Meaning of Lease and Leasing• A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee (user) to pay the lessor (owner) for use of an asset• Leasing is a process by which a firm can obtain the use of a certain fixed assets for which it must pay a series of contractual, periodic, tax deductible payments.
Important Terms:• Lessee is the receiver of the services or the assets under the lease contract.• Lessor is the owner of the assets.• Tenancy is the relationship between the tenant and the landlord.• Term is the fixed or an indefinite period of time involved in the lease contract.• Rent is the consideration for the lease.
Types of Lease:Operating lease: Short term, cancellable lease agreements. The lessor is responsible for the maintaince and insurance of the asset. Example: Tourist renting a car, Hotel rooms, etc.Financial Lease: Long term non cancellable lease contract. Example: Plant, Machinery, Building, Ships and aircraft.Sale and Lease-back: Special financial agreement in which the user may sell an asset owned by him to the lessor and lease it back from him. Example: shipping Industry.
Two ways of evaluating…………………1. Lessee’s pointof view2. Lessor’s pointof view
Lessee’s point of view:Lease or borrow decisions:Steps:Calculate present value of net-cash flow of the buying option-NPV(B)Calculate present value of net cash flow of the leasing option-NPV(L)Decide whether to buy or lease the asset or reject the proposal .
How to decide…………………………………….If NPV(B) is positive and greater than NPV(L) then
• If NPV(L) is positive and greater than the NPV(B) then lease the asset.
• If NPV(B) as well as NPV(L)are both negative, reject the proposal
From the lessor’s point of viewPresent value Internal rate method of return method
A. Present value method• Determine cash outflows by deducting tax advantage of owing an asset.• Determine cash inflows after tax.• Determine the present value of cash outflows and after tax cash inflows by discounting at weighted average cost of capital of the lessor.• Decide in favour of leasing out an asset if p.v. of cash inflows exceeds the p.v. of cash outflows i.e. if the NPV is positive
B. Internal rate of return method• Rate of discount at which the present value of cash inflows is equal to the present value of cash outflows.• Can be determined with the help of mathematical formula.• Can also be determined with the help of present value tables.
Advantages of Leasing:• Leasing is less capital-intensive than purchasing, so it is more suitable for a business which has constraints on its capital.• Leasing shifts risk to the lessor in cases where Capital assets tend to fluctuate in value.
Advantages of Leasing:• Lease payments are considered expenses rather than assets, which can be set off against revenue when calculating taxable profit at the end of the relevant tax accounting period.• Leasing provides more flexibility to a business which expects to grow in the relatively short term because a lessee is not usually obliged to renew a lease at the end of its term.
Disadvantages of Leasing:• Usually lease terms are rigid anddifficult to navigate in circumstanceswhere the business has tochange its operations substantially.• Tactical legal considerations usually make it expedient for lessees to default on their leases
Disadvantages of Leasing:• If the business is successful, lessors may demand higher rental payments when leases come up for renewal.• A net lease may shift some or all of the maintenance costs onto the tenant.
MeaningThe hire purchase Actof India 1972, definesa hire purchaseagreement as anagreement underwhich goods are let onhire and under whichthe hirer has anoption to purchasethem in accordancewith the terms ofagreement.
It involves two parties:Hirer: The party which receives the asset.Hiree: The party which rents out the asset.
Features:• Hire purchase is based on an agreement in writing.• The buyer takes possession of the goods at the time of entering into contract.• Each installment is treated as hire charges.• Ownership transfer from the buyer to the seller on the payment of the last instalment.• The purchaser has the right to terminate the agreement any time before the property passes.
Hire Purchase Agreement• Hire purchase agreement has to be in writing and signed by both parties. The agreement must contain-• Description of the goods.• Hire purchase price of the goods.• The date of commencement of the agreement.• The number of installments ,amount, and due date.
Rights of the Hirer• To buy the goods at any time by giving notice to the owner and paying the balance of the HP price less a rebate (each jurisdiction has a different formula for calculating the amount of this rebate)• To return the goods to the owner — this is subject to the payment of a penalty to reflect the owners loss of profit but subject to a maximum specified in each jurisdictions law to strike a balance between the need for the buyer to minimize liability and the fact that the owner now has possession of an obsolescent asset of reduced value
• With the consent of the owner, to assign both the benefit and the burden of the contract to a third person. The owner cannot unreasonably refuse consent where the nominated third party has good credit rating• Where the owner wrongfully repossesses the goods, either to recover the goods plus damages for loss of quiet possession or to damages representing the value of the goods lost.
Hirer’s obligations• To pay the hire installments• To take reasonable care of the goods (if the hirer damages the goods by using them in a non-standard way, he or she must continue to pay the installments and, if appropriate, compensate the owner for any loss in asset value)
• to inform the owner where the goods will be kept.• A hirer can sell the products if, and only if, he has purchased the goods finally or else not to any other third party.• it is pretty much similar to installment but the main difference is of ownership.
Rights of the Owner• The owner usually has the right to terminate the agreement where the hirer defaults in paying the installments or breaches any of the other terms in the agreement. This entitles the owner:• to forfeit the deposit• to retain the installments already paid and recover the balance due
• to repossess the goods (which may have to be by application to a Court depending on the nature of the goods and the percentage of the total price paid)• to claim damages for any loss suffered.
Advantages• Expensive items such as machinery and plant can be acquired without huge financial investment.• Interest charged and depreciation of the vehicle are tax deductible• Terms can be flexible and fixed repayments make for easy future budgeting.• After full payment of the hire purchase agreement, ownership of the goods is transferred to the hirer.
