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8 kazeem quality attributes and consumer acceptability of cookies flavoured

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8 kazeem quality attributes and consumer acceptability of cookies flavoured

  1. 1. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Author: Kazeem K.Olatoye QUALITY ATTRIBUTES AND CONSUMER ACCEPTABILITY OF COOKIES FLAVOURED WITH AIDAN (Tetrapleura tetraptera) AS SUBSTITUTE FOR A COMMERCIAL FLAVOURANT
  2. 2. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org INTRODUCTION Idea of snacking is gaining ground with respect to its high frequency of consumption world-wide, but the 21st century saw the revolution of snack foods towards healthier snacks (Gabriel and Faith; Sumargo, 2016). . The use of natural flavours as substitute for commercial ones is a promising strategy (Enzewereuzoh et al,. 2019; Olatoye et al,. 2019). Substitution of natural flavouring spice for synthesized and imported ones may bring about production of more healthy cookies and reduced importation cost of foreign ones.
  3. 3. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY • GENERAL The major objective of this study is to evaluate quality attributes of cookies flavoured with Aidan (Tetraplura teraptera) as substitute for vanilla.
  4. 4. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org SPECIFIC The specific objectives are to determine the: 1. Proximate composition 2. Mineral contents 3. Phytochemicals contents and 4. Sensory qualities of cookies flavoured with Aidan (Tetraplura teraptera)
  5. 5. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org JUSTIFICATION Rapid rate of urbanization has led into higher consumption of snack foods, majority of which are flavoured with imported and synthetic chemicals, amidst many indigenous alternatives. Implications of this on production cost and healthiness of the product can be averted by using natural flavourant alternatives.  Aidan, an underutilized spice but with characteristic fragrant and pungent aromatic odour has not been drastically explored for this purpose in Nigeria. Substitution of natural flavouring spice for synthesised and imported flavours may bring about production of more healthy cookies and reduced importation cost of foreign ones.
  6. 6. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org MATERIALS AND METHODS • MATERIALS: The tetrapleura tetraptera,wheat flour, sugar, salt and egg were purchased from Malete market, Kwara state Nigeria. • The pulp of tetrapleura tetraptera was pounded using mortar and pestle to reduce its size and then milled using an electric blender. • Cookies were formulated according to method of Eneche et al., (1999), with modifications.
  7. 7. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Table 1. Recipe for production of cookies Materia ls SLT JRN FPO TLZ KLM Wheat Flour 250g 250g 250g 250g 250g Butter 125g 125g 125g 125g 125g Sucrose 120g 120g 120g 120g 120g Salt 2.5g 2.5g 2.5g 2.5g 2.5g Egg 60g 60g 60g 60g 60g Baking Powder 9g 9g 9g 9g 9g Vanilla 4g(100%) 3g (75%) 2g(50%) 1g(25%) 0g(100%) TTP 0g (0%) 1g(25%) 2g(50%) 3g(75%) 4g(0%) Key: TTP – Tetrapleura tetraptera powder Source: Eneche, (1999) modified
  8. 8. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org TABLE 2: Sample code and % composition of flavourants S/N Sample Code VF(%) TT(%) 1 SLT 100 0 2 JRN 25 75 3 FPO 50 50 4 TLZ 75 25 5 KLM 0 100
  9. 9. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org • Fig 1: Flow chart for the production of cookies MIXING KNEADING CUTTING (SHAPING) BAKING (180OC FOR 45 MIN) COOLING PACKAGING COOKIE INGREDIENTS
  10. 10. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org • Proximate composition of the cookies: AOAC (2002) • Mineral content of cookies: AOAC (2002) • Phytochemical composition of the cookies: Uchechi and Chigozie (2010) • Sensory qualities of the cookies: (Iwe et al., 2002) ANALYSES CARRIED OUT
  11. 11. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org •FINDINGS
