ introducing tangibility)  Pitching to inventors (for clarification)  Engaging employees Typical starting points (choice of protagonist)  Company perspective (employee observer)  Customer perspective (customer jobs) Techniques: Talk and image Video clips Role play Text and image Comic strip
  39. 39. 6. Scenarios 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 39 Types of scenarios  Define different customer settings  How products or services are used  What kind of customers use them  Customer concerns, desires and objectives  Possible future environments
  40. 40. 4. Strategy 1. Business model environment 2. Evaluating business models 3. Business model perspectives on Blue Ocean Strategy 4. Managing multiple business models 2/21/201640 Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010)
  41. 41. 1. Business Model Environments 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 41 Industry forces Suppliers and other value chain actors Stakeholders Competitors (incumbents) New entrants (insurgents) Substitute products and services Key trends Regulatory trends Technology trends Societal and cultural trends Socioeconomic trends Macro-economic factors Global market conditions Capital markets Economic infrastructure Commodities and other resources Market forces Market segments Needs and demands Market issues Switching cost Revenue attractiveness
  42. 42. 2. Evaluating business models 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 42  Big picture assessment  Happens on the business model  Identification of +/ - for each of the nine elements of business model  SWOT analysis (Strength- Weakness- Opportunity- Threat)  Value proposition assessment  Cost/ revenue assessment  Infrastructure assessment  Customer interface assessment
  43. 43. SWOT analysis (indicative questions)1/4 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 43 Value proposition assessment  Our value propositions are well aligned with customer needs  Our value propositions have strong network effect  There are strong synergies between our products and services  Our customers are very satisfied
  44. 44. SWOT analysis (indicative questions) 2/4 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 44 Cost/ revenue assessment  We benefit from strong margins  Our revenues are predictable  We have recurring revenue streams and frequent repeat purchases  Our revenue streams are diversified  Our revenue streams are sustainable  We collect revenue before we incur expenses  We charge for what customers are really willing to pay for  Our pricing mechanisms capture full willingness to pay  Our costs are predictable  Our cost structure is correctly matched to our business model  Our operations are cost-efficient  We benefit from economies of scale
  45. 45. SWOT analysis (indicative questions) 3/4 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 45 Infrastructure assessment  Our key resources are difficult for competitors to replicate  Recourse needs are predictable  We deploy key resources in the right amount at the right time  We efficiently execute key activities  Our key activities are difficult to copy  Execution quality is high  Balance of in-house versus outsourced execution is ideal  We are focused and work with partners when necessary  We enjoy good working relationships with key partners
  46. 46. SWOT analysis (indicative questions) 4/4 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 46 Customer interface assessment  Customer churn rates are low  Customer base is well segmented  We are continuously acquiring new customers  Our channel are very efficient  Out channels are very effective  Channel reach is strong among customers  Customers can easily see our channels  Channels are strongly integrated  Channels provide economies of scope  Channels are well matched to customer segments  Strong customer relationships  Relationship quality correctly matches customer segments  Relationships bind customers through high switching costs  Our brand is strong
  47. 47. SWOT- Assessing threats – 1/2 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 47 Value proposition threats  Are substitute products and services available?  Are competitors threatening to offer batter price or value? Cost/ revenue threats  Are our margins threatened by competitors? By technology?  Do we depend exclusively on one or more revenue streams?  Which revenue streams are likely to disappear in the future?  Which costs threaten to become unpredictable?  Which costs threaten to grow more quickly than the revenues they support?
  48. 48. SWOT- Assessing threats – 2/2 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 48 Infrastructure threats  Could we face a disruption in the supply of certain resources?  Is the quality of our resources threatened in any way?  What key activities might be disrupted?  Is the quality of our activities threatened in any way?  Are we in danged of losing any partners?  Might our partners collaborate with competitors?  Are we too dependent on certain partners? Customer interface threats  Could our market be saturated soon?  Are competitors threatening our market share?  How likely are customers to defect?  How quickly will competition in our market intensify?  Do competitors threaten our channels?  Are our channels in danged of becoming irrelevant to customers?  Are any of our customer relationships in danger of deterioration?
