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Smart Cities and ICT - An assessment framework for Smart City ICT architecture

There are many definitions of a <Smart City>, and almost all identify ICT as the key enabler. But, what are the characteristics of a smart city, and what is the role of ICT in enabling those characteristics? Moreover, how ICT maturity can be assessed in a smart city context?

The slides give a brief on smart city concepts, elaborate on the role of ICT in smart city enablement and also introduce an EA framework to assess ICT maturity of smart cities.

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Smart Cities and ICT - An assessment framework for Smart City ICT architecture

  1. 1. Smart Cities and ICT An ICT Assessment Framework for Smart Cities HAKAN DEMİREL “A smart sustainable city is an innovative city that uses ICTs and other means to improve the quality of life, efficiency of urban operation and services, and competitiveness, while ensuring that it meets the needs of present and future generations with respect to economic, social and environmental aspects.” (ITU FG-SCC)
  2. 2. Smart Cities handle current and future problems proactively, efficient and in sustainable ways Environment : According to the UN, 50% of the world's population lives in cities and produces 70% of greenhouse gases Urbanization: Population in mega cities increases faster than country population Demography: While cities in need of providing education, employment and housing for a large young population, an increase is observed in the demand for health services and accessible services from the older population. Tokyo 38M Beijing 20M Shanghai 24M Istanbul 14M Cairo 19M Dehli 26M Mumbai 21M New York 19M Lagos 14M Mexico City 21M São Paulo 21M Population with age over 65 in Tokyo and Osaka 20% Population with age below 15 in mega cities in Africa and Asia 25%
  3. 3. ENERGY WASTE EDUCATION PUBLIC SAFETY POLLUTION HEALTH URBAN DIVIDESenvironment WATER housing JOBS TRANSPORTATION FOOD & AGRICULTURE DIFFERENT CITIES SIMILAR CHALLENGES MatureDeveloping Growing • High growth rate • Young population • Unplanned infrastructure • Limited public transportation • Management without coordination • Insufficient service and infrastructure • Ongoing growth • Urban planning • Extension of public transportation • High coordination of management • Improved service and infrastructure • Steady and negative growth • Aging Population • Coordinating planning • Integrated transportation systems • Central management • Established services and infrastructures Source: Ericsson
  4. 4. Different cities have adopted different approaches Intelligent City relies on the digital city infrastructure to build intelligent buildings, transportation systems, schools, enterprises, public spaces, public services, etc. and to integrate them into intelligent urban systems Smart City – deploys intelligent urban systems at the service of socio- economic development and improving urban quality of life (Sources United Nations University, Smart Cities for Sustainable Development Research Project, Sweco and SKL International) Symbio City aims to "get more for less", creating synergy by integrating different technologies and city functions There are several models that incorporate digital technologies to address some of the urbanisation and sustainability challenges Digital City features the integration of digital technology into the city’s core infrastructure systems
  5. 5. How Standardization bodies handle the Smart City challenge Level 1: Strategic: These are smart city standards that aim to provide guidance to city leadership and other bodies on the “process of developing a clear and effective overall smart city strategy”. They include guidance in identifying priorities, how to develop a roadmap for implementation and how to effectively monitor and evaluate progress along the roadmap. Level 2: Process: Standards in this category are focused on procuring and managing smart city projects – in particular those that cross both organizations and sectors. These essentially offer best practices and associated guidelines. Level 3: Technical: This level covers the technical specifications that are needed to actually implement Smart City products and services so that they meet the overall objectives Placing major worldwide standards activities (Copyright BSI 2015)
  6. 6. Smart City Characteristics and Enablers ENV MOB LIV GOV ECO PEO SmartCityEnablers Smart City Characteristics ICT Human Factors Institutional Factors ICT
  7. 7. Key ICT Trends Shaping Innovation - Pioneered by Mobility, Broadband and Cloud ICT #2 Self-managing devices #3 Communication beyond sight and sound #1 Spreading intelligence throughout the cloud Sharing a backbone of almost unlimited computational power makes it possible to build lightweight, low-cost robots and smart machines" The connectivity allows objects to be sensed and actuated remotely, creating a bridge between the physical and digital world" The tactile internet is founded on the visionary principle that all of our human senses can be embedded in human-machine interaction" Source: Ericsson