  12. 12. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org TABLE 3: Proximate composition of cookies flavoured with Aidan as substitute for vanilla VF : TT Moisture Protein Fat Ash Crude fiber Carbohydrat e SLT 1.83d±0.29 9.83c±0.30 0.98c±0,03 0.55c±0.02 0.35c±0.01 86.45a±0.40 JRN 2.67c±0.58 11.69±0.17 1.17±0.01 0.65b±0.01 0.42b±0.01 83.40b±0.56 FPO 3.00bc±0.0 1 12.22ab±0.5 9 1.22ab±0.0 6 0.68ab±0.03 0.44ab±0.0 2 82.44c±0.70 TLZ 3.33ab±0.2 9 12.86a±0.1 7 1.29a±0.02 0.71a±0.01 0.46a±0.01 81.35d±1.92 KLM 3.77a±0.25 12.06b±o.4 8 1.21b±0.05 0.67b±0.03 0.43b±0.02 81.87cd±0.40
  13. 13. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Table 4. Metabolizable energy (kcal) of cookies flavoured with aidan as substitute for vanilla flavour VF : TT Metabolizable energy (kcal) SLT 393.94 JRN 391.02 FPO 380.60 TLZ 388.47 KLM 386.42
  14. 14. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Table 5: Mineral composition(mg/100g) of cookies flavoured with Aidan as substitute for vanilla flavour VF : TT Phosphorous Iron Zinc SLT 105.60b±0.25 6.53a±0.64 3.99b±0.09 JRN 142.67b±33.5 4.05b±2.18 4.08b±0.03 FPO 64.00c±10.58 3.44b±0.75 4.47a±0.06 TLZ 140.00a±4.00 2.62b±1.49 4.05b±0.09 KLM 109.33b±2.31 5.02ab±0.31 3.80c±0.14
  15. 15. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Table 6: phytochemical contents (mg/100g) of cookies flavoured with Aidan as substitute for vanilla VF : TT Tannin Phytate Flavonoid Total phenol SLT 0.08ab±0.00 0.23a±0.01 0.82a±0.07 1.53a±0.02 JRN 0.07ab±0.00 0.18c±0.01 0.68b±0.04 0.95b±0.20 FPO 0.08ab±0.01 0.17c±0.01 0.53c±0.02 0.91b±0.06 TLZ 0.08a±0.01 0.21b±0.02 0.67b±0.07 0.76b±0.04 KLM 0.07b±0.00 0.23a±0.11 0.77ab±0.07 1.00b±0.17
  16. 16. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Table 6: Sensory quality of cookies flavoured with aidan as substitute for vanilla VF: TT APPEARANC E TASTE FLAVOUR CRISPNESS OVER ALL ACCEPTABILI TY SLT 7.93ab±0.87 7.87a±0.8 2 7.60ab±1.07 ` 7.80a±1.06 7.83ab±0.97 JRN 7.23c±1.10 7.77a±0.9 9 7.57ab±0.94 7.63a±1.03 7.76b±0.79 FPO 7.33bc±1.32 7.30a±1.2 9 7.33b±1.15 7.20a±1.19 7.72b±0.99 TLZ 8.17a±1.15 7.60a±14. 65 8.07a±1.14 7.93a±16.66 8.31a±0.97 KLM 7.73abc±1.11 7.67a±0.6 6 7.40b±0.93 7.53a±1.38 7.86ab±0.74
  17. 17. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Summary The studies revealed that; with increase in substitution level of TT for vanilla : 1. The proximate composition of the cookies increased, except carbohydrate and metabolizable energy. 2. The cookie samples had higher mineral contents, except iron. 3. The cookie samples had reduced phytochemical contents . 4. The cookie samples were not significantly different in taste and crispiness with sample TLZ(75% TT) compared most favourably with SLT(100% VF) in overall acceptability. 5. Sample TLZ had higher mean score of ( 8.31) as overall acceptability
  18. 18. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org CONCLUSIONS • Cookies of improved nutritional and sensory qualities can be produced by replacing 75% of vanilla flavour with Aidan.
  19. 19. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org •THANKs FOR LISTENING
  20. 20. IITA is a member of the CGIAR System Organization. www.iita.org | www.cgiar.org Reference A.O.A.C 2002. Official Methods of Analysis, 14th edition, Association of official Chemists. Arlington, Virginia. Eneche E.H, 1999. Biscuit making potential of millet /pigeon pea flour blends. Plant foods for Human nutrition 54. 21-27. Enwereuzoh, R. O.; Okafor,D. C.; Uzoukwu, A. E.; Ukanwoke, M. O.; Nwakaudu, A.A. and Uyanwa, C. N. 2015. Flavour extraction from Monodora myristica and tetrapleura tetraptera and production of flavoured popcorn from the extract. European Journal of Food Science and Technology. 3(2), 1-17. Gabriel Ifeanyi Okafor and Faith Chinenye Ugwu, 2014. Production and evaluation of cold extruded and baked ready-to-eat snacks from blends of breadfruit (Treculia africana), cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) and coconut (Cocos nucifera). Volume 23, Pg 65-74 Iwe M.O.2002.Handbook of sensory analysis and methods. projoint communications services Ltd., Enugu. pp 70-72. Olatoye K. K, Fapojuwo.O. O, Olorunshola J. A and Ayorinde J. O 2019. Potentials of African nutmeg (Monodora myristica) as a flvourant in cookies production; International journal of Food studies; Article in press. Sumargo Franklin .2016. "Improving the utilization of dry edible beans in a ready-to-eat snack Product by extrusion cooking" (Dissertations & Teses in Food Science and Technology.Paper67. htp://digitalcommons

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