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Cyber Troops and
Computational Propaganda in
the Indonesian Presidential
Election 2019
Ismail Fahmi, S.T., M.A., Ph.D.
Dir...
KyoAni: MY DEEPEST SYMPATHY
Please accept my deepest condolences. My prayers are with you
and the families who lost their ...
3
1992 – 1997 Undergraduate, Electrical Engineering, ITB, Indonesia
2003 – 2004 Master, Information Science, University of...
MATA NAJWA LIVE ‘HOAX VIRUSES’
4
confidential
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION DEBATE 2019
5
#ILC SOCIAL MEDIA WAR (21 August 2018)
6
Kyoto Imperial Palace
7
BACKGROUND
COMPUTATIONAL PROPAGANDA
9
Since 2012 until now, we
have seen bots, algorithms
and other forms of
automation are used by
p...
CYBER TROOPS
10
CYBER TROOPS: government,
military or political party teams
committed to developing or
manipulating public...
THE PURPOSES OF CYBER TROOPS AND
COMPUTATIONAL PROPAGANDA
11
Manipulates public opinion to
promote the interests of
govern...
12
FACEBOOK TWITTER
FACEBOOK TARGETING
13
14
FACEBOOK TARGETING
THE CASES OF TWO
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN INDONESIA
15
2014 2019
QUESTIONS
• How the cyber troops and computational propaganda started in
Indonesian political events?
• How they worked du...
INDONESIA DIGITAL
IN A NUTSHELL
18
19
20
21
22
23
MILLENIALSGEN Z
24
POLITICAL PARTIES
IN THE INDONESIAN GENERAL
ELECTION 2019
25
THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL
SOCIAL MEDIA POLARIZATION IN 2014 - 2017
JANUARY 2014, JOKOWI AS THE JAKARTA’S GOVERNOR
MEDIA AND CYBER TROOP SUPPORTS
PRO
KONTRA
2014
FEBRUARY 2014, JOKOWI AS THE JAKARTA’S GOVERNOR
BEFORE REGISTERING THE PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES
PRO
KONTRA
2014
MARCH 2014, JOKOWI AS THE JAKARTA’S GOVERNOR
JOKOWI PROMOTED AS A PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE
PRO
KONTRA
KONTRA
2014
JUNE-JULY 2014, JOKOWI AS A PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE
DURING A CAMPAIGN PERIOD
PRO
KONTRA
2014
APRIL 2015, JOKOWI AS THE PRESIDENT
FIRST YEAR
PRO
KONTRA
2015
APRIL 2016, JOKOWI AS THE PRESIDENT
SECOND YEAR
PRO
KONTRA 2016
SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2017, JOKOWI AS THE PRESIDENT
AFTER THE JAKARTA GOVERNOR ELECTION 2017
PRO
KONTRA
2017
PRO
CYBER TROOPS IN
2017 DKI JAKARTA GOVERNOR ELECTION
35
JAN 2017: JAKARTA GOVERNOR ELECTION 2017
FIRST DEBATE
36
2017
Ahok-Djarot
Anies-Sandi
Agus-Sylvi
7-8 FEB 2017: JAKARTA GOVERNOR ELECTION 2017
SECOND DEBATE
37
Ahok-Djarot
Anies-SandiAgus-Sylvi
MCA
2017
12 FEB 2017: JAKARTA GOVERNOR ELECTION 2017
BEFORE THE 1ST ROUND ELECTION
38
Agus-Sylvi
Anies-Sandy
Ahok-Djarot
MCA
2017
17 MAR 2017: JAKARTA GOVERNOR ELECTION 2017
BEFORE THE 2ND ROUND ELECTION
39Pro Anies
Pro Ahok
TRAFFIC: SEWORD (PARTISAN) SURPASSED
MAINSTREAM MEDIA
40
41
Via Social Media:
Seword
Via Google:
Kompasiana
Antaranews
Tempo
MAINSTREAM MEDIA
42
Via Medsos:
Seword
Posmetro
Via Google:
Portalpiyungan
PARTISAN MEDIA
COMPUTATIONAL PROPAGANDA IN
THE 2019 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
POLLING ROBOTS
44
Ater the leader of Mahaka Group,
Erick Thohir officially becomes
the head of the campaign team
for Joko ...
