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Pakistan studies for bs hons 4 years program


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Pakistan studies for bs hons 4 years program

  1. 1. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 1 Subject:- Pak studies Teacher:- Sir Imtiaz Kajvi Notes prepared by:- Arslan chudhary Get these notes in which soft copy by sending a mail on this I’D:- Pakistan Studies Historical perspectives
  2. 2. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 2 Sir Syed Ahmad Khan:- (17 October 1817 – 27 March 1898) Biography:- Name; Syed Ahmed Taqvi Born; 17 Oct 1817 Delhi Father; Mir Muttaqi Mother; Aziz-un-Nisaa Maternal Grand Father; Khawaja Farid-ud-din Khawaja Farid-ud-din had twice served as Prime Minister of Mogul Emperor and held trustworthy position under the East India Company. Education:-  He got his primary education from his maternal grandfather, which includes, Study of Holy Quran, Arabic and Persian Literature.  Later he also acquired excellence in history, mathematics and medicine. But he didn’t complete the medicine course.  He had also been introduced to some of India’s most able writers and had developed a love for literature.  Financial difficulties put an end to Sir Syed's formal education. Employment:-  In 1840 he joined East India Company as Record Keeper (Naib Munshi), he rose to the position of chief Assessment Official (Chief Judge in some references).  May 10, 1857, Sir Syed was serving as the chief assessment officer at the court in Bijnor, he saved the lives of British Women and Children at risk of his life. Writings:-  Asar-us-Sanadid. 2 Risala Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind. 3 Indian Musalmans. 4 Essay on the life of Muhammad (PBUH) Educational Services:-  Educational Institutes: i. Muradabad School 1858. ii. Establishment of Scientific Society in 1863. iii.Victoria School Ghazipur 1864. iv.Aligarh Institues Gazette. V. Mao High School in 1875 which was later became MAO College. vi.Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) in 1920. vii. Organized the Mohammedan Educational Conference. Political Influence:- I. Advice To Students: Sir Syed’s advice to Muslims in the political field is also important. He believed that under the European system or democratic government the Muslims of India would always be at the mercy of Hindu majority. He suggested separate electorate for Muslims. He advised the Muslims not to join Congress. II. Urdu-Hindi Controversy: In 1867, Hindus demanded that Hindi should be made on official language of India in place of Urdu. They started an agitation. The Hindus were against Urdu because it was the language o the Muslims. Sir Syed convinced that the Hindus would never be friend with the Muslims. Due to this reason Sir Syed started “Two Nation Theory” telling that Muslims and Hindus were two separate kinds of people. Muslims opposed this and supported Urdu as it was the sign and united the Muslims of the India under one language. Journey to England:-  In 1868, he went England and visited educational institutions. The University of Cambridge impressed him the most.  This visit provided him an opportunity to think over and give a final shape to his plan to establish institutions in India. Honors:-  Worked Member of Governor General’s Legislative Council (1878-1883). 2 Was appointed as Member of Public Service Commission in 1887. 3 The Government of that time centered the Title of SIR on him. 4 Was made a Knight Commander of the Star of India. Aligarh movements?  The Aligarh Movement was founded by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the greatest Muslim educationist of the 19th Century.  The Services which Sir Syed Ahmed khan rendered for the Muslims are known as the Aligarh Movement in the history of Muslimsof India. Aligarh Movement:-  Aligarh movement was aimed at apprising the British that Muslims are not only responsible for the War and therefore undue wrath should not be inflicted to them.  To persuade the Muslims to get modern education and exhibit moderate out look in every sphere of life. Causes of Aligarh Movement:-  After the War of independence of 1857 the British did not trust on Muslims, according to them British thought Muslims were only cause of War of Independence. As a result they adopted policy of oppression and repression towards Muslims.  Suffering of Muslims Doubled when Muslims refused to send their Children to Missionary/ European and Government Schools because they hated English Language. Aligarh Movement:- Objectives I. To create an atmosphere of Mutual understanding between the British Government and Muslims. II. To persuade Muslims to learn English Education.
  3. 3. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 3 III. To persuade Muslims to abstain from politics of agitation. IV. To produce an intellectual class from amongst the Muslim Community.  The British Government Excluded the Muslims Government excluded the Muslims from reasonable government Jobs.  In Government Office of Calcutta a Muhammadan (Muslim) could hope only for any post above the rank of a porter, messenger of filler of Ink-Pots.(Dr. Hunter) Works (Aligarh Movement):-  Farsi Maddarsa Muradabad (1859)  Victoria School Ghazipur (1864)  Establishment of Scientific Society  Aligarh Institute Gazzatte  Tehzib-ul-Ikhlaq (Magazine)  {MAO} Muhammadan Anglo Oriental College, Aligarh (8th January 1877)  Muhammadan Educational Conference (1886)  Aligarh Muslim University (His Dream came into being in 1920 after 22 years of his death.) Conclusion of Aligarh Movement:-  Besides his prominent role in the educational uplift of the Muslims, Syed Ahmed Khan’s writings played an important role in popularizing the ideals for which Aligarh stood.  He also succeeded in enlisting the services of a number of Distinguished English professors like Bech, Morison, Raleigh and Arnold to stood Aligarh college into a first rate institute.  Syed Ahmed’s Aligarh Movement played a significant role in brining about an intellectual revolution among the Indian Muslims, thus he succeeded in achieving his objectives, which were Educational Progress and Social Reform.  His efforts earned Sir Syed the title “Prophet of Education”, Education is actual base of Pakistan. Death:- Great Scholar and Leader died on 27th March1898, at Aligarh, India. Allama Iqbal (9 November 1877-- 21April, 1938) Why Is Allama Iqbal Famous? Allama Iqbal, was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement. He is considered one of the most important figures in Urdu literature, with literary work in both the Urdu and Persian languages. Allama Iqbal'sPersonal Life:- Iqbal married three times, in 1895 while studying Bachelor of Arts he had his first marriage with Karim Bibi, through an arranged marriage. They had daughter Miraj Begum and son Aftab Iqbal. Later Iqbal's second marriage was with Sardar Background Allama Iqbal was born on 9 November 1877 in Sialkot within the Punjab Province of British India (now in Pakistan). Allama Iqbal has one brother name is Abdul Razzaq Yaqoob. Iqbal's father, Sheikh Noor Muhammad (died 1930), was a tailor, not formally educated but a religious man. Iqbal's mother Imam Bibi was a polite and humble woman who helped the poor and solved the problems of neighbors. She died on 9 November 1914 in Sialkot. Iqbal loved his mother, and on her death he expressed his pathos feelings in a poetic form.