  49. 49. SWOT- Assessing opportunities– 1/2 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 49 Value proposition opportunities  Could we generate recurring revenues by converting products into services?  Could we better integrate our products or services?  Which additional customer needs could we satisfy?  What complements to or extensions of our value propositions are possible?  What other jobs could we do on behalf of customers? Cost/ revenue opportunities  Can we replace one-time transaction revenues with recurring revenues?  What other elements would customers be willing to pay for?  Do we have cross-selling opportunities either internally or with partners?  What other revenue streams could we add or create?  Can we increase price?  Where can we reduce cost?
  50. 50. SWOT- Assessing threats – 2/2-a 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 50 Infrastructure opportunities  Could we use less costly resources to achieve the same result?  Which key resources could be better sourced from partners?  Which key resources are under-exploited?  Do we have unused intellectual property of value to others?  Could we standardize some key activities?  How could we improve efficiency in general?  Would IT support boost efficiency?  Are there outsourcing opportunities?  Could greater collaboration with partners help us focus on our core business?  Are there cross-selling opportunities with partners?  Could partner channels help us better reach customers?  Could partner complement our value proposition?
  51. 51. SWOT- Assessing threats – 2/2-b 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 51 Customer interface opportunities  How can we benefit from a growing market?  Could we serve new customer segments?  Could we better serve our customers through finer segmentation?  How could we improve channel efficiency or effectiveness?  Could we integrate our channels better?  Could we find new complementary partner channels?  Could we increase margins by directly serving customers?  Could we better align channels with customer segments?  Is there potential to improve customer follow-up?  How could we tighten our relationships with customers?  Could we improve personalization?  How could we increase switching cost?  Have we identified and fired unprofitable customers? If not, why not?  Do we need to automate
  52. 52. 3. Business model perspectives on Blue Ocean Strategy 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 52 Four action framework (ERRC Grid)  Which of the factors that the industry takes for granted should be eliminated?  Which factors should be reduced well below the industry standards?  Which factors should be raised well above the industry standards?  Which factors should be created that the industry has never offered? KP KA VP CR CS KR CH C$ R$ Cost Side Value Side Eliminate/ Reduce Raise/ Create
  53. 53. 4. Managing multiple business models 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 53 Choices of business model in bringing an idea to the market  Integration (e.g. integration of each SMH (Swatch Group) watch brand across the high, mid and low segments)  Autonomy (e.g. Car2go care rental startup from Daimler?)  Separation (e.g. complete independence of Nespresso SA from Nescafe)
  54. 54. 5. Process 1. Starting point 2. Five phases 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 54
  55. 55. 1. Starting point 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 55 Objectives of new business models  Satisfy markets (e.g. Tata Nano, NetJets, GrameenBank, Lulu.com)  Bring new product to market (e.g. Xerox 914, Swatch, Nespresso, Red Hat)  Improve market (e.g. Dell, Nintendo Wii, IKEA, Bharati Airtel, Skype, Ryan air, Amazon.com, Better Place)  Create market (e.g. Diners Club, Google)
  56. 56. 2. Five phases 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 56 Phases are  Mobilize (setting the stage)  Understand (immersion)  Design (inquiry)  Implement (execution), and  Manage (evolution)
  57. 57. 6. Outlook 1. Business models beyond profit 2. Computer aided business models 3. Business model and business plan 4. Implementation issues 5. Leveraging IT 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 57
  58. 58. 1. Beyond-profit business models 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 58  Categories  Third-party funded enterprise models  Triple bottom line business models KP Grameen Bank Network Consortium (Telenor) KA Manage network VP Income opportunity Mobile commn’ CR CS Village phone ladies Villagers KR CH Grameen Bank Village phone ladies C$ Network R$ Communication income Grameenphone
  59. 59. 2. Computer aided 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 59  There are a host of computer application useful for mind mapping, scenario generation, large data analysis, trend spotting, etc, that could complement paper-based approaches
  60. 60. 3. Business plans 2/21/2016Business Model Generation (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010) 60  Executive summary  The team  Management profile  Why we are a winning team  The business model  Vision, mission and values  How our business models works  Value proposition  Target market  Marketing plan  Key resources and activities  Financial analysis  Breakeven analysis  Sales scenarios and projections  Capital spending  Operating costs  Funding requirements  External environment  The economy  Market analysis and key trends  Competitor analysis  Competitive advantage of our business model  Implementation roadmap  Projects  Milestones  Roadmap  Risk analysis  Limiting factors and obstacles  Critical success factors  Specific risks and countermeasures  Conclusion  Annexes

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