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VR in Education to ARNY Oct. 25th, 2016

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Overview of research into VR and learning, presented at the monthly Augment Reality New York Meetup. We cover such things as "presence," the "proteus effect" and others.

Published in: Education
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VR in Education to ARNY Oct. 25th, 2016

  1. 1. Immersive Education: What Do We Know? October 25th, 2016
  2. 2. Background • Book Research for “Immersive Education” covering VR and AR • Some early findings about VR • Invite me back in December for AR! @aquinastraining
  3. 3. Overview of What We Know VR doesn’t solve everything Things We Learn VR Will Help by VR Will Not Help Because Jury’s Out Trade Skills: e.g., Pipe fitting Apprenticeship – like situated learning. Soft skills: Management Training Simulations ; intuitive recognition of situation-types Declarative Memory: facts VR doesn’t add anything, per se Executions of VR can add virtual note-taking & other memory-building aids Sports: Pattern recognition Repeated exposure to situations that can be recognized quickly Sports: Physical skills Not using full brain to muscle chain Abstract concepts Visualization is a distraction Novice Performance Helps to ‘scaffold’ new learners with no existing knowledge base Expert performance Visualization is a
  4. 4. Situated Learning • Complex skills are best learned by doing them. • Apprenticeships are the best example: – You see and mentally model the skill – You can do part of the task with teacher doing the rest – You can mentally model what the teacher thinks is important, and their general approach • This is what simulations are for • Absolutely critical to efficiency of Situated Learning is reflection. Thinking about what you’re learning.
  5. 5. VR as Situated Learning Same situation, identically delivered across a workforce. Allows testing, uniform skill development, and faster learning outcomes. You can take voice notes & think about it later.
  6. 6. PRESENCE First, what do we know about Doing VR?
  7. 7. REALLY ABOUT HCI: HIGH-PRESENCE VR IS THE MOST HIGH- BANDWIDTH HUMAN TO COMPUTER COMMUNICATION CHANNEL
  8. 8. What & Why of Presence • Presence is how we measure if you’re in VR, vs. playing with a new video viewer. • “Presence” is the sense of being there: – How much is the illusion of VR really working?
  9. 9. What Happens When You’re “Present” • You experience the artificial reality as if it were real: – The “Pit” – heart rates go up, GSR increases when presented with a high elevation – Subjects in an experience with high levels of perceived presence more likely to be persuaded by health messages – Children report false memories – Short people feel tall – Etc.
  10. 10. Immersion is not the same as presence • Presence is a psychological thing – Am I committed to the experience? • Immersion is a technological thing – Is the outside world shut off, and the experience compelling?
  11. 11. Mo-Cap is More Important Than Massive Polygons We care more about signs of sentience than perfect rendering. We’re used to recognizing people in bad light, or with clothes on, or whatever. It’s not the face, it’s the Gestalt.
  12. 12. Making You Feel Present: Inducing Embodiment Three top-level factors: –the sense of self-location – ego centric view is the baseline. –the sense of agency – am I able to act? –the sense of body ownership – do those hands move where I tell them to?
  13. 13. Involvement Drives How Much VR Tech Quality Matters • When we care, we notice quality • The less we care, the less the immersive environment has to convince us for us to just accept it. Gaming is going to be a high bar. Communications, co-presence often less so.
  14. 14. Motion & Reactions as Key Cues • We’re looking for signs of sentience: – Verbal response – Natural-looking motion – Emotional interaction Think of Pixar: Famous Voices lend personality Motion-capture lends natural reactions
  15. 15. High Presence, Low Recall? • Some studies have used highly vivid experiences, and found that recall was low • Why? • Just like overly stimulating advertising, the experience can distract from the message.
  16. 16. Other People in There: Co-Presence • In addition to being there, you are there with others. • What determines the sense that others are there? • Not richness of tech, not really movement – mostly what they say, how naturally they respond. Essentially social cues. – Several sessions have shown that users barely move their avatars, preferring instead to focus on conversation. • This ‘how they respond’ means the sense of being perceived – that is a critical factor.