  4. 4. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 4 Begum mother of Javid Iqbal, and his third marriage was with Mukhtar Begum in December 1914. Allama Iqbal's Wife Allama Iqbal's Son Dr. Javed Iqbal Allama Iqbal's Higher Education in Europe:- Iqbal proceeded to Europe for higher studies in 1905 and stayed there for three years. He took the Honors Degree in Philosophy and taught Arabic at the Cambridge University in the absence of Prof. Arnold. From England, he went to Germany to do his doctorate in Philosophy from Munich and then returned to London to qualify for the bar. Allama Iqbal as Politician:- In 1927 the poet was elected to the Punjab Legislative assembly. In 1930, he was elected to preside over at the annual session of Muslim League. In his presidential address at Allahabad, Iqbal for the first time introduced the idea of Pakistan. In 1930-31, he attended the Round Table conference; this met in London to frame a constitution for India. Popular Poetry of Allama Iqbal:- This is one the popular poem of Allama Iqbal's. It's original language is Urdu. Sympathy: Perched on the branch of a tree, was a nightingale sad and lonely “The night has drawn near”, He was thinking, “I passed the day in flying around and feeding how can I reach up to the nest, Darkness has enveloped everything”? Hearing the nightingale wailing thus, A glow worm lurking nearby spoke thus “With my heart and soul ready to help I am, Though only an insignificant insect I am Never mind if the night is dark, I shall shed light if the way is dark God has bestowed a torch on me, He has given a shining lamp to me The good in the world only those are, Ready to be useful to others who are Allama Iqbal's Death:- Allama Iqbal died on 21st April, 1938 due to throat infection. He was buried infront of the "Badshahi Mosque" in "Huzuri Bagh."
  5. 5. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 5 MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH (25 December 1876--11 September, 1948) Early Life:-  He was born on 25 December 1876 in Karachi.  His father was a prosperous Muslim merchant named Jinnah Poonja.  He received his early education at the Sindh Madrasah and later at the Mission School, Karachi.  His father wanted him to acquire business experience but he decided to become a barrister. Lincoln’s Inn:-  He studied at Bombay University and at Lincoln’s Inn in London. He became the youngest barrister of India.  Married at the age of 16 years, he left India and went to London but both his mother and wife died when he was there.  When he was in England he observed that many people from India became slaves and were treated poorly.  He realized that there’s a difference of treatment between the rulers and the ruled. Political Career:- • He started his political life as Dadabhai Naoroji’s personal secretary. • Quaid-e-Azam joined Indian National Congress in 1896. • In his early career Jinnah supported the British because he thought that they would grant Indians political freedom. Membership of All India Muslim Leagues:- • In 1913 he joined Muslim league without leaving Congress. • In 1916 he became the president of Muslim league and began to work for Hindu-Muslim unity. Jinnah’s Second Marriage:- • Jinnah married again with a woman named Rattanbai Petit in 1918. • Her religion was parsi, which was different from Jinnah's. • When Rattanbai turned 18 she converted to Islam and changed her name to Maryam. • In 1919, Quaid-e-Azam and Rattanbai had a daughter named Dina. Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity:- • The Lucknow pact was a bright chapter in the dark and gloomy time of Indian politics. Lucknow pact created a political homogeneity between the two nations and Quaid-e-Azam was conferred with a proud title of Ambassador of Hindu- Muslim unity. Iqbal’s influence:- • Jinnah changed his thinking & dressing. • Changed his belief about the Hindus. • Started working for the Muslims only. • Accepted ‘Pakistan’ as the only solution. Truths about Jinnah:- Jinnah was: • An honest politician • An extremely intelligent lawyer • A great leader • A hard-working and honest human being • A man with a vision • Peace-loving. His illness:- • Through the 1940s, Jinnah suffered from tuberculosis; only his sister and a few others close to him were aware of his condition. • In 1948, Jinnah’s health began to falter by the heavy workload that had fallen upon him following Pakistan’s independence. Final resting place:- • He died on 11 September, 1948. • He is buried in Karachi.