POLLING ROBOTS
Foreign
names with
0-1 followers
USERS BY NUMBER OF FOLLOWERS
#PrabowoSandi
19.51%
3.82%
10.84%
9.82%
#JokowiAmin
TWITS BY USERS WITH 0-3 FOLLOWERS
ABOUT JOKOWI
USERS BY NUMBER OF FOLLOWERS
IN CONVERSATIONS ABOUT PRABOWO
3.33%
TWITS BY USERS WITH 0-3 FOLLOWERS
ABOUT PRABOWO
BOTS WITH THOUSANDS FOLLOWERS
AVOIDING TWITTER SPAM DETECTION
TALKING ABOUT JOKOWI
Interaction Rate
2.91Pro 01
Pro 02
Bots
Bots
Bots
Bots
Bots
Bots
Bots
Bots Iklan
Bots
Bots
Total User...
TALKING ABOUT PRABOWO
Interaction Rate
6.30
Pro 01
Pro 02
Bots Pro 02
Bots Nasdem
Bots MetroTV
Bots
Bots Iklan
Bots Pro 01...
TEST: #JKWTakutPaparkanMisiVisi v.s. #PrabowoTakutTesNgaji
Pro 01 Pro 02
#PrabowoTakutTesNgaji #JKWTakutPaparkanMisiVisi
I...
INTERACTION RATE
TREN OF
CONVERSATION
VOLUME
TREN OF
INTERACTION
RATE
Engagement Types and Interaction Rates
IR = (RT + Reply) / Mention
Jokowi
Interaction Rate
2.91
Prabowo
Interaction Rate
6...
BOTS IN THE CONVERSATIONS ABOUT JOKOWI
BOTS IN THE CONVERSATIONS ABOUT JOKOWI (2)
BOTS IN THE CONVERSATIONS ABOUT PRABOWO
BOTS IN THE CONVERSATIONS ABOUT PRABOWO (2)
COMPUTATIONAL PROPAGANDA IN A
CYBER WAR
#FirehoseOfFalsehood02 v.s. #RussianPropaganda
02
01 #FirehoseOfFalsehood02
”Russian Propaganda”
TREND: #FirehoseOfFalsehood02 v.s. #RussianPropaganda
#FirehoseOfFalsehood02
”Russian Propaganda”
RUSSIAN PROPAGANDA: MOST RETWEETED
RUSSIAN PROPAGANDA: TOP INFLUECERS
RUSSIAN PROPAGANDA: TOP IMAGES
#FIREHOSEOFFALSEHOOD02: ENGAGEMENT TYPES
BOT FIRST, THEN SUPPORTERS
FAILED TO GET A NATURAL ENGAGEMENT
#FIREHOSEOFFALSEHOOD02: SPAMS (1)
#FIREHOSEOFFALSEHOOD02: SPAMS (2)
#FIREHOSEOFFALSEHOOD02: SPAMS (3)
#FIREHOSEOFFALSEHOOD02: TOP IMAGES
BOTS IN A BLACK CAMPAIGN
SCANDAL: A BLACK CAMPAIGN ATTACKING A
CANDIDATE
72
SCANDAL: SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS
73
TREND: HOW THE BLACK CAMPAIGN
DELIVERED
74
INITIALLY, BOTS POST THE MESSAGES
RESPONDED BY THE TARGET
REPORTED
BY MEDIA
ENGAGEMENT ANALYSIS: BOTS GET NO
RESPONSE
75
TWITS WITH NO RESPONSE
TWITS WITH
RESPONSES
THE BEGINNING OF THE BLACK CAMPAIGN
76
ROBOT WITH 0-3 FOLLOWERS
A BAD BOT FOLLOWS GOOD BOTS
77
A GOOD BOT AND A BAD BOT USE THE SAME
PROFILE PICTURES
78
MOST ACTIVE BAD BOTS AND THEIR FRIENDS (GOOD BOTS)
79
Follows
Profile Pic
sama
INFORMATION ARBITRAGE
SOCIAL NETWORK BEFORE DEBATE
02
01
SOCIAL NETWORK DURING DEBATE
02
01
01
01 EXTRA
CYBER TROOPS
SOCIAL NETWORK DURING DEBATE WITH TOPICS
02
01
01 EXTRA
CYBER TROOPS
ONLINE NEWS: INFORMATION ARBITRAGE
ISSUES DURING 2019 PRESIDENTIAL
ELECTION CAMPAIGN
ISSUES ON JOKOWI
Unfulfilled Promises
Claiming other’s works Anti Islam and Ulama
PKI
China
Leadership
WHO PLAYED THE ISSUES ON JOKOWI
ISSUES ON PRABOWO
Hoaxes
Lack of experiences
Religion
Khilafah
Temperamental
Human Rights
WHO PLAYED THE ISSUES ON PRABOWO
TOP MEME ON MRT MEETING 2019
MRT MEETING: 13 Juli 2019
Pro Petahana Pro Oposisi
IDEA FLOW
IDEA FLOW:
