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7 helen ufondu perception of yam landraces quality among value chain actors in yam producing

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7 helen ufondu perception of yam landraces quality among value chain actors in yam producing

  1. 1. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org PERCEPTION OF YAM LANDRACES QUALITY AMONG VALUE CHAIN ACTORS IN YAM PRODUCING AREAS OF NIGERIA PRESENTED BY H. E. UFONDU, P. O. UVERE AND B. MAZIYA-DIXON
  2. 2. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Introduction • Yam (Dioscorea spp) is mainly produced in yam belt zone of Benue, Ebonyi, Enugu and Kogi States of Nigeria. • Its economic Importance is determined by the physico-chemical, nutritional and phytochemical properties (Otegbayo et al., 2010) - source of income for farmers and traders - consumed boiled, fried, and as yam fufu (pounded yam). - consumption as pounded yam (with a choice soup) is made possible because its starchy nature which allows yam to form a bond when it is pounded in a mortar or in a pounding machine after boiling(Ayodeji et al., 2017) - pounded yam is alternatively prepared from yam flour or instant flour by reconstituting in hot water as appropriate.
  3. 3. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Introduction cont • Yam flour processing in yam producing areas makes use of fresh yam tubers(rejects). But the concept of instantisation is largely unknown and unused in processing yam flour in these areas. • This project was therefore aimed at gathering baseline information on landraces used in some yam producing areas of Benue, Ebonyi, Enugu and Kogi States for acceptable pounded yam and yam flour production.
  4. 4. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Statement of Problems • Informationonyamlandracesusedforpounded yam andyamflourproductionisscanty • Qualitative information on perception of food quality in yam landraces used for fufu production by farmers, processors and consumersisnotavailableinliterature. • Indigenousqualityattributesforacceptable poundedyamandyamflourbyfarmers, processorsandconsumersofyamfufuhasnot beenclearlyestablished
  5. 5. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Justification 1.This study will gather baseline information on landraces used in some yam producing areas of Benue, Ebonyi, Enugu and Kogi States for acceptable pounded yam and yam flour production. 2.This information will serve as a basis for establishing quantitative criteria for choosing improved yam varieties suitable for pounded yam, yam flour and instant yam flour production.
  6. 6. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org • To obtain information on yam landraces used for pounded yam and yam flour production. • To assess the processing and consumption patterns of pounded yam produced from boiled yam and yam flour • To establish quality factors for the acceptability of pounded yam produced from boiled yam and yam flour Objectives
  7. 7. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Materials and Methods •Structured and validated questionnaires were used forthe study • Sampling was carried out by multi-stage technique(Aidoo, 2009) - Purposive selection of 4 States - Systematic sampling of 2 Local Government Areas(LGAs) from each State - Random sampling of 25 respondents from each LGA
  8. 8. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Statistical analysis Descriptive analysis of the data collected was carried out using Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) version 9.4 (SAS, 2012)
  9. 9. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1: Retrieval rate of administered questionnaires in the four States States Number of Questionnaires Administered Number of Questionnaires Retrieved Retrieval Rate(%) Benue 50 48 96 Ebonyi 50 50 100 Enugu 50 50 100 Kogi 50 50 100 Total 4 200 198 9
  10. 10. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Figure 1. Gender distribution of respondents across the four States 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Benue Ebonyi Enugu Kogi Frequency States male female
  11. 11. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org • : Figure 2: Educational Qualification of the farmers Figure 2: Educational qualification of the farmers 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 FSLC WAEC/GCE OND/HND BSc/MSc/PhD others Frequency Educational Qualification Benue Ebonyi Enugu Kogi
  12. 12. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Figure 3: Age range of farmers 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 15-24yrs 25-34yrs 35-44yrs 45-54yrs 55-64yrs above 64yrs Frequency Age range of respondents Benue Ebonyi Enugu Kogi