  17. 17. Avatars vs. Agents • When thinking of instructional tech – are we using a person or a machine-generated instructor? • Avatar is representing a human • Agent is representing a machine Blascovich theorizes that users will respond as if the virtual human is real no matter the technical richness, as long as they think there’s a real person behind the avatar. Studies show that: 1. Virtual Humans exert influence if: a. User believes the Virtual Human is computer or human controlled b. Accuracy of behaviors c. Realistic low-level reactions d. Situational relevance – do they care?
  18. 18. Presence in “Classroom” • We know that students who have the sole attention of a teacher learn more. • In VR, studies have shown that this works as well – with the effect that everyone in the class can have the sole attention of the teacher.
  19. 19. Use of Space • Several researchers have tested co-location as a means to foster creativity. • Space in VR doesn’t have to be ‘stateless’ we can make notes in thin air, make personal audio recordings. The whole environment can be a toolkit.
  20. 20. Useful for both AR & VR: Designing Space • Three kinds of space around you: – Peripersonal space – as far as your arms will go – Extrapersonal space – as far as you’re likely to walk/navigate – Vista space – background • Judging distances is hard. Several cues, like shadows and brightness, don’t really work. Perspective, and ‘motion parallax’ are most effective for users.
  21. 21. PROTEUS EFFECT
  22. 22. Embodying a Different Body What happens when you become: • Taller = more confident • Beautiful = more social • Minority = more understanding, less biased Proteus effect is robust – we take on, sometimes for weeks, elements of the identities we inhabit in VR
  23. 23. UNCANNY VALLEY
  24. 24. Hypothesis As one makes artificial humans, especially faces, more and more real, there is a degree of ‘realness’ between completely real and some midpoint, that users find aversive. Some research on the subject – VR research I’ve found said that the only uncanny valley effects found were when features were exaggerated or otherwise disturbing on their own.
  25. 25. Avatars & Uncanny Valley • Research on this will be fraught, as a badly drawn execution is just as aversive as the ‘uncanniness’ of an almost-human. • Make avatars look as good as we can, and make 100% sure their reactions, and movements, and voices all sound human – as these are not affected by the ‘twilight effect’.
  26. 26. Some Key Takeaways • Presence is key to holding attention • Creating presence is about embodiment – feeling you “own” the thing in the virtual environment (VE) • That comes from matching what your real body does to what it sees in the virtual environment • Richness of VE isn’t the key, richness of human communication is • Users will forgive all sorts of technical failings if the voice at the other end sounds human, reacts sentiently.
  27. 27. THANK YOU
  28. 28. LEARNING THEORY REVIEW
  29. 29. Cognitive Load Intrinsic: Keep the tasks just beyond the learner’s ability Extraneous: Keep distraction to a minimum Germane: Enable reflection on the material to be learned
  30. 30. Extraneous Load • Immersion, as described above, should enable minimization of extraneous load • Presence, as a psychological construct, should further enable minimization of distractions & extraneous load
  31. 31. Intrinsic Load • More complex problems can be handled if working memory tasks can be offloaded – by storing thoughts in the environment. • Notes, but multi-modal, sitting in thin air, automatically stored or deleted. • Relatedly, worked examples can be experienced. • Faded examples can also be experienced vs. just imagined.
  32. 32. Germane Load • 100% environmental control allows for pointers to appear, reminders to think about the lesson to be learned vs. the task to be completed. • Exact duplicate of an experience can be replicated, allowing learners to re-experience a half-learned lesson. • An immersive experience can be rewinded.
  33. 33. Expertise • Multi-media learning studies have shown that novices benefit from video & graphics, whereas experts often find them distracting. • VR, with it’s overwhelming experience of a virtual world, can be expected to have an enhanced version of this: – Novices will learn faster when conceptual support is helpful – Experts will find it distracting
  34. 34. Multi-Media Learning Lessons Apply • Don’t put text over graphics • Use VO to add to graphic • Use graphic instead of text whenever possible • Avoid music • Avoid accents • Keep lessons short
  35. 35. Summary • We know a fair bit about how to create good VR Education. • By this Sunday, I’ll have a 10-15 page summary. Would love your input! – I’ll post it on the meetup • About 100+ papers went into this – they’ll all be on a google drive I’ll share via meetup.
  36. 36. Thank you

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