MESSAGE DIFFUSES ACROSS PLATFORMS
93
Current Situation:
Vicious cycle of noises
94
Government
Noise
Opposition
Noise
Buzzers Buzzers
Proposed Solution:
Increasing S/N Ratio
95
IDEAL SITUATION:
PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT
96
Government
Big Data Analytics
Signal
Response,
engagement
Policy & PR
DRONE EMPRIT ACADEMIC
BIG DATA ANALYSIS
DRONE EMPRIT ACADEMIC
FREE SOCIAL MEDIA (TWITTER) DATA ANALYTICS
98
JOIN DRONE EMPRIT ACADEMIC
https://dea.uii.ac.id
99
TOPICS BASED ON SDGs
(Sustainable Development Goals)
100
EXAMPLES /1
101
HOW IT WORKS
102
STEPS:
• Registration
• Propose keywords
• Analysis and publication
Dashboard
Access
REQUIREMENTS:
• Publ...
BOOKS “READING INDONESIA”
103
SUMMARIES
SUMMARY
• Cyber troops and computational propaganda has been used in
Indonesia since as early as 2012.
• The main drivers ...
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING
106
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CSEAS: Cyber troop and computational propaganda

International Seminar on “Cyber Troops and Computational Propaganda in the Indonesian Presidential Election 2019” at CSEAS, Kyoto University

Date: Saturday, July 20nd, 2019
Time: 16:00 -19:00
Venue: Kyoto University Inamori Memorial Hall, 2rd floor Seminar Room

Presenter: Ismail Fahmi (Drone Emprit & PT. Media Kernels Indonesia)
Moderator: Masaaki Okamoto (CSEAS Kyoto University)

ABSTRACT:
The last Indonesia’s 2019 presidential election shown a different landscape of cyber war compared to its previous 2014 presidential election. In 2014, the use of social media and online media to create propaganda during campaigns was relatively new. However, in 2019 the number of people engaged in the cyber war is significantly increased especially from the opposition side. The use of bots to manipulate public opinion by amplifying or combating political content, disinformation, hate speech, and junk news was also increased in both parties.

In this presentation I will present how cyber troops from both parties (incumbent and opposition) engaged cyber wars to win their campaign messages. Furthermore using Drone Emprit, our big data analytics tool for online media and social media, I will show how computational propaganda using sophisticated bots, patterns, and techniques to trick the social media platforms was engaged.

I also will explain our efforts using the Drone Emprit analytics, that regularly and continuously analyzed the conversation and shared our findings through article posts in social media and mainstream media during the campaign periods. Our purpose was to build public awareness about the situation of the cyber war in order to they can see how hidden teams conduct computational propaganda that was targeted to win their opinion.

At the end of the presentation, I will conclude with lesson learned from the Indonesia’s 2019 presidential election.