  8. 8. ICT as Key Enabler of a Smart Sustainable City ENABLES Health – allow users to manage their own health via their smart device Education – make education accessible, engaging, flexible and affordable Farming – help raise productivity and reduce food waste Mobility – help everyone to travel faster, cheaper and safer Buildings – increase comfort and reduce energy and water bills Energy – enable the integration of renewables onto the grid, improve efficiency and heighten transparency Business- ICT-enabled telecommuting and virtual conferencing can save employees time and money Manufacturing – place the customer at the center of a user focused service, cutting resource inputs at the same time Source: GeSI, SMARTer 2030 ICT
  9. 9. ICT as Key Enabler of a Smart Sustainable City ICT 1,25 12,08 BİT ayak İzi BİT ile etkinleştirilen CO2e(Gt) Source: GeSI, SMARTer 2030 Economy Reduce expenditures New income opportunities Environment Enable growth Reduce resource consumption Reduce emissions Social Connecting the unconnected Increasing convenience and prosperity 4,5 2,0 Toplam (2030) Ekonomik Getiri (Trilyon Dolar) BİT Paydaşları BİT Sektörü -4,9 BİT ile Tasarruf BİT, 2030 itibariyle yılda 11 trilyon dolara kadar ekonomik getiri sağlayabilir Global cumulative measures Measures on use cases 2.5 Billion People access to ICT Time saving (hours) Peaple have access to E- Health services Attendance to E-Learning services (University, corporate internal) Economical Benefit (Trillion Dollar) Stakeholders ICT Sector Saving via ICT ICT, can bring up to 11 trillion dolar economical benefit till 2030 332 Trillion litre water saving 25 Billion barrel petrol saving 135 Million less automobile 25 Bilion barrel petrol saving 900 kg/hectar increase in yield ICT-footprint ICT-enabled Total (2030) 1.6 Billion 254 Billion 450 Million
  10. 10. Multi Layer Smart City Architecture Natural Environment Hard Infrastructure ICT Infrastructure Services Soft Infrastructure * ITU FG-SSC: Multi-tier SSC ICT meta-architecture Smart City ICT Architecture
  11. 11. ICT Architecture development approach in some Smart City initiatives India recommends 7 areas as ICT foundational pillars for a Smart City China developed and is adopting a Smart City ICT Evaluation Model and set of corresponding Indicators on smart city informationization applications and services. This evaluation model and indicator system mainly focuses on how to evaluate a smart city from the viewpoint of ICT applications and services. SmartCities Project (partly funded by the Interreg IVB North Sea Region Programme of the European Union) Lessons and experiences from three Smart Cities partners: Karlstad, Kristiansand, and Groningen. Recommendation is an ICT meta-model based on TOGAF.
  12. 12. CITIES as ENTERPRISES: Architecture Development Approach Should Span The Enterprise TO-BETransformAS-IS Transform Enterprise •Strategy •Plan •Implement •Operate
  13. 13. TOGAF - Architecture Development Cycle Vision Business Architecture Information Systems Architecture Technology Architecture Opportunities and Solutions Migration Planning Implementation Governance Change Management Requirements ROADMAP PLANNING Enterprise Continuum Requirements Architectures Solutions STRATEGY & VISION ARCHITECTURE DEVELOPMENT EXECUTION& PROGRAMGOVERNANCE
  14. 14. Mapping of TOGAF Architecture Development Model to 3-Layer Architecture Model for Smart Cities Technology Architecture Application Architecture Data Architecture Business Architecture 3-Layer Architecture ModelTarget Architecture Development Model IoT TOGAF®
  15. 15. ICT Maturity Assessment Framework • 3 – Layer Architecture Model • Services • Information Systems • Infrastructure • Governance • Comply with Strategies • Through Processes • Defined with ICT Characteristics • Sustainability • Interoperability • Adoption • Security
  16. 16. ICT Maturity Assessment Framework - ICT Characteristics grouped under 4 Sustainability Efficiency Reusability Maintainability Env. Friendliness Interoperability Connectedness Integrated Openness Standardized Adoption Penetration Usability Suitability Accessibility Security Integrity (data) Confidentiality Availability/Accessibility Accountability
  17. 17. Smart City ICT Maturity Assessment Model 4-Level Maturity Model EARLY STAGE DEVELOPING ADAPTING OPTIMIZED 20 50 75 100 • Services are continually monitored and improved upon automatic feedback from users and systems • Self-optimizing systems and solutions are designed and implemented. • The strategy and objectives are recognized, adopted and implemented among all segments and inter-institutional level. • Process performances are monitored according to indicators and processes are systematically improved. • Feedback mechanism for services improvement exists and data requirements are defined • Standards-based solutions are planned, but still isolated. • Strategy and objectives and outputs defined at segment level • Standards-based processes are planned • Low digitalization and legacy services • Isolated solutions created reactively • Unclear vision and strategy • Undefined or nonfunctional processes • Systems and processes are integrated to be able to deliver service improvements from automated feedback from the field • Proactive solutions based on predictive mechanisms are being live, which are built on standardized and open data • Inter-institutional strategies, objectives and outcomes identified • Processes are functional based on standards and requirements
  18. 18. Smart City ICT Maturity Assessment Model