  6. 6. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 6 Ideological Rationale 1 Sir Syed Ahmed Khan 2 Allama Muhammad Iqbal 3 Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Objectives: By the end of the class you will be able to • Know about Ideological rationale of Pakistan • Learn the contribution of different great personalities towards the ideology • Give the Ideology • Science of ideas, visionary speculations, and manner of thinking, characteristic of a class or individual, ideas on the basis of some economic, social or political theory or system is called Ideology. It contains those ideals, which a nation strives to accomplish in order to bring stability to its nationhood. Defining ideology, George Lewis says: "Ideology is a plan or program which is based upon philosophy". IMPORTANCE OF IDEOLOGY IN NATIONAL LIFE • Ideology is a motivating force for a nation, which is striving hard to bring stability and homogeneity to its nation hood. • Its provide the binding force to the scattered groups in a society and bring them close to each other on a common platform. • Ideologies impel their adherence to follow a joint linked action for the accomplishment of their goal. • Ideologies give shape to the revolutions and create new cultures and civilizations. • They stress on their adherents to insist on the realization of their ideal through total transformation of society. • An urgent agreement with each other on the ideals is most vital pre-requisite of an ideology. Ideology of Pakistan • Pakistan is an Ideological state and the ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic ideology. Its basic principle being: "The only sovereign is Allah". • A state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the faith and creed based on the Islamic principles. • They should have all the resources at the disposal to enhance Islamic culture and civilization. BASIC POINTS OF IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN 1. Ideology of Pakistan is actually implementation of Islamic teachings. 2. To maintain and arouse the national dignity and struggles for unity among Muslim Ummah and Islamic rule is in fact Ideology of Pakistan. 3. Two-Nation Theory on the basis of Islamic Philosophy in political and cultural background of Sub-continent is called ideology of Pakistan. 4. Ideology of Pakistan is actually Islamic ideology. 5. The idea of Muslims, attaining Pakistan was infact Ideology of Pakistan. Sir Syed’s Ahmed Khan’s Goal • Sir Syed’s first and foremost objective was to modernize the Muslims following the Western cultural values that could create friendly atmosphere for the two communities. He motivated his community to learn the Western philosophy and English literature to get along with the ruling people. Therefore, in order to fulfill this desire he started the Aligarh movement. He had two immediate objectives in view: • 1) To remove the state of tension between the Muslims and the British government, and • 2) To induce them to get jobs and other facilities under the new government. The ideas of Sir Syed may be summed up as following: 1. To create an atmosphere of mutual understanding between the British government and the Muslims 2. To motivate the Muslims to learn Western education 3. To persuade Muslims to abstain from agitational politics Urdu – Hindi Controversy • Urdu grew as common language of all the Indians regardless of origin or religion but in 1867 the Benarsi Hindus started campaign to replace Urdu by Hindi. To gain the objectives, they declared numerous organizations, which discouraged Sir Syed who said to Shakespeare that since now both the nations could not live together. Later the followers of Sir Syed tried their level best to save Urdu language. Mohsin ul Mulk was the outstanding person who organized the Muslims in defense of Urdu. Muslims as a Nation • Sir Syed used the word ‘nation’ for the Muslims. Some writers criticize that he declared Hindus and Muslims one nation. But as a matter of fact, he advocated the Hindu-Muslim unity that meant ‘the working relationship’ between the two nations as once he said: “Hindus and Muslims should try to be of one mind in matters which affected their progress.” He favored separate electorate for the Muslims in 1883 saying that the majority would override the interests of the minority. • In 1888, he set up the Patriotic Association to meet the propaganda of the Congress. Muslims and Hindus joined the Association. It advocated the Muslims’ emotions. • In December 1893, Sir Syed founded the Association. Its main purpose was to protect the political, religious and social rights of the Muslims. Ideology of Allama Iqbal for Pakistan to be: • In 1911 census Iqbal wrote an essay “ISLAMIC CULTURE”—in which he clearly describes, survival of the Muslims will only possible when they have quality such as “Orangzaib Alamgir” in their role. Whose faith is not secularism but it should be purified Muslim thoughts. He defined his view in the next sentence that Islam is a name of ideology of religion, it contains a wide study. • In 1930,Allama Iqbal presented his mature political opinion on the political fate of Indian Muslims in his presedential address at Allahbad at the annual session of Muslim League.He said: • “I am fully convinced that the Muslims of India will ultimately have to establish a separate homeland as they could not live with the Hindus in the United States.” • “India is a continent of human beings belonging to different races,speaking different languages and professing different religions ….,I,therefore demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state inthe best intrest of India and Islam.” • “I would like to see the Punjab, North West Frontiers Province, Sindh and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state self-government within the British Empire or without the British Empire ,the formation of a consolidated North- West Indian Muslim state appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims at least of North-West India.”