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CSEAS: Cyber troop and computational propaganda

  1. 1. Cyber Troops and Computational Propaganda in the Indonesian Presidential Election 2019 Ismail Fahmi, S.T., M.A., Ph.D. Director Media Kernels Indonesia (Drone Emprit) Lecturer at the University of Islam Indonesia Ismail.fahmi@gmail.com INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR CSEAS KYOTO UNIVERSITY - KYOTO 20 JULY 2019
  2. 2. KyoAni: MY DEEPEST SYMPATHY Please accept my deepest condolences. My prayers are with you and the families who lost their loved ones. 2
  3. 3. 3 1992 – 1997 Undergraduate, Electrical Engineering, ITB, Indonesia 2003 – 2004 Master, Information Science, University of Groningen, NL 2004 – 2009 Doctor, Information Science, University of Groningen, NL 2009 – Now Engineer at Weborama (Paris/Amsterdam) 2014 – Now Founder PT. Media Kernels Indonesia, a Drone Emprit Company 2015 – Now Consultant at Perpustakaan Nasional, Inisiator Indonesia OneSearch 2017 – Now Lecturer at the IT Magister Program of the Universitas Islam Indonesia Ismail Fahmi, S.T., M.A., Ph.D. Ismail.fahmi@gmail.com
  4. 4. MATA NAJWA LIVE ‘HOAX VIRUSES’ 4 confidential
  5. 5. PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION DEBATE 2019 5
  6. 6. #ILC SOCIAL MEDIA WAR (21 August 2018) 6
  7. 7. Kyoto Imperial Palace 7
  8. 8. BACKGROUND
  9. 9. COMPUTATIONAL PROPAGANDA 9 Since 2012 until now, we have seen bots, algorithms and other forms of automation are used by political actors in countries around the world to manipulate public opinion over major social networking platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube.
  10. 10. CYBER TROOPS 10 CYBER TROOPS: government, military or political party teams committed to developing or manipulating public opinion over social media.
  11. 11. THE PURPOSES OF CYBER TROOPS AND COMPUTATIONAL PROPAGANDA 11 Manipulates public opinion to promote the interests of government, opposition, or trolls. Interests Interests TROLLS Interests
  12. 12. 12 FACEBOOK TWITTER
  13. 13. FACEBOOK TARGETING 13
  14. 14. 14 FACEBOOK TARGETING
  15. 15. THE CASES OF TWO PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN INDONESIA 15 2014 2019
  16. 16. QUESTIONS • How the cyber troops and computational propaganda started in Indonesian political events? • How they worked during the 2019 Indonesian Presidential Election? • Some pointers: • The use of computational propaganda since 2014 in Indonesia • The changes in digital polarization • Bots and black campaign • Cyber troops and supporters • Information arbitrage 16
  17. 17. INDONESIA DIGITAL IN A NUTSHELL
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23 MILLENIALSGEN Z
  24. 24. 24 POLITICAL PARTIES IN THE INDONESIAN GENERAL ELECTION 2019
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. THE DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL SOCIAL MEDIA POLARIZATION IN 2014 - 2017
  27. 27. JANUARY 2014, JOKOWI AS THE JAKARTA’S GOVERNOR MEDIA AND CYBER TROOP SUPPORTS PRO KONTRA 2014
  28. 28. FEBRUARY 2014, JOKOWI AS THE JAKARTA’S GOVERNOR BEFORE REGISTERING THE PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES PRO KONTRA 2014
  29. 29. MARCH 2014, JOKOWI AS THE JAKARTA’S GOVERNOR JOKOWI PROMOTED AS A PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE PRO KONTRA KONTRA 2014