Disadvantages1. Higher prices:The buyer has to pay much higher prices than that payable oncash purchase. The seller adds a margin to cover interest andrisk.2. Transfer of Ownership:The buyer does not get ownership of goods until last installmentpaid. He cannot sell the goods before final payment.3. Risk of bad debts:When the buyer fails to pay installments, the seller may sufferloss. He may have to spend money and time to recover goodsfrom the buyer.4. Large investment:The hire purchase seller has to invest considerable fundsbecause payments are received from buyers over a long periodof time.
Difference between Leasing and Hire- purchase• Ownership of the Asset: In lease, ownership lies with the lessor. The lessee has the right to use the equipment and does not have an option to purchase. Whereas in hire purchase, the hirer has the option to purchase. The hirer becomes the owner of the asset/equipment immediately after the last installment is paid.
Difference between Leasing and Hire- purchase• Duration: Generally lease agreements are done for longer duration and for bigger assets like land, property etc. Hire Purchase agreements are done mostly for shorter duration and cheaper assets like hiring a car, machinery etc.• Tax Impact: In lease agreement, the total lease rentals are shown as expenditure by the lessee. In hire purchase, the hirer claims the depreciation of asset as an expense.
Difference between Leasing and Hire- purchase• Extent of Finance: Lease financing can be called the complete financing option in which no down payments are required but in case of hire purchase, the normally 20 to 25 % margin money is required to be paid upfront by the hirer. Therefore, we call it a partial finance like loans etc.
Difference between Leasing and Hire- purchase• Rental Payments: The lease rentals cover the cost of using an asset. Normally, it is derived with the cost of an asset over the asset life. In case of hire purchase, installment is inclusive of the principal amount and the interest for the time period the asset is utilized.
Difference between Leasing and Hire- purchase• Repairs and Maintenance: Repairs and maintenance of the asset in financial lease is the responsibility of the lessee but in operating lease, it is the responsibility of the lessor. In hire purchase, the responsibility lies with the hirer.
Difference between Leasing and Hire- purchase• Depreciation: In lease financing, the depreciation is claimed as an expense in the books of lessor. On the other hand, the depreciation claim is allowed to the hirer in case of hire purchase transaction.
VENTURE CAPITALVenture capital (VC) is financial capital provided toearly-stage, high-potential, high risk, growth startupcompanies. In broad terms, venture capital is theinvestment of long termequity finance where theventure capitalist earnshis return primarily Inthe form of capitalgains.
CHARACTERISTICS OF VENTURE CAPITAL• Illiquidity: Easy liquidity by cashing out in short-term is not an option for venture capital funding.• Long-term commitment: Venture capital financing is a long term, illiquid investment, it is not repayable on demand.• Equity participation: Venture capital is actual or potential equity participation through direct purchase of shares, options or convertible securities. The objective is to make capital gains by selling-off the investment, once the enterprise becomes profitable.• Participation in management: Venture financing ensures continuing participation of the venture capitalist in the management of the entrepreneur’s business.
STAGES IN VENTURE FINANCING Early stage financing. Expansion financing Acquisition/ buyout.
EARLY STAGE FINANCING• Seed finance for supporting a concept or idea.• R&D financing for product development.• Start up capital for initial production and marketing• First stage financing for full-scale production and marketing
EXPANSION FINANCING• Second stage financing for working capital and initial expansion.• Development financing for facilitating public issues.• Bridge financing for facilitating public issues.
ACQUISITION/BUYOUT• Acquisition Financing For Acquiring Financing Or Another Firm For Further Growth.• Management buyout financing for enabling operating group to acquire firm or part of its business.• Turnaround financing for turning around a sick unit.
THE BUSINESS PLAN• The B-Plan is to convince the venture capitalist that the company and the management team have the ability to achieve the stated goals within the specified time.
ESSENTIALS OF A BUSINESS PLAN• EXECUTIVE SUMMARY• BACKGROUND ON THE VENTURE• THE PRODUCT OR SERVICE• MARKET ANALYSIS• MARKETING• BUSINESS OPERATIONS• THE MANAGEMENT TEAM• FINANCIAL PROJECTIONS• AMOUNT & USE OF FINANCE REQD. AND EXIT OPPORTUNITIES
PROCESS OF VENTURE CAPITAL FINANCING• Deal Origination.• Screening.• Due diligence.• Preliminary evaluation• Detailed evaluation• Deal Structuring.• Post-investment Activity.• Exit plan.
PROCESS OF VENTURE CAPITAL FINANCING Referral System DEAL ORIGINATION Active Intermediaries Search
PROCESS OF VENTURE CAPITAL FINANCING• SCREENING
METHODS OF VENTURE FINANCING• EQUITYWhen a venture capitalist contributes equitycapital, he acquires the status of an owner andbecomes entitled to share in the firm’s profits asmuch as he is liable for losses.
METHODS OF VENTURE FINANCING• CONDITIONAL LOANA conditional loan is repayable in the form of a royalty after the venture is able to generate sales. In India VCF’s charge 2-15% royalty.
METHODS OF VENTURE FINANCING• INCOME NOTEIt is a hybrid security which combines thefeatures of both conventional and conditionalloan. The entrepreneur has to pay both interestand royalty on sales but at low rates.
REFERENCES• www.wikipedia.com• I M Pandey• www.investopedia.com• www.gaurdian.uk.co• www.amazon.com• www.scribd.com• www.managementparadise.com