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Kibo Utilization Achievements


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Presentation from JAXA/NASA Joint Workshop at 2016 ISS Research and Development Conference

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Kibo Utilization Achievements

  1. 1. Kibo Utilization Achievement JAXA/NASA Joint Workshop: Maximizing the Outcome of the ISS and “Kibo” July 11, 2016 Kazuyuki Tasaki JEM Utilization Center, JAXA
  2. 2. New policy to maximize Kibo utilization outcomes 1 2008 2010 2012 Establish new platforms Kibo Internal Facility Platform for supporting research of new drug design (e.g. high quality protein crystallization) - Utilize Kibo to its full-scale capability - Foster practical use for social needs - Develop Kibo’s potential for an on-orbit laboratory 2014 Expansion Aim Phase 2016 Kibo External Facility 2018 2020 2022 2024 Platform for supporting research on aging-like phenomena (e.g. rodent research) Platform for promoting small satellites deployment Platform for promoting various use of the the Kibo Exposed Facility - Maximize outcome, increase quantity and quality of Kibo utilization services - Identify and prioritize prospective utilization areas as “platforms” and make available for various users - Implement a new JP-US collaborative framework  Other platforms will be defined in future  Fundamental research, technology development, space medicine etc. are promoted as well - Life/physical sciences - Space medicine, human research - Technology development - Applied research - Commercial use - MAXI (All-sky X-ray monitoring) - SEDA-AP (space environment data) - SMILES (global atmosphere obs.) - CALET (calorimetric electron telescope) - MCE (Consolidated missions) - ExHAM (exposing samples to space) Searching prospect Kibo utilization
  3. 3. New policy to maximize Kibo utilization outcomes Since 2015, JAXA has pursued the following new policy to maximize outcome from utilization of the ISS/Kibo. 1. Increase both the quantity and quality of Kibo utilization services (e.g. doubling the opportunities for protein crystal growth experiments). 2. Identify and prioritize prospective utilization areas as “platforms” and make them available to various users by:  Supporting research on new drug design (e.g. high quality protein crystallization)  Supporting research on aging-like phenomena (e.g. rodent research)  Promoting small satellite deployment  Promoting various uses of the Kibo Exposed Facility, etc. 3. Implement a new collaborative framework between Japan and the U.S. called the “JP-U.S. Open Platform Partnership Program” (JP-US OP3). 2
  4. 4. 3 Japan-U.S. New cooperation framework - Japan-U.S. Open Platform Partnership Program (JP-US OP3) -  On December 22, 2015, the Japanese and U.S. governments agreed on a new cooperation framework for the ISS Program.  Japan decided to extend its participation in the ISS operations until 2024.  An outline of JP-US OP3 is as follows: JAXA and NASA are pursuing implementation of JP-US OP3. Signing ceremony Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology; Minister for Foreign Affairs; Minister of State for Space Policy; and Ms. Caroline Kennedy, U.S. Ambassador to Japan. 1. Development of a new initiative for ISS operations that enhance Japan-U.S. cooperation  Promotion of mutual utilization of an experiment facility (including experimental data) along with collaborative research inside and outside of the ISS/Kibo 2. Increased cooperation with developing spacefaring countries in the Asia-Pacific region, possibly through utilization of ISS resources 3. Promotion of new uses for the ISS: (a) As a platform for technology demonstration, such as support of a Japanese technology demonstration to capture a non-functional space object (b) Utilization of the operational opportunities of the H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and HTV-X 4. Promotion of utilization of effective and efficient space- related technologies
  5. 5. Platform for supporting research on new drug design - High-quality Protein Crystallization in Kibo - 4 High-quality crystallization in space For less convection & disturbance ⇒ Improved crystal quality (close to or exceeding) 1Å) On Earth In space Structure determination of N-binding glycoprotein sugar chain (high mannose type) Glycoside hydrolase -Maruwa Foods and Biosciences and Osaka University- 4 One of the highest resolution of N-binding glycoprotein structure including sugar chain (high mannose type) in the world was obtained. Application to the design of drug candidates of precise structure Kinase domain of drug resistant human EGFR (Anti-cancer drug resistance type EGFR G719S/T790M) -Riken- Oncogene. 2013 Jan 3;32(1):27-38. The structure of kinase domain of EGF receptor of anti-cancer drug resistance type was solved. The mechanism of the altered drug sensitivity against Iressa was elucidated for the first time. Collaboration with Dr. Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Riken
  6. 6. 5  JAXA and PeptiDream Inc. have reached a fee-based agreement on a comprehensive cooperation for the high-quality protein crystal growth experiment on Kibo (news release on February 24, 2016).  PeptiDream is a Japanese world-leading company in the field of drug discovery. PeptiDream is focusing on its unprecedented drug discovery platform and the use of cyclic non-standard peptides.  This comprehensive research collaboration could accelerate structural studies on medically important proteins along with the candidate drugs.  PeptiDream and JAXA both intend to help achieve better human healthcare by creating innovative drugs for the world from Japan. A non-standard cyclic peptide bound to a target protein Platform for supporting research on new drug design - Cooperation with world-leading drug biopharmaceutical companies-
  7. 7. 6  Space is an accelerated platform for aging research of animals. Space life science research can help us understand the mechanisms of aging-like phenomena and develop methods of prevention.  In order to investigate such gravitational effects on the biology of mammals in detail, JAXA established a new rodent research capability on Kibo.  JAXA anticipates collaboration with NASA to achieve outcomes to human health on Earth and future human space activities, such as:  Eye tissues obtained by the 1st JAXA rodent mission are to be shared with NASA under the JP-US OP3 framework aiming to resolve issues regarding human space flight (visual impairment). Time to observed AmountofDecrease 3 days300 days 30 days 0 40% 20% Elderly on Earth Bone loss in space Short Large Model organisms (space experiment results using rats, mice, and fish) Muscle atrophy in space10-30 times faster 20-fold severe decrease Accelerated bone loss and muscle atrophy in space Human Exploration Strategic national life science reseModel organism Fundamenta l research ~2009 2015 2024 Maximize Kibo utilization outcome Rapid changes: bone loss, muscle atrophy, etc.  Biological effects (gravity, radiation)  Genetic, tissue analysis  Accumulation of ground data  Various cutting-edge analyses Human Aims of JAXA biological experiments Platform supporting research on aging-like phenomena
  8. 8. Aquatic Biology Research 7 Fluorescence images of bone (teeth). Green: a marker of osteoclasts; Red: a marker of osteoblasts 56-days aquatic habitat exp. in Kibo Bone mineral density decreased 24% in space zebrafish (Danio rerio)  Results of the first aquatic habitat experiment in 2012, showed 24% decrease in the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in teeth of space- flown medaka fish compared with the fish sample on the ground. (Chatani et al, Scientific Reports, 2014)  This observation of accelerated and severe change of bone loss will be beneficial for research on aging-like phenomenon on Earth, such as osteoporosis.  This was archived by Kibo’s unique capability of successful long-term (56 days) rearing of vertebrates in space.  In addition to the bone, histological and genetic analyses were conducted for six tissues: brain, eye, ovary, testis, liver and intestine. (Murata et al, PLoS One, 2015)  Reported on 10 newspapers and 2 TV news. 7
  9. 9. 8 Research Map in Physical Sciences in Japan Marangoni Series / Marangoni Convection Combustion Science Fluid Physics Materials Science Protein and Colloidal Crystals Crystal Growth Mechanisms Fundamental Science Ice Crystal / Morphological Instability Facet / Mechanisms of Faceted Cellular GrowthGroup Combustion / Fuel Droplets Combustion Solid Combustion / Wire Insulator Combustion) FLARE / Establishment of New Standard of Fire in Space Two Phase Flow / Boiling Two-Phase Flow L3-Flame / Theory of Combustion Limit and Simulation Verification Basic Research Development Research Applied Research First Stage Researches Status: Planning On-going (incl. in Preparation) Mission Completed or Concluding Results Department / Division: JUC ISAS JUC+ISAS Mainly conducted by ISAS Research Field being Suitable for ELF Alloy Semiconductor / Compound Semiconductor and Orientation Dependence JUC: JEM Utilization Center, Human Spaceflight Technology Directorate ISAS:Institute of Space and Astronautical Science Innovation of Combustion Technologies for Higher Efficiency and Lower Environmental Loading Novel Functional Materials ELF・Interfacial Energy / Thermophysical Properties and Metastable State Ice Crystal2 / Mechanisms of Faceted Dendrites Nano Step / Impurity Effect on Crystal Quality Kikuchi-Kossel / Inter-Particle Interaction in Colloidal Crystals Soret-Facet / Mechanisms of Soret Effect 3DPC / Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals 2D Nanotemplate / Self-Organized Nano- Pattern Formation Nanoskeleton / Self-Assembled Titania Micelle Hicari / SiGe Compound Semiconductor and Theory Verification for Uniform Composition Collaborative Researches with Private Companies and Paid Use of ‘Kibo’/ High Quality Protein CrystalsIndustrial Use Revolutionary Specific Medicine ATOMIZATION / Simulation Verification of Atomization