  30. 30. JUNE-JULY 2014, JOKOWI AS A PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE DURING A CAMPAIGN PERIOD PRO KONTRA 2014
  31. 31. APRIL 2015, JOKOWI AS THE PRESIDENT FIRST YEAR PRO KONTRA 2015
  32. 32. APRIL 2016, JOKOWI AS THE PRESIDENT SECOND YEAR PRO KONTRA 2016
  33. 33. SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2017, JOKOWI AS THE PRESIDENT AFTER THE JAKARTA GOVERNOR ELECTION 2017 PRO KONTRA 2017 PRO
  34. 34. CYBER TROOPS IN 2017 DKI JAKARTA GOVERNOR ELECTION
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. JAN 2017: JAKARTA GOVERNOR ELECTION 2017 FIRST DEBATE 36 2017 Ahok-Djarot Anies-Sandi Agus-Sylvi
  37. 37. 7-8 FEB 2017: JAKARTA GOVERNOR ELECTION 2017 SECOND DEBATE 37 Ahok-Djarot Anies-SandiAgus-Sylvi MCA 2017
  38. 38. 12 FEB 2017: JAKARTA GOVERNOR ELECTION 2017 BEFORE THE 1ST ROUND ELECTION 38 Agus-Sylvi Anies-Sandy Ahok-Djarot MCA 2017
  39. 39. 17 MAR 2017: JAKARTA GOVERNOR ELECTION 2017 BEFORE THE 2ND ROUND ELECTION 39Pro Anies Pro Ahok
  40. 40. TRAFFIC: SEWORD (PARTISAN) SURPASSED MAINSTREAM MEDIA 40
  41. 41. 41 Via Social Media: Seword Via Google: Kompasiana Antaranews Tempo MAINSTREAM MEDIA
  42. 42. 42 Via Medsos: Seword Posmetro Via Google: Portalpiyungan PARTISAN MEDIA
  43. 43. COMPUTATIONAL PROPAGANDA IN THE 2019 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
  44. 44. POLLING ROBOTS 44 Ater the leader of Mahaka Group, Erick Thohir officially becomes the head of the campaign team for Joko Widodo-Ma’ruf Amin in the 2019 Election, who you will vote for? 1. Jokowi-Maruf Amin (Retweet) 2. Prabowo-Sandiaga (Like)
  45. 45. POLLING ROBOTS Foreign names with 0-1 followers
  46. 46. USERS BY NUMBER OF FOLLOWERS #PrabowoSandi 19.51% 3.82% 10.84% 9.82% #JokowiAmin
  47. 47. TWITS BY USERS WITH 0-3 FOLLOWERS ABOUT JOKOWI
  48. 48. USERS BY NUMBER OF FOLLOWERS IN CONVERSATIONS ABOUT PRABOWO 3.33%
  49. 49. TWITS BY USERS WITH 0-3 FOLLOWERS ABOUT PRABOWO
  50. 50. BOTS WITH THOUSANDS FOLLOWERS AVOIDING TWITTER SPAM DETECTION
  51. 51. TALKING ABOUT JOKOWI Interaction Rate 2.91Pro 01 Pro 02 Bots Bots Bots Bots Bots Bots Bots Bots Iklan Bots Bots Total Users 293,041
  52. 52. TALKING ABOUT PRABOWO Interaction Rate 6.30 Pro 01 Pro 02 Bots Pro 02 Bots Nasdem Bots MetroTV Bots Bots Iklan Bots Pro 01 Pro 02 Total Users 177,394
  53. 53. TEST: #JKWTakutPaparkanMisiVisi v.s. #PrabowoTakutTesNgaji Pro 01 Pro 02 #PrabowoTakutTesNgaji #JKWTakutPaparkanMisiVisi Interaction Rate 12.13 Total Users 15,052 Interaction Rate 4.08 Total Users 10,956
  54. 54. INTERACTION RATE TREN OF CONVERSATION VOLUME TREN OF INTERACTION RATE
  55. 55. Engagement Types and Interaction Rates IR = (RT + Reply) / Mention Jokowi Interaction Rate 2.91 Prabowo Interaction Rate 6.30
  56. 56. BOTS IN THE CONVERSATIONS ABOUT JOKOWI
  57. 57. BOTS IN THE CONVERSATIONS ABOUT JOKOWI (2)
  58. 58. BOTS IN THE CONVERSATIONS ABOUT PRABOWO
  59. 59. BOTS IN THE CONVERSATIONS ABOUT PRABOWO (2)
  60. 60. COMPUTATIONAL PROPAGANDA IN A CYBER WAR
  61. 61. #FirehoseOfFalsehood02 v.s. #RussianPropaganda 02 01 #FirehoseOfFalsehood02 ”Russian Propaganda”
  62. 62. TREND: #FirehoseOfFalsehood02 v.s. #RussianPropaganda #FirehoseOfFalsehood02 ”Russian Propaganda”
  63. 63. RUSSIAN PROPAGANDA: MOST RETWEETED
  64. 64. RUSSIAN PROPAGANDA: TOP INFLUECERS
  65. 65. RUSSIAN PROPAGANDA: TOP IMAGES
  66. 66. #FIREHOSEOFFALSEHOOD02: ENGAGEMENT TYPES BOT FIRST, THEN SUPPORTERS FAILED TO GET A NATURAL ENGAGEMENT