  7. 7. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 7 • In March 1932, he again gave the framework at the proposed Muslim state, he stated: “there is need to amend the whole ummah, so that we can fulfill our hopes and achieve our aims, first of all we have to change our methods, God does not help those, who do not help themselves. Success is not possible in any field without the intellectual independence”. • On March 1937 he said: “We must not ignore the fact that the whole future of Islam as a moral and political force in Asia rests very largely on a complete organization of Indian Muslim. “You should not equate your community with western the nation of prophet is unique in its composition” Two Nation Theory  It means the cultural, political, religious, economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities. Hindus and Muslims of the Sub Continent.  These difference of out look, in fact, were greatly instrumental in giving rise to two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into two independent states.  It states that Muslims and Hindus are two separate nations from every definition; therefore Muslims should have a separate homeland in the Muslim majority areas of India, where they can spend their lives according to the glorious teachings of Islam. Allama Iqbal & Ideology of Pakistan  Allama Iqbal never used the word Pakistan in his speeches but in all his speeches he demanded separate homeland for the Muslims of the subcontinent.  His sayings are considered as the ideology of Pakistan Islam is complete code of life Annual meeting of Muslim league on December 29, 1930 at Allahabad, he said: “Islam is not the name some beliefs and customs but it is a complete code of life. In, Europe, religion is very one’s personal matter which divides the human oneness into two opposite parts i.e. body and soul. In contrast to that in Islam, God, Universe, soul, matter, state and religious places are bound to each other or in other words Muslims are one nation.” Islam is a lively power In his Allahabad address: “Islam is a lively power which frees human mind from country and race’s thoughts. If we understand this thing then we can be the leaders of prominent Indian civilization” Islam is the way to success “The lesson which I learnt from history is that Islam always helped the Muslims at the time of difficulty but Muslims did not save Islam. Even today, Ideology of Islam can save you being from destruction by uniting you divided powers” Quaid-i-Azam and Ideology of Pakistan 2nd Round Table Conference • Quaid-e-Azam believed that Congress and Hindus would never recognize the rights of Muslims. He declared while representing the Muslims in the 2nd Round Table Conference “The Hindu Muslim dispute must be settled before the enforcements of any system or constitution. Until you do not give guarantee for the safeguard of the Muslim interests until you do not win their (Muslims) co-operations, any constitution you enforce shall not last for even 24 hours.” QUAID-E-AZAM AND TWO NATION THEORY • Quiad-e-Azam was a firm advocate of two nation theory which became the ideological basis Pakistan. He considered the Muslims as a separate nation. He Said; “Pakistan was created the day the first Indian National entered the field of Islam”. He defined two nations Theory as; ” The Muslims are a nation by every right to establish their separate homeland. They can adopt any means to promote and protect their economic social, political and cultural interests.” ADDRESS ON 23RD MARCH, 1940- PAKISTAN RESOLUTION “India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a Sub Continent of nationalities. Hindus and Muslims being the two major nations. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religions, Philosphies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor interline and they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspects on life and of are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history.” Address in Aligarh University On March 8, 1944 Quaid-i-Azam while addressing in Muslim University Aligarh, said; “Actually Pakistan came into being when the very first Hindu converted into Muslim, it happened, when there was no rule of Muslims. The foundation of Muslims is Kalama-e- Tauheed rather than state or race. When a Hindu converted his religion he became a member of separate nation and new nation came into being.” QUAID-E-AZAM AND MILLATE- ISLAMIA • Quaid-e-Azam emphasized on the Islamic ideology as being the basis of the struggle for Pakistan because he believed that only Islam was the unifying force of the Muslim Millat. He said: “What relationships knit the Muslims into one hole ,which is the formidable rock on which the Muslim edifice has been erected, which is the sheet anchor providing base to the Muslim Millat, the relationship, the sheet anchor and the rock is Holy Quran.” ADDRESS ON 18TH JUNE 1945 • In his message to the frontier Muslim student Federation, he said: “Pakistan only means freedom and independence but Muslims Ideology, which has to be preserved which has come to us as a precious gift and treasure and which we hope, others will share with us.” ADDRESS AT ISLAMIACOLLEGE PESHAWAR • In 1946,Quaid-e-Azam declared: “We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a Laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles.” Demand for separate Muslim Homeland “I desire that by joining Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, N.W.F.P, a separate state should be made which is under the British rule or outside the British rule. This is necessary because in North West, a separate Muslim State has become the fate of Muslims. I demand for the benefit of Islam and of the subcontinent, a strong Islamic state is created” The Quaid-i-Azam & Ideology of Pakistan Formation of Islamic democracy Said on August 14, 1947 at a press conference: “In reality we had learnt democracy 1300 years ago. So when you talk about democracy, I doubt that you have not Opposition of Racism & prejudices
  8. 8. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 8 In Dhaka on March 21, 1948 he said, “You do not talk in term of Bengali, Sindhi, Balochi or Pathan rather you remember the lesson of 1300 years ago that we are not Sindhi, Balochi or Pathan but we are Muslims and only Muslims” The Fourteen Points of Quid-e-Azam M.A Jinnah presented his famous fourteen points on March 28, 1929 to the Muslim League Council at their session in Delhi. Since all the Muslims opposed the Nehru Report, these points were to counter the proposals made in the Nehru Report. The points were to recommend the reforms that would defend the rights of the Muslims of the sub-continent. The Fourteen Points:- • 1. The form of the future constitution should be federal with the residuary powers vested in the provinces. • 2. A uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces. • 3. All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principle of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality. • 4. In the Central Legislature, Muslim representation shall not be less than one third. • 5.Representation of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorate as at present, provided it shall be open to any community at any time to abandon its separate electorate in favor of a joint electorate. • 6.Any territorial distribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affect the Muslim majority in the Punjab, Bengal and the North West Frontier Province. • 7. Full religious liberty, i.e. liberty of belief, worship and observance, propaganda , association and education, shall be guaranteed to all communities. • 8. No bill or any resolution or any part thereof shall be