  10. 10. Example of Obtained Results 1. Objectives -Silicon Germanium alloys hopeful as substrates. However, high quality bulk SiGe crystals is difficult to grow. -Space experiments will be useful to discuss the conditions to growth homogeneous SiGe crystals. 2. Results - Four SiGe crystals were processed in Gradient Heating Furnace (GHF), and Succeeded in growing SiGe (L= 10 mm to 17mm ) crystals. -The strong convections would bend the crystal growth interface shape also induce the concentration variations and depress the polycrystallization. Outer view of Run1 SiGe crystals grown in ISS SiGe wafer ! S-Si S-Ge Oxide OxideChannel Ge concentration distributions of Run1 to Run 4 SiGe crystals grown in ISS (CGe~0.48±0.02) 9 3. Research Status -50 mm dia. homogeneous SiGe crystals were produced by JAXA (on ground experiments). -JAXA and AIST evaluated mobility of a high quality SiGe single crystals and try to produce SiGe electronic device. SiGe single crystal Hicari (Silicon Germanium Crystal Growth)
  11. 11.  Launched by H-IIB/HTV5 in 2015  CALET is astrophysics mission that searches for signatures of dark matter and provides the highest energy direct measurements of the cosmic ray electron spectrum in order to observe discrete sources of high energy particle acceleration in our local region of the Galaxy.  JAXA and Waseda University started global-leading direct electron observations in the extremely high- energy region of Tera electron volt (TeV, one trillion electron volts) CALET in October, 2015. 10 Scientific Research of Exposed Facility CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) MAXI (Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image)  Launched by STS-127 in 2009  The MAXI investigation is designed to continuously monitor, through a systematic survey, X-ray sources and variabilities as the International Space Station (ISS) orbits Earth. MAXI is comprised of a couple highly sensitive X-ray detectors, the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) and the Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC). Besides the goal of performing a complete sky survey, this research helps to address fundamental astrophysics questions and allows researchers to better understand the current state and evolution of our Universe. Onset of relativistic jet from a black hole consuming a star. X-rays afterglow of huge gamma-ray bursts[Image credit:NASA/Swift] ※ [Image credit of ※:RIKEN,JAXA,MAXI team] ※ MAXI all-sky map [Image credit:RIKEN,JAXA,MAXI team]
  12. 12. JEMRMS J-SSOD ©JAXA/NASA Deployed Satellite ©JAXA/NASA JAXA provides opportunities for launching small satellites with the purposes:  To contribute for easy and fast launch and operation of small satellites by private enterprises and universities, expanding the application of the space development and capacity building.  To promote a new industry with space development by using the small satellites.  To improve the developing countries space technology. 11 Platform for promoting small satellite deployment (J-SSOD)
  13. 13. 12  JAXA encourages international applicants to collaborate with Japanese universities orprivate enterprises.  More than 100 satellites have been deployed from Kibo and JAXA is promoting more deployment opportunities.  JAXA plans to increase the simultaneous deployment capacity of the CubeSat- class satellites from the current 6U to 12U, and then to 18U.  JAXA, Tohoku University, Hokkaido University, the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) of the Republic of the Philippines, and the University of the Philippines Diliman, successfully deployed “DIWATA-1,” the first Philippines microsatellite.  United Nations and JAXA launched joint initiative “KiboCUBE” which will offer small satellite deployment opportunities from Kibo in order to facilitate improved space technologies in developing countries. Platform for promoting small satellite deployment (J-SSOD) DIWATA-1 deployment from the Kibo robot arm
  14. 14. 13  In order to maximize utilization outcomes of ISS/Kibo, JAXA identified and prioritized prospective utilization areas as “platforms”.  JAXA’s utilization facility is available for NASA/US users under an appropriate agreement between NASA and JAXA.  JAXA is looking forward to further collaboration in utilization as a part of the new JP-US collaboration framework (OP3).  If you are interested in this activity, please contact Ms. Marybeth Edeen, ISS Research Integration Office Manager, NASA, at Summary - Towards further collaboration -
  15. 15. 14 Thank you for your attention. See you at JAXA booth (No.14)!