  67. 67. #FIREHOSEOFFALSEHOOD02: SPAMS (1)
  68. 68. #FIREHOSEOFFALSEHOOD02: SPAMS (2)
  69. 69. #FIREHOSEOFFALSEHOOD02: SPAMS (3)
  70. 70. #FIREHOSEOFFALSEHOOD02: TOP IMAGES
  71. 71. BOTS IN A BLACK CAMPAIGN
  72. 72. SCANDAL: A BLACK CAMPAIGN ATTACKING A CANDIDATE 72
  73. 73. SCANDAL: SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS 73
  74. 74. TREND: HOW THE BLACK CAMPAIGN DELIVERED 74 INITIALLY, BOTS POST THE MESSAGES RESPONDED BY THE TARGET REPORTED BY MEDIA
  75. 75. ENGAGEMENT ANALYSIS: BOTS GET NO RESPONSE 75 TWITS WITH NO RESPONSE TWITS WITH RESPONSES
  76. 76. THE BEGINNING OF THE BLACK CAMPAIGN 76 ROBOT WITH 0-3 FOLLOWERS
  77. 77. A BAD BOT FOLLOWS GOOD BOTS 77
  78. 78. A GOOD BOT AND A BAD BOT USE THE SAME PROFILE PICTURES 78
  79. 79. MOST ACTIVE BAD BOTS AND THEIR FRIENDS (GOOD BOTS) 79 Follows Profile Pic sama
  80. 80. INFORMATION ARBITRAGE
  81. 81. SOCIAL NETWORK BEFORE DEBATE 02 01
  82. 82. SOCIAL NETWORK DURING DEBATE 02 01 01 01 EXTRA CYBER TROOPS
  83. 83. SOCIAL NETWORK DURING DEBATE WITH TOPICS 02 01 01 EXTRA CYBER TROOPS
  84. 84. ONLINE NEWS: INFORMATION ARBITRAGE
  85. 85. ISSUES DURING 2019 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN
  86. 86. ISSUES ON JOKOWI Unfulfilled Promises Claiming other’s works Anti Islam and Ulama PKI China Leadership
  87. 87. WHO PLAYED THE ISSUES ON JOKOWI
  88. 88. ISSUES ON PRABOWO Hoaxes Lack of experiences Religion Khilafah Temperamental Human Rights
  89. 89. WHO PLAYED THE ISSUES ON PRABOWO
  90. 90. TOP MEME ON MRT MEETING 2019
  91. 91. MRT MEETING: 13 Juli 2019 Pro Petahana Pro Oposisi
  92. 92. IDEA FLOW
  93. 93. IDEA FLOW: MESSAGE DIFFUSES ACROSS PLATFORMS 93
  94. 94. Current Situation: Vicious cycle of noises 94 Government Noise Opposition Noise Buzzers Buzzers
  95. 95. Proposed Solution: Increasing S/N Ratio 95
  96. 96. IDEAL SITUATION: PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT 96 Government Big Data Analytics Signal Response, engagement Policy & PR
  97. 97. DRONE EMPRIT ACADEMIC BIG DATA ANALYSIS
  98. 98. DRONE EMPRIT ACADEMIC FREE SOCIAL MEDIA (TWITTER) DATA ANALYTICS 98
  99. 99. JOIN DRONE EMPRIT ACADEMIC https://dea.uii.ac.id 99
  100. 100. TOPICS BASED ON SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals) 100
  101. 101. EXAMPLES /1 101
  102. 102. HOW IT WORKS 102 STEPS: • Registration • Propose keywords • Analysis and publication Dashboard Access REQUIREMENTS: • Publish their analysis for public using any medium. USERS • Students • Researchers • Lecturers • Journalists • Blogger • Hoax buster Admin
  103. 103. BOOKS “READING INDONESIA” 103
  104. 104. SUMMARIES
  105. 105. SUMMARY • Cyber troops and computational propaganda has been used in Indonesia since as early as 2012. • The main drivers of the activities are political events, especially general elections. • However, after the 2014 presidential election, the polarization is getting bigger, supported by many new cyber troops and better computational propaganda techniques. • The platform mainly used by cyber troops and computational propaganda is Twitter, then incorporates blogs, Facebook, IG, YouTube, and now WhatsApp to disseminate their messages. • In the future, cyber troops and computational propaganda will likely still be used with better techniques and platforms. 105
  106. 106. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING 106

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