  13. 13. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Table 2: Species and varieties of yams cultivated in Benue, Enugu, Ebonyi and Kogi States BENUE ENUGU EBONYI KOGI Species/ varieties of yams F* %R** Species/ varieties of yams F* %R** Species/ varieties of yams F* %R** Species/ varieties of yams F* %R** Ogoja 42 13.95 Meyaa 35 19.77 Igum 39 18.22 Ogoma 39 33.05 Faketsa 40 13.29 Opoko 32 18.08 Ozibo 30 14.02 Ushu 37 31.36 Gbangu 28 9.30 Oku 27 15.25 Abi 25 11.68 Water yam 15 12.71 Mumuye 19 6.31 Onegbe 27 15.25 Ogomodo 21 9.81 Ulahi 9 7.63 Hembakwase 36 11.96 Alafu 10 5.65 Nvula 38 17.76 Omoyokwu 7 5.93 Amula 18 5.98 Abbi 9 5.08 Oko 19 8.88 Omoyolou 4 3.39 Paper 17 5.65 Okpaka ra 8 4.52 Okpembe 15 7.01 Olonwu 3 2.54 Agbo 25 8.31 Okeji 7 3.95 Obia 10 4.67 Ologbo 2 1.69 Ponch 10 3.32 Otikpo 4 2.26 Mkpi 4 1.87 - - - F*= Frequency of respondents %R**= Percentage of respondents
  14. 14. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Frequency Rank Figure 4: Yam consumed in boiled form Benue Ebonyi Enugu Kogi
  15. 15. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org 0 5 10 15 20 25 1-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 Frequency Rank Figure 5: Yams consumed in pounded form Benue Ebonyi Enugu Kogi
  16. 16. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Benue Ebonyi Enugu Kogi Frequency States Figure 6: Respondents that produce yam flour Yes NO
  17. 17. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Wash Peel Cut Ferment Dry Grind sieve Frequency Production steps Figure 7: Yam flour production methods Benue Ebonyi Enugu Kogi
  18. 18. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Boil water Add flour Stir Cook Frequency Preparation methods Figure 8: Yam fufu preparation methods Benue Ebonyi Enugu Kogi
  19. 19. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Table 3: Yams used for pounded yam flour/yam flour production in Benue, Ebonyi, Enugu and Kogi States BENUE ENUGU EBONYI KOGI Species/ varieties of yams F* %R** Species/ varieties of yams F* %R** Species/ varieties of yams F* %R** Species/ varieties of yams F* %R** Faketsa 29 18.59 Opoko 18 31.03 Igum 20 38.46 Ogoma 5 7.81 Ogoja 27 17.31 Onegbe 15 25.86 Ozibo 12 23.08 Ushu 41 64.06 Gbangu 24 15.38 Oku 9 15.52 Abi 8 15.38 Water yam 3 4.69 Hembakwase 19 12.18 Okeji 4 6.90 Akiri 5 9.62 Omoyolou 4 6..25 Amula 10 6.41 Abbi 3 5.17 Obia 3 5.77 Ologbo 1 1.56 Paper 9 5.77 Alafu 3 5.17 Ogomodo 2 3.85 Olohu 1.56 55 Mumuye 8 5.13 Agbagba 2 3.45 Oko 2 3.85 Omoyokwu 9 14.06 Agbo 6 3.85 Kotonu 2 3.45 - - - - - - Ikyoyo 3 1.92 Meyaa 1 11.72 - - - - - - 19 F*= Frequency of respondents %R**= Percentage of respondents
  20. 20. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Figure 9: Qualities used to rate yam fufu 19 35 9 4 10 21 21 21 16 21 4 12 8 1 1 17 19 12 6 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Mouldable Smooth Elastic Colour Smell/Aroma Frequency Textural Qualities Benue Ebonyi Enugu Kogi
  21. 21. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Conclusion Faketsa, Igum, Opoko and Ushu are the most commonly used yam varieties for pounded yam and yam flour production Yam flour is mainly processed from fresh yam tubers by washing, peeling, cutting, drying and grinding. Yam flour is prepared into yam fufu by adding the flour in boiling water, stirring and cooking Smoothness and mouldability are the primary basis for accepting pounded yam and yam fufu
  22. 22. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org The use of Faketsa as one of the major cultivated yam varieties for pounded yam and yam flour preparation should be further studied for its intrinsic quality attributes. This will serve as a basis for the effective selection of improved yam varieties suitable for pounded yam and yam flour production. Further investigation into the functional properties of the flour would reveal its industrial potential and improve income for all the value chain actors. Recommendation
  23. 23. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org REFERENCES • Ayodeji, S.P., Ajamu, T.A., Akinnuli, B.O., Aderoba, O. A. (2017). Development and performance evaluation of an effective dryer for poundo yam flour processing plant. International Journal of Engineering. 4: 1 • Otegbayo, B. O., Samuel, F. O., Kehinde, A. I., Sangoyomi, T. E., Okonkwo, C. C. (2010). Perception of food quality in yam by some Nigerian farmers. African Journal of Food Science and Technology 4: 541 – 549 • Robert Aidoo (2009). An analysis of yam consumption patterns in Ghanaian urban communities. Thesis for doctorate degree of philosophy. Department of Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Knust, Kumasi. • SAS (2012). SAS user’s Guide. Statistical Analysis Sysytem Institute Inc Cary. Version 9.4 23
  24. 24. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org

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