passed in any legislature or any other elected body if three-fourth of the members of any community in that particular body oppose such a bill resolution or part thereof on the ground that it would be injurious to the interests of that community or in the alternative, such other method is devised as may be found feasible and practicable to deal with such cases. • 9. Sindh should be separated from the Bombay Presidency. • 10. Reforms should be introduced in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan on the same footing as in the other provinces. • 11. Provision should be made in the constitution giving Muslims an adequate share, along with the other Indians, in all the services of the state and in local self-governing bodies having due regard to the requirements of efficiency. • 12. The constitution should embody adequate safeguards for the protection of Muslim culture and for the protection and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws and Muslim charitable institution and for their due share in the grants-in-aid given by the state and by local self-governing bodies. • 13. No cabinet, either central or provincial, should be formed without there being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim ministers. • 14. No change shall be made in the constitution by the Central Legislature except with the concurrence of the State's contribution of the Indian Federation. Reactions to 14 points:- • One newspaper headline described the 14 points as Muslims' irreducible minimum. These demands were rejected by the Congress Party. He was then invited to attend the round table conferences, where he forwarded the Muslims' point of view. Importance:- • A comparison of the Nehru Report (1928) with Jinnah’s fourteen points shows a political gap between the Muslims and the Hindus in India. He tried to amend the Nehru Report or get more rights in it but failed and therefore gave his 14 points. The 14 points covered all of the interests of the Muslims at that time and in this Jinnah stated that it was the "parting of ways" and that he did not want and would not have anything to do with the Indian National Congress in the future. They motivated Jinnah to revive the Muslim League and give it direction. As a result, these points became the demands of the Muslims and greatly influenced the Muslims thinking for the next two decades till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947. Factors leading to Muslim separation:- Ideology:-  Ideology is a French word.  An ideology is a set of aims and ideas that directs one's goals, expectations, and actions  Ideology is a product of great and influential minds or divine guidance.  The term ‘ideology’ means science of ideas. Islamic Ideology:-  It is an ideology through a society is formed in accordance with the teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. Two Nation Theory:- The phenomenon of Two-Nation theory originated with the advent of Islam in the Sub- Continent (712AD).Quaid-e-Azam once said:  “Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam."  From the above statement, it is clear that ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic one. Factors Creating the Idea of Separate Homeland:-  Religious Differences.  Hindu Nationalism.  Cultural Differences.  Social Differences.  Economics Differences.  Educational Differences.  Political Differences.  Hindi Urdu Controversy.  Congress Attitude.  Partition of Bengal.  Language.  Anti Muslim Campaign.  In Acceptance of British Rule.  Hindus Betrayed Muslims.  Refusal of Muslim Identity.  War of 1857.  Sir Syed's Idea. Ideology of Pakistan & importance of two nation theory:-
  9. 9. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 9 • As per above definition, It is clear that ideology of Pakistan & Ideology of Islam are one and the same thing • There values are common, so Pakistan is an ideological state • India was a continent in which many followers of different religions were living, among them Muslims & Hindus were two big nations • There lives based on two different ideologies • So it was not possible for them to live together • That’s why Muslims of India wanted a separate homeland where they can live as per the principles of Islam • Where they can develop their culture & civilization in order to make an Islamic society • That time slogan of Pakistan was…….. • “What is the meaning of Pakistan, there is one God and Muhammad (PBUH) is the last Prophet of God” Indus Civilization:- Mergarh, Political and Economic System, Religion, Social System, System of Writing and fall of Civilization.  Fertile land along the rivers of Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra in the north.  Dry Deccan Plateau in central India.  Low mountain ranges called the Western and Eastern Ghats on the either side of India facing the seas.  Melting snow from Himalayas  Heavy rains ◦ Silt deposit is left along the riverbanks after every flooding. The deposits make the land fertile and suitable for agriculture.  Pre-Indus Neolithic village.  Appeared in Baluchistan region (now Pakistan).  Sedentary (sitting or nonmigratory).  Engaged in agriculture and raised sheep,goats and oxen.  Painted pottery, baked bread and made cereal.  Their houses were made of clay bricks like the Sumerians.  Archaeologists(1922) discovered the remains of one of the cities in the Indus River ◦ Monumental buildings ◦ Houses made of bricks ◦ Clay seals  Two most important cities of the Indus civilization (Dravidians)  Economic Activities ◦ Agriculture  Built irrigation systems, canals and dikes to control flooding of the Indus River.  Products: wheat, barley, melon, dates and cotton.  Economic Activities ◦ Cotton was woven into cloth ◦ Pottery, jewelry and tools  Sold in government bazaars  Carried by Dravidian ships, traded with the regions in the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf.
  10. 10. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 10  2 main areas: ◦ Citadel(the elevated fortress of the city) ◦ Lower city proper  Found in the western region of the city, erected on the brick platform with a height or 40 feet or 12 meters and is surrounded by walls.  Inside, will find a large granary for grains, a marketplace and public bath.  Has streets in a grid-pattern arrangement and with residential blocks of almost the same size  Houses are made of baked bricks  The roof is flat and often constructed against the street.  Houses have one or more baths which is connected to the city’s underground plumbing system.  Has streets in a gridpattern arrangement and with residential blocks of almost the same size  Houses are made of baked bricks.  The roof is flat and often constructed against the street.  Houses have one or more baths which is connected to the city’s underground plumbing system.  Excavated toys that indicates leisure and play  No weapons found imply absence of war and conflict  Dravidians have organized and centralized government  Dravidians had priest-kings as leaders  They were able to construct public works (irrigation, plumbing system and regular residential blocks)  Dravidians worshipped gods and goddesses who represented forces of nature.  Animal and human-shaped statues were found. Ex. Bull  They worshiped a fertility goddess from whom all things sprung forth  Social Stratification ◦ Those who lived in the citadels may have been members of the ruling class – priest-king and city officials ◦ The traders, artisans and farmers lived outside the citadel ◦ Farmers were tasked to build the dikes and canals for irrigations while the artisans made products out of bronze, silver, gold, copper, ivory, cotton and shells  Scholars believed that the traders were the first to use the Indus system of writing.  Clay seals with pictograms of products  Evidence that there exist a trade between Sumer and Indus
  11. 11. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 11  Dravidian traders and engineers had developed a uniform way of measuring and weighing things.  This is very evident in their same-sized residential blocks and grid-patterned streets.  After 1000 years of prosperity, Indus civilization slowly decayed.  Around 1750BCE, there was a decline in their quality of life.  Pottery became courser in their texture before  Caused by ecological factors such as deforestation, changes in flood occurrences and abrupt change in climate  New migrants came to the Indus valley in the later period ◦ Nomadic groups from Northwestern Asia arrived sometime 1500 BCE ◦ Among them were the Aryans who crossed the passes of Hindu Kush but not clearly whether they destroyed the Indus civilization The cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were slowly buried in mud.  Their legacy was recently excavated by archaeologists. Muslim Advent (712-1556) Prophet Muhammad (SAW):- • The last Prophet of Islam, Prophet Muhammad (SAW), completely changed the intellectual outlook of Arabia. Within a span of 23 years, he transformed the barbarous and impious Arabs into a civilized and religious nation. On the demise of the Prophet, the expansion of Islam was not stopped. ‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath- Thaqafī:- • Umayyad General • Iraq Governor, Hijaj bin Yousaf • Married his Daughter Zubaida • Foundation of Islamic Rule in Subcontinent Causes of Sindh Invasion:- • Attacked by Raja Dahir’s forces on Muslim’s ship • The Arab were imprisoned later on by the Debal Governor, Partaab Raye • Refusal of Raja Dahir • Hijaj sent Muhammad Bin Qasim for this expedition in 711 A.D Campaign:- • Third Expedition • Makran Arman Belah(lasbela) Debal (Karachi) Sadusan (Sehwan), Nerun (Hyd), Brahamnabad (Shehdad Pur) • Ar-rur (Rohri,Nawabshah) met by Dahir's forces • Captured (Multan) Reason for Success:- • Superior military equipment • Troop discipline and leadership. • The concept of Jihad as a morale booster. • Religion; the widespread belief in the prophecy of Muslim success. • The ‘Samanis” the majority of the population was Buddhist who were dissatisfied with their rulers, who were Hindu. Death:- • Revolt in Umayyad • Death of Hijaj bin Yousaf • M.B Qasim Return • Murdered on way
  12. 12. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 12 Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi:- (November 2, 971 - April 30, 1030) • Son of Sabuktagin • Turkish Slave Commander • Ruled from 997 to 1030 • Dynasty (Afghanistan, Eastern Iran, Pakistan, North East India) • 17 expeditions on India Campaign:- • Started from (Khorsan, Balkh, Herat, Merv) Afghanistan, from Samanids in 999 • Seistan (Iran) 1000 • Ghandhara (Peshawar) defeats Jaypal 1001 • Multan, Ismail shah & Anandapala • Expeditions in India against Rajput • (Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Kannauj,iAjmer, Kangra. HP) 1008 • Takes Lahore on his return • Nehrwala, Kathiawar, Somnath This raid was his last major campaign. • Somnath 1025: killing over 50,000 people who tried to defend it • Sultan Mahmud died on April 30, 1030 at Ghazni Sultan Muhammad Shahabu-ddin Ghori:- (1150 – 15 March 1206) • Mu'izzuddīn Muḥammad Bin Sām • Born in Ghor, Afghanistan • Brother Ghayassu-ddin • Ghorid’s Dynasty (Afghanistan, Pakistan, North East India) Campaign:- • Multan & Uch 1175 • Attacked Gujrat 1178, defeated by Rajput Bhimdev Solanki II • Capture Lahore 1181 • Conquered Sialkot 1181 • Attacked Terrain (Delhi) against Prithvi Raj Chohan (Rajput) 1191, Loss • Attacked Terrain 1192 again, become Victorious • Moved to Ajmer + North Rajasthan • Attacked Ayodhya temple, capture Delhi 1193 • Made Qutbuddin Aibak his Deputy of Sultanate • Conquered Bengal 1204 • Murdered by Hindu warrior near Jhelum 1206 THE MAMLUK SULTANS:- • Qutbuddin Aibak (AD 1206–1210) • Iltutmish (AD 1210–1236) • Raziya (AD 1236–40) • Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246–66 AD) • Balban (AD 1266–87) Qutbuddin Aibak:- (AD 1206–1210) • Brave, faithful and generous. • Due to his generosity he was known as “Lakh Baksh”. • High Ranked Soldier in Ghori’s Army (Turkish Slave). • Ghori died in AD1206. • The founder of Delhi Sultanate. • Revolts of Rajputs and Indian chiefs. • Aibak died of injuries received in a fall from his horse while playing chaugan ( Polo). Aram Shah:- (AD 1210-1210) • Son of Qutbuddin Aibak. • After death of Aibak a few amirs raised his son Aram Shah. • Opposition of Turkish Amirs. • Iltmish comes to Delhi. • Aram Shah proceeded against him at the head of the army from Lahore to Delhi but Iltutmish defeated him and became the Sultan. Iltutmish:- (AD 1210–1236) • Defiance of other commanders of Muhammad Ghori like Yaldauz, Qubacha and Ali Mardan. • He consolidating his position. He defeated Yaldauz in AD 1215 in the battle of Tarain. • In AD 1220, when Chenghiz Khan destroyed the Khwarizm expire, • In AD 1217 he drove away Qabacha from Punjab. • In AD 1226–27 his son Nasiruddin Mahmud which defeated Iwaz Khan and brought Bengal and Bihar back into the Delhi Sultanate. • Also Captured Ranthambore in AD 1226. • In AD 1231 Iltutmish had established his authority over Mandor, Jalore, Bayana and Gwalior. • Iltutmish completed the unfinished work of Aibak. • He also organised his trusted nobles or officers into a group of “Forty” (Turkan-i-Chahalgani). • Financial and administrative control over in India. Raziya:- (AD 1236–40) • Daughter of Iltutmish. • Iltutmish nominated her as his successor. • His brother Ruknuddin Firoz and other amirs revolts after Iltutmish death • Got killed after she was defeated by the nobles. Behram Shah (AD 1240–42) and Masud Shah (AD 1242–46):- • After Raziya’s death, the power of Turk Chiefs (Chahalgani) increased and they became largely responsible for making and unmaking of kings. • After that they removed them.
  13. 13. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 13 Nasiruddin Mahmud:- (1246–66 AD) • Inexperienced and young Nasiruddin • Grandson of Iltutmish. • In AD 1246, Ulugh Khan (later known as Balban) placed them • Position of Naib (deputy). • Balban poisoned the Nasiruddin. Balban:- (AD 1266–87) • Autocratic ruler. • Ulugh Khan, known in history by the name of Balban. • Mongols were looking forward for an opportunity for attacking the Sultanate, the governors of the distant provinces were also trying to become independent rulers, the Indian rulers were also ready to revolt at the smallest opportunity. • Balban killed the many Mewati and in the area around Badayun, Rajput strongholds were destroyed. • Balban was not prepared to share power with anyone even he did not allow any noble to assume great power. • Appointed spies in every department. • Re-organised the military department (diwan-i-arz) • Deploy army to over disturbances in Mewat, Doab, Awadh and Katihar. • Secured control over Ajmer and Nagaur in eastern. • Failed to capture Ranthambore and Gwalior. • Revolt of Tughril Beg, the governor of Bengal. • Balban sent his forces to Bengal and had Tughril killed • Balban maintained a magnificent court. He refused to laugh and joke in the court, and even gave up drinking wine so that no one may see him in a non-serious mood. He also insisted on the ceremony of sijada (prostration) and paibos (kissing of the monarch’s feet) in the court. • Balban died in AD 1287 THE KHALJIS:- (AD 1290–1320) • Jalaluddin Khalji (AD 1290–1296) • Alauddin Khalji (AD 1296–1316) Jalaluddin Khalji:- (AD 1290–1296) • His real name is Firoz. • Balban’s Ariz-i-Mumalik ( Minister of War) • After Balban death nobels his grandson Kaiquabad.He was soon replaced by his son, Kaimurs. • In AD 1290 Firoz took a bold step by murdering Kaimurs • Firoz as Jalaluddin Khalji laid the foundation of the Khalji dynasty at the age of 70 years. • Polite ruler. • He avoided harsh punishments, even to those who revolted againsthim • Many people including his supporters, considered him to be a weak sultan. • Alauddin Khalji murdered his uncle and Jalaluddin Khalji and crowned himself as Sultan. (AD1296) Alauddin Khalji:- (AD 1296–1316) • Jalaluddin’s ambitious nephew and son-in-law. • Jalaluddin’s Amir-i-Tuzuk (Master of Ceremonies). • Reversed all Jalaluddin’s Policies. • Curb the powers of the nobles and interference of Ulema in the matters of the state. • Land tax for their holdings. • Curbed the excess of wealth owned by some people. • Made effective Spy system. • Use of liquor and intoxicants was prohibited. • The nobles were ordered not to have social gatherings or intermarriages without his permission. • Establish market and market Regulations of Alauddin Khalji. • Alauddin received daily reports of the market from two other independent sources, barid (intelligence officer) and munhiyans (secret spies). • Alauddin first began his territorial conquest with a campaign against Gujrat. • In AD 1299, an army under two of Alauddin’s noted generals Ulugh Khan and Nusarat Khan marched against Gujarat. Rai Karan the ruler of Gujarat fled, the temple of Somnath was captured. Many slaves were also captured. Malik Kafur was one among them who later became the trusted commander of the Khalji forces and led the invasions to South India. • Alauddin turned his attention towards Rajasthan and they capture of Ranthambore with loss of to much Khilji’s soldier in AD 1301. Nusrat Khan lost his life. • In AD 1303, Alauddin besieged Chittor, another powerful state of Rajputana. Chittor was renamed Khizrabad . • Alauddin returned back quickly to Delhi as Mongol army was advancing towards Delhi. • In AD 1305, Khalji army under Ain-ul-Mulk captured Malwa. Other states such as Ujjain, Mandu, Dhar and Chanderi were also captured. After the conquest of Malwa, • Alauddin sent Malik Kafur to the South and himself attacked Siwan. • In AD 1311, another Rajput kingdom Jalor was also captured. Alauddin had completed the conquest of large parts of Rajputana and became the master of North India. • Determined to conquer south as north India. • Sent Malik Kafur, a trusted commander of Alauddin who held the office of the Naib. • In AD 1306–07, first expendition against Rai Karan and second against Rai Ramachandra. • Many of south ruler realized that defeating Malik Kafur would not be an easy task; hence he agreed to pay tribute to Sultan without any resistance. • Kafur returned with 512 elephants, 7000 horses, and 500 mans of precious stone. • Sultan honoured Malik Kafur by appointing him Naib Malik of the empire. Alauddin’s forces under Malik Kafur continued to maintain a control over the Deccan kingdoms. • Alauddin died in AD 1316. Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah becomes successor. • Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah was soon murdered and Khusrau. Location and geo physical features:- (Skip this topic……Because I don’t find any details about this) Sorry……………!
  14. 14. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 14 Government and Politics in Pakistan:- Constitutions Constitution of 1956:-  British Empires divided British India into two Pakistan and India.  Adopted on 29 February 1956  Enforced on 23 March 1956  Contained 234 Articles divided into thirteen parts and six and schedules.  Governor General Iskander Mirza was assumed as a President of Pakistan. Features:-  The Objectives Resolution, the preamble of the Constitution.  Country was declared an Islamic Republic of Pakistan  President must be Muslim of at least 40 years of age.  The Constitution of 1956 provided unicameral legislature.  National Assembly was to consist of 300 members.  Minimum age of 21 was allowed to vote in the elections.  Urdu and Bengali, State Language and English, Official Language for first 25 years Constitution of 1962:-  Shahabuddin Commission, 17 Feb 1960.  Promulgated by President Ayyub on 1st March, 1962.  Came into effect on 8th June,1962.  Contained 250 articles divided into 12 parts and 5 Schedules. Features:-  Pakistan was renamed as "Republic of Pakistan".  The President was to be a Muslim not less than 35 years of age and could, not held more than two consecutive teams.  The National Assembly was to consist of 156 members later increased to 218 members.  The system of indirect presidential elections was presented.  President owned the "Right of Veto".  The President had the power to dissolve the National Assembly. Constitution of 1973:-  "Constitution accord" 17 Oct 1972.  The National Assembly approved the Constitution on April 10th, 1973.  Came into effect on 14th August 1973.  Contained 280 articles divided into 12 parts and 7 schedules. Features:-  The Constitution named Pakistan as Islamic Republic of Pakistan.  Islam as the religion of the country.  The President was to be Muslim at least 45 years of age.  The 1973 Constitution set up a bicameral legislature.  Independence of Judiciary  Method of Election Major Parties:- Pakistan People Party  Political Party of Pakistan.  Founded on Nov 30, 1967 by Z.A Bhutto.  Chairperson:  Bilawal Bhutto  Contest elections on the slogan of "ROTI, KAPRA AUR MAKAN".  Basic Principles of PPP: 1 Islam is our Faith 2 Democracy is our Politics 2 Socialism is our Economy 4 All Power to the People  Won Election in 1970, 1977, 1988, 1993, 2008.
  15. 15. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 15 Pakistan Muslim League – N:-  Famous Political Party of Pakistan.  Founded on 1993 by Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif.  Chairperson:  Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif  Basic Principles of PML-N  Democracy is our Politics  Independent Judiciary and the Rule of Law.  Improvement in Education System  Industry and Trade (Economical Improvement)  Won Election in 1990, 1997 and 2013. Pakistan Muslim League - Q  Political Party of Pakistan.  Founded on 2002 by Mian Azhar  Chairperson:  Ch. Shujat Hussain  Basic Principles of PML-Q  Live and Let Live.  Tolerance and harmony.  Ensuring justice and freedom of expression.  Dignity of the common citizen  Protection and promotion of the rights of Women.  Protection of the rights of minorities.  Won Election in 2002. Muhajir Qaumi Movement  Founded on 1984 by Altaf Hussain.  In 1997, MQM became Muthidda Qaumi Movement instead of Muhajir Qaumi Movement.  Chairperson:  Altaf Husain  Basic Principles of MQM  Improvement in Education  Reduce Poverty and Unemployment  Agricultural reforms  Healthcare system is a right of every Pakistani regardless of his/her income level and social status. Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf  Founded on 1996 by Imran Khan.  PTI is one of the three major political parties of Pakistan, along with PPP and PML-N.  Motto : “Insaf, Insaniyat aur khud itmadi”  Chairperson:  Imran Khan  Basic Principles of PTI  Government with Merit.  Resources of the country belong to the people of the country and will be used for their progress and development.  Primary Health care for the poor and elderly will be free. Problems of Pakistani Politics:- Issue Based Politics Personality vs. Issues = Personality wins!!!  PAKISTAN is a nation desperately in need of heroes.  Our politicians dissimulate, our cricketers disappoint, and our celebrities self-destruct.  Core issues were always neglected  Non-existence of proactive policies to solve the basic problems  Lack of responsibility showed by the political parties. Feudalism Garbage In = Garbage Out  Majority of the Politicians belong to this category  Lack of Interaction with the common man  Leads to lack of development in rural areas  Absence of a complete constitution, allowed the peoples with power to manipulate the political and constitutional institution, as they wanted.
  16. 16. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 16 Military takeover An Ever Itching Palm  Marshal law is a major factor of political destabilization.  It always leaves an uneven ground for the politicians.  Sometime, It is war done in the name of democracy against democracy. Accountability Selective or wholistic???  Has always been biased throughout the history  Independent NAB non-existent.  Pakistan is not going to change until every man in power take responsibility for his action.  And Heavy regulation, poor security that creates an unfavorable environment for foreign investment. Democra cy!!! Dictators hip!!! Merits and Demerits Of Democracy:- Merits and Demerits Of Dictatorship:-  People Elect their own Government.  They are ruled by the people of their own choice.  A common person is considered as the Primary source of the elected Government.  Not One Man Show.  A type of government in which the whole governing body is controlled by a single individual or a single group of people.  Government in which a single personality govern all the authorities.  It has been proved unfriendly.  One Man show. Merits  Local Body Government in which people are free to choose their rulers.  People have liberty of Speech.  Public Questions are decided by the will of majority.  People get the chance to change the governing bodies.  Legal form of Government.  People have the freedom to choose their Head by the General Elections. Demerits  According to Napoleon, "Nine people out of ten are fool".  This cause the election of some illegible persons.  Corruption and bribery.  Illiterate people sometimes choose the people on caste and creed basis.  Expensive mode of government. Merits  More Stable Government  Less room for Corruption.  More efficient during emergencies.  Less crime rates.  Things happening very quickly.  More stronger economy than democratic government.  No politics ever. Demerits  The most unfriendly type of government.  People sometimes have not the freedom to speak and express their views against the government.  People have to just follow the orders.  Military dictatorship is worst type of government. In Pakistan, Democracy or the Dictatorship???  From the inception of Pakistan, there has been the conflictions between the military and civil leadership  For about 30 years in history, we have dictator leadership.  As Musharraf once said, “Democracy is an ineffective system for Pakistan as there are no checks and balances in the system and to counter such failures army has to act because people of Pakistan expected too much good from military.”  But Pakistan is still a democratic country.
  17. 17. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 17 Dictatorial leadership in Pakistan Ayub Khan's Rule (1958 - 1969)  His regime is said to be Industrial and Reforms Era.  Most developed decade in the History of Pakistan  Capital was raised to Rs. 4.7 Billion and GDP was raised to 6.8%  His Dictatorial behavior rose rage of people against himself  He tried to overcome it by the use of power, that leads to the separation of East Pakistan.  Constitution of 1962 was launched by Ayub Khan in which all the supreme authorities was owned by him.  After the resignation, he handed the government to General Yahiya Khan.  Yahiya's policies against the East Pakistanis were the formation of Bangladesh. Zia-ul-Haq's leadership(1977 - 1988)  Islamic Shariaah was enforced is his era.  This was the era of cold war against USSR in which Pakistan played a vital role. Zia assist Afghanis by Military as well as by finance.  Military was made more strong and efficient.  Zia was able to stand against external pressures on Nuclear Programs that were started by Z.A Bhutto.  Many new reforms were introduced that could lend benefits to common people.  Pakistan had highest GDP rate in the history in Zia era. General Musharraf's leadership (1999 - 2008)  After Zia, general elections were held which allowed PPP to make government.  This government could not exist for long time as they were accused of corruption.  Then came the era of Nawaz Shareef, which too could not stand for a long.  From 1988 to 1999, no government could stand more than 3 years.  This decade was said to be the failure of democracy in Pakistan.  At last Gen Mushrraf (COAS) suspended the constitution and chose designation of Chief Executive of Pakistan for himself, dissolving the government.  From 2002 to 2008, again this was the era of dictator.  Telecom sector made a remarkable development.  GDP was raised to about 9%.  His Policies and American support by him lead the country towards the serious threads of Terrorism.  Dictatorial behavior of Musharraf caused the political opposition against him.  Ayub Khan and Zia's Eras are known as the Eras of development and peace.  Highest GDP rate was observed.  Likewise, Unfortunately every democratic government was blamed corrupt, and base of national as well as international disputes.  Democracy is legal type of government in which people elected from the citizens are offered to form the government.  but a dictator takes over the government when national disputes and confliction rises.  In the history dictatorial government has been proved to be the most economical and most administration leadership.  The reason is that, by the common person, some of the incompetent people are elected  They do not deserve to have the leadership. So what should then we do ???