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© Egorov Puginsky Afanasiev & Partners
Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia:
Real if You Know the Way
Enforcement o...
| 2
1. Turbulent Times Prompt Action
2. Russian-Turkish Agreements regarding Enforcement of
Rights
3. Disturbance of Contr...
| 3
The Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 583 dated 28 November
2015 provides for a certain possibilit...
| 4
Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 583 dated 28 November 2015 “On national
security measures of th...
| 5
1. Turbulent Times Prompt Action
2. Russian-Turkish Agreements regarding Enforcement of
Rights
3. Disturbance of Contr...
| 6
 Treaty on the Principles of Relations between the Russian Federation and
the Republic of Turkey (May 25, 1992)
 Tre...
| 7
The term "investments" shall mean all kinds of assets invested by investors of one of
the Contracting Parties in the t...
| 8
Settlement of disputes between a Contracting Party and an investor of the other
Contracting Party
1. Any dispute betwe...
| 9
1. Turbulent Times Prompt Action
2. Russian-Turkish Agreements regarding Enforcement of
Rights
3. Disturbance of Contr...
| 10
Termination of the Obligation Because of the Impossibility to Discharge It
1. The obligation shall be terminated beca...
| 11
1. Turbulent Times Prompt Action
2. Russian-Turkish Agreements regarding Enforcement of
Rights
3. Disturbance of Cont...
| 12
Reparation for Damages by Foreign Contractors in Arbitration
30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awa...
| 13
Reparation for Damages by Foreign Contractors in Arbitration
30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awa...
| 14
1. Turbulent Times Prompt Action
2. Russian-Turkish Agreements regarding Enforcement of
Rights
3. Disturbance of Cont...
| 15
Enforcement Rate
30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way
... ...
| 16
Compliance with adverse awards
Russia appears to have failed to honor all of the awards in the public domain that hav...
| 17
The World Bank Report 2016
30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know th...
| 18
 Get an arrest/attachment order as early as possible
 Attachment in support of foreign court/judicial proceedings
...
| 19
Access to Justice / Judicial Efficiency
30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real i...
| 20
Hot Topics
1) Attachments in support of ongoing arbitration proceedings
Decision of the Supreme Arbitrazh Court of th...
Ilya Nikiforov Fraud, Asset Tracing & Recovery 21
Chisenau
SEB Bank
guarantorFercen Grup
debtor
MISINARIX – To Recognize a...
Ilya Nikiforov Fraud, Asset Tracing & Recovery 22
Chisenau
MISINARIX
creditor
SEB Bank
guarantorFercen Grup
debtor
SBERBAN...
Ilya Nikiforov Fraud, Asset Tracing & Recovery 23
Chisenau
MISINARIX
creditor
SEB Bank
guarantorFercen Grup
debtor
SBERBAN...
| 24
Tricky Enforcement
Enforcement authority currently handles over 32,4 million dockets. Only in 20 % of
cases - executo...
| 25
1. Identify the entity, its owners and affiliates assets through public records;
2. File for arrest of known assets o...
| 26
Ilya Nikiforov
Managing Partner
St. Petersburg office
Egorov Puginsky
Afanasiev & Partners
T 7 (812) 322 96 81
F 7 (8...
© Egorov Puginsky Afanasiev & Partners
Thank you!
Ilya Nikiforov
Managing Partner
Egorov Puginsky Afanasiev & Partners
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Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way

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Enforcement of Awards in Turkey and the Middle East
from ICC-FIDIC conference 29-30 March 2016 Istanbul, Turkey

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Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way

  1. 1. © Egorov Puginsky Afanasiev & Partners Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way Enforcement of Awards in Turkey and the Middle East Istanbul, Turkey Ilya Nikiforov, Managing Partner Egorov, Puginsky, Afanasiev & Partners 30.03.2016
  2. 2. | 2 1. Turbulent Times Prompt Action 2. Russian-Turkish Agreements regarding Enforcement of Rights 3. Disturbance of Contract Relations 4. Reparation for Damages by Foreign Contractors in Arbitration 5. Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way Contents 2
  3. 3. | 3 The Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 583 dated 28 November 2015 provides for a certain possibility of continuing business activities for sanctioned companies under a specific preliminary approval procedure. (http://www.lidings.com/eng/legalupdates2?id=262) According to subclause в) clause 5 of the Decree the Russian Government shall define a list of contracts to be concluded with Turkish companies, in respect of which sanctions will not be applied, therewith establish rules for selection and coordination of such contracts has been developed and is currently under consideration. (http://www.lidings.com/eng/legalupdates2?id=262) The imposition of sanctions may affect about 30 Turkish construction companies. The total cost of these works is estimated at 60 billion rubles (approximately $784 million). (http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/2891367) The Turkish companies executing contracts, termination of which could lead to non- fulfillment of internal or external commitments do not fall under sanctions. Developers can be allowed to stay in Russia under the condition that they will create joint ventures with Russian partners, where the Russians would control a 75% share of each joint venture. (http://uawire.org/news/russian-sanctions-against-turkish-construction-companies) Russia Sanctions against Turkish Construction Companies (1/2) 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way
  4. 4. | 4 Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 583 dated 28 November 2015 “On national security measures of the Russian Federation and protection of Russian citizens against criminal and other unlawful actions and on application of special economic measures in respect of the republic of Turkey” Regulations of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 1296 dated 30 November 2015 “On measures for implementing Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 583 dated 28 November 2015 “On national security measures of the Russian Federation and protection of Russian citizens against criminal and other unlawful actions and on application of special economic measures in respect of the republic of Turkey”. Regulations of the Russian Government No. 1457 dated 29 December 2015 “On list of works (services) implementation of which is prohibited on the territory of the Russian Federation by organizations under the jurisdiction of the Republic of Turkey and by the organizations controlled by the citizens of Republic of Turkey or organizations under the jurisdiction of the Republic of Turkey”. Regulations of the Russian Government No. 1458 dated 29 December 2015 “On adoption of list of employers, customers of works (services) who shall not fall under the prohibition valid as of 01 January 2016 on engaging unemployed for 31 December 2015 citizens from the republic of Turkey for performing labour activities, works, rendering services”. Russia Sanctions against Turkish Construction Companies (2/2) 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way
  5. 5. | 5 1. Turbulent Times Prompt Action 2. Russian-Turkish Agreements regarding Enforcement of Rights 3. Disturbance of Contract Relations 4. Reparation for Damages by Foreign Contractors in Arbitration 5. Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way Contents 5
  6. 6. | 6  Treaty on the Principles of Relations between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Turkey (May 25, 1992)  Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Republic of Turkey (October 8, 1937)  Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Turkey regarding the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments (December 15, 1997)  European Convention on International Commercial Arbitration (April 21, 1961)  Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (June 10, 1958) International Law and Domestic Instruments 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way
  7. 7. | 7 The term "investments" shall mean all kinds of assets invested by investors of one of the Contracting Parties in the territory of the other Contracting Party in accordance with its legislation, in particular: a)movable and immovable property as well as property rights thereto; b) shares, stocks and other forms of participation in business enterprises or companies; c) claims to money invested for the purpose of creating economic values related to investments; d) copyrights, rights to industrial property (such as patents, trademarks and service marks, industrial samples and models), technology and know-how; e) rights conferred by law or under contract to conduct economic activity, including commercial activity, related in particular to exploration, development, extraction and exploitation of natural resources. Any alteration of the form in which assets have been invested or reinvested shall not affect the character of investments in the sense of this Agreement provided that this alteration is not in contradiction with the legislation of the Contracting Party in the territory where the investment was made*. *Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Turkey regarding the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments Russian-Turkish Bilateral Investment Treaty 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way
  8. 8. | 8 Settlement of disputes between a Contracting Party and an investor of the other Contracting Party 1. Any dispute between a Contracting Party and an investor of the other Contracting Party arising in connection with investment activities, including disputes relating to the amount and procedure of payment of compensation to be paid in accordance with Article VI of this Agreement, or procedure of transfer to be made according to Article VIII of this Agreement, shall be subject to written notification with detailed comments which is sent by investor to the Contracting Party participating in this dispute. Parties in dispute shall to the extent possible, seek a settlement to this dispute in an amicable manner. 2. In case the dispute cannot be settled in this manner within the period of six months from the date of the written notification referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, it shall be submitted for consideration to: a) a competent court or arbitration tribunal of the Contracting Party in the territory of which the investments were made; b) the Arbitration Institution of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce; c) an ad hoc arbitration tribunal in accordance with the Arbitration Rules of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). 3. The decision of a competent court or the arbitration award shall be final and binding upon both parties to the dispute. Each Contracting Party shall undertake to enforce this award in accordance with its legislation*. *Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Turkey regarding the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments Claims against Russia 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way
  9. 9. | 9 1. Turbulent Times Prompt Action 2. Russian-Turkish Agreements regarding Enforcement of Rights 3. Disturbance of Contract Relations 4. Reparation for Damages by Foreign Contractors in Arbitration 5. Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way Contents 9
  10. 10. | 10 Termination of the Obligation Because of the Impossibility to Discharge It 1. The obligation shall be terminated because of the impossibility to discharge it, caused by the circumstance occurring after the origination of the obligation, for which neither of the parties is answerable. 2. In case of the impossibility for the debtor to discharge the obligation because of the faulty actions of the creditor, the latter shall not have the right to claim the return of what he has discharged by the obligation.* Termination of the Obligation on the Grounds of an Act Issued by a State Body 1. If as a result of an act issued by a state body or local authority, the execution of an obligation has become impossible in full or in part, the obligation shall be terminated in full or in the corresponding part. The parties that have suffered losses as a result of this, shall have the right to claim compensation in conformity with Articles 13 and 16 of the present Code. 2. An obligation shall not be deemed terminated if the issuance of the act by a state power body or local authority that has entailed the impossibility of the obligation's execution has been caused by wrongful actions (omissions) of the debtor proper. 3. If the act issued by the state body or local authority (Item 1 of this article) is recognized as invalid in conformity with the established procedure, the obligation shall be deemed terminated unless otherwise follows from the agreement between the parties or from the substance of the obligation and unless the creditor has refused to execute the obligation within a reasonable time period.* *Articles 416 and 417 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Fate of Earlier Construction Contracts 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way
  11. 11. | 11 1. Turbulent Times Prompt Action 2. Russian-Turkish Agreements regarding Enforcement of Rights 3. Disturbance of Contract Relations 4. Reparation for Damages by Foreign Contractors in Arbitration 5. Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia Contents 11 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way
  12. 12. | 12 Reparation for Damages by Foreign Contractors in Arbitration 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way Where litigation is unavoidable – Prepare When formulating the requested relief, consider the local enforcement practices, certain types of relief may render the award not workable (e.g. “order the defendant to pay” is treated and enforced as a specific performance rather than pecuniary collection; * Be especially careful: mind contractual, factual and official (registered) addresses of a counterparty; take into account dispatch notes on any previous correspondence with the counterparty; Consider spelling street names, corporate names – even “dash” is important. Monetary award: - Claim for payment of a specific sum of monetary compensation (price of goods, rent, etc.) - Compensation of actual damage - Punitive damages and other sanctions Specific performance and restitution: - Order to a party to perform specific actions or refrain from performing such actions - Injunction / cease-and-desist order - Order of termination or invalidation of a contract or a different document Declaratory protection / claim for declaration: - Order of creation, amendment, and termination of legal relationships - Amendments / adaptation of contracts and filling the gaps Payment of interest Reimbursement of arbitration costs Penalty / Astrainte
  13. 13. | 13 Reparation for Damages by Foreign Contractors in Arbitration 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way During 2015, Turkish contractors undertook 7,735 projects in 104 countries, valued at a total of $304.5 billion. (http://www.bcct.org.tr/news/turkish-construction-companies-considerations-for- international-projects-and-regional-dispute-resolution-trends/14677) International contractors, including Turkish contractors, widely accept arbitration as an important dispute resolution method. However, Turkish contractors tend to view arbitration as a method of last resort, particularly when involved in constructions projects for sovereign project sponsors. The risk of potentially losing future business from a sovereign tends to prevent Turkish contractors from arbitrating disputes, even if a case looks strongly in the contractor’s favor. Contractors tend to attempt other alternative dispute resolution approaches, such as negotiation and mediation. (http://www.bcct.org.tr/news/turkish-construction-companies-considerations-for-international-projects-and- regional-dispute-resolution-trends/14677)
  14. 14. | 14 1. Turbulent Times Prompt Action 2. Russian-Turkish Agreements regarding Enforcement of Rights 3. Disturbance of Contract Relations 4. Reparation for Damages by Foreign Contractors in Arbitration 5. Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way Contents 14
  15. 15. | 15 Enforcement Rate 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way ... it appears that Russia has been enforcing foreign awards at a rate of about 90% and above since 2009.
  16. 16. | 16 Compliance with adverse awards Russia appears to have failed to honor all of the awards in the public domain that have been rendered against it. It has challenged awards in local courts at the seat of arbitration (e.g. in Swedish courts in the case of RosInvestCo v Russian Federation), and has vigorously resisted the seizure of its assets by foreign courts pursuant to arbitral awards against it (e.g. in German and Swedish courts in the case of Sedelmayer v Russian Federation). Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Republic of Turkey (Ankara, October 8, 1937) The property of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which is in limits of borders of Turkish Republic may be subjected to enforcement of a final judicial decision or a judicial decision that is considered final excluding the objects exempted from such measures under international law which are necessary to discharge state sovereign functions or to provide operation of diplomatic and consular missions of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics including the USSR Trade Mission. Enforcement of Investment Arbitration Awards in Russia 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way
  17. 17. | 17 The World Bank Report 2016 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way Russian Federation and Turkey: Doing Business Rank Topic Rankings Russian Federation Turkey Enforcing contracts 5 36 Registering Property 8 52 Getting Electricity 29 36 Starting a Business 41 94 Getting Credit 42 79 Paying Taxes 47 61 Resolving Insolvency 51 124 Protecting Minority Investors 66 20 Dealing with Construction Permits 119 98 Trading Across Borders 170 62 Source: 2016 Doing Business Report, The World Bank http://www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploreeconomies/russia/ http://www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploreeconomies/turkey/
  18. 18. | 18  Get an arrest/attachment order as early as possible  Attachment in support of foreign court/judicial proceedings  Bank – warrant & writ of enforcement directly served  From Russia with warrant – Minsk & Kiev convention  Courts are cheap. No fee shifting. Low stamp duty. Recalcitrant debtors prefer to fight to the end Getting It Right (Best Practices) 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way
  19. 19. | 19 Access to Justice / Judicial Efficiency 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way Rank for Enforcing contracts 1. Singapore 2. Korea, Rep. 3. Lithuania 4. Australia 5. Russian Federation 6. Austria 7. China 8. Norway 9. Kazakhstan 10. Croatia 11. Estonia 12. Germany 13. Georgia 14. France 15. New Zealand 16. Taiwan, China 17. Luxembourg 18. United Arab Emirates 19. Antigua and Barbuda 20. Portugal Source: 2016 Doing Business Report, The World Bank http://www.doingbusiness.org/rankings USA UK Brazil Russian Federation Turkey Rank for Enforcing contracts 21 33 45 5 36 Quality of judicial processes index (0-18) * 15 15 14 12,5 13 Time (days) 370 437 731 310 580 Cost (% of claim) 22,9 43,9 20,7 15 24,9 *The quality of judicial processes index measures whether each economy has adopted a series of good practices in its court system in four areas: court structure and proceedings, case management, court automation and alternative dispute resolution.
  20. 20. | 20 Hot Topics 1) Attachments in support of ongoing arbitration proceedings Decision of the Supreme Arbitrazh Court of the Russian Federation, 20 April 2010, № 17095/09 (Edimax Limited vs. Chigirinsky) 2) Attachments in support of ongoing foreign court proceedings Decision of the Federal Arbitrazh Court of the North-West district, 29 July 2010, № A56-95127/2009 (Finisterre Recovery Fund 1 Limited, Finisterre Special Situations Fund, Whitewater EMCF LLC, Whitewater EMCO LLC, Spinnaker Global Emerging Markets Fund Ltd, Spinnaker Global Opportunity Fund Ltd, Spinnaker Global Strategic Fund Ltd vs. Teorema Holding Plc) 3) Enforcement in Russia against non-resident entities Ruling of the Supreme Arbitrazh Court of the Russian Federation, 28 June 2010, № VAS-6430/10 (SRL «MISINARIX»vs. SRL «Fercen Grup», JSC «SEB Bank») 4) Enforcement of judgments from non-treaty countries (reciprocity has to be proven) Ruling of the Supreme Arbitrazh Court of the Russian Federation, 7 December 2009, № VAS-13688/09 (Rentpool B.V. vs. Podyomnye Technology LLC) Ruling of the Supreme Arbitrazh Court of the Russian Federation, 26 July 2012, No. VAS-6580/2012 (Boegli- Gravures SA vs. Darsail-ASP Ltd & Pyzhov) 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way
  21. 21. Ilya Nikiforov Fraud, Asset Tracing & Recovery 21 Chisenau SEB Bank guarantorFercen Grup debtor MISINARIX – To Recognize and Enforce Jurisdiction basis: Assets SEB > correspondent account Fercen > equipment Procedure: Kyiv Convention, 20 March 1992, Minsk Convention, 22 January 1993, Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova, 25 February 1993, RF Arbitrazh Procedure Code MISINARIX Case (№А40-156339/09-50-1134) MoscowKiev Chisinau MISINARIX creditor
  22. 22. Ilya Nikiforov Fraud, Asset Tracing & Recovery 22 Chisenau MISINARIX creditor SEB Bank guarantorFercen Grup debtor SBERBANK MISINARIX – To Recognize and Enforce Jurisdiction basis: Assets SEB > correspondent account Fercen > equipment Procedure: Kyiv Convention, 20 March 1992, Minsk Convention, 22 January 1993, Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova, 25 February 1993, RF Arbitrazh Procedure Code MoscowKiev MISINARIX Case (№А40-156339/09-50-1134)
  23. 23. Ilya Nikiforov Fraud, Asset Tracing & Recovery 23 Chisenau MISINARIX creditor SEB Bank guarantorFercen Grup debtor SBERBANK MISINARIX – To Recognize and Enforce Jurisdiction basis: Assets SEB > correspondent account Fercen > equipment Procedure: Kyiv Convention, 20 March 1992, Minsk Convention, 22 January 1993, Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Moldova, 25 February 1993, RF Arbitrazh Procedure Code MoscowKiev Ukrsocbank MISINARIX Case (№А40-156339/09-50-1134)
  24. 24. | 24 Tricky Enforcement Enforcement authority currently handles over 32,4 million dockets. Only in 20 % of cases - executory proceedings succeed. (A. Ivanov, Chairman of the Supreme Commercial Court of the Russian Federation, Interview December 2012) No veil piercing is allowed at the enforcement stage Where corporations have experienced problems with enforcement, the problems were more commonly due to the insolvency and/or i.e. lack of traceable assets of the debtor Enforcement authorities trying their best: •Debtor’s list; •Closed border; •Garnishment of cell phone accounts / balances; •Other creative stunts. 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way
  25. 25. | 25 1. Identify the entity, its owners and affiliates assets through public records; 2. File for arrest of known assets of the debtor as a conservatory measure, early. Invoke, perfect security interests / retention of title clauses; 3. Leak the story to mass media; 4. Write letters to the debtor and its business partners, regulators & supervisory agencies, advising them on the situation; 5. If the debtor and its affiliates are involved in public procurement put the government customers on notice regarding the situation; 6. Ask the Court to proceed with the enforcement case on an expedited basis; 7. Assist the enforcement authority – court bailiff – in properly identifying and seizing business assets of the debtor. Preferred Enforcement Scenario 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way
  26. 26. | 26 Ilya Nikiforov Managing Partner St. Petersburg office Egorov Puginsky Afanasiev & Partners T 7 (812) 322 96 81 F 7 (812) 322 96 82 e: ilya.nikiforov@epam.ru Ilya Nikiforov is a Managing Partner at St. Petersburg office of Egorov Puginsky Afanasiev & Partners. Arbitration Group of the firm headed by Ilya Nikiforov is the only Russian practice listed in Global Arbitration Review Top 100 survey (2012). Chambers Europe consistently ranked Ilya Nikiforov as a Tier 1 disputes lawyer in the market. Ilya Nikiforov is known for a strong expertise in both litigation and arbitration and is listed as an arbitrator by prominent arbitration institutions, such as WIPO, ICDR. Ilya has special experience in international business transactions, commercial arbitration, construction and development projects, and intellectual property law . Nikiforov represents client interests at domestic forums at all levels, before Moscow arbitration institution and other prominent commercial arbitration institutions, such as the ICC, LCIA and SCC. He is often engaged as a Russian law counsel/expert in connection with commercial litigation and international arbitration proceedings worldwide. Since 1997 Ilya Nikiforov serves as an adjunct faculty member at the Law School of St. Petersburg State University. He frequently speaks at professional conventions. Mr. Nikiforov has published a substantial number of works on Russian business laws. He has co-authored one of the leading Commentaries to the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Ilya Nikiforov 30.03.2016 Ilya Nikiforov Enforcement of Arbitration Awards in Russia: Real if You Know the Way
  27. 27. © Egorov Puginsky Afanasiev & Partners Thank you! Ilya Nikiforov Managing Partner Egorov Puginsky Afanasiev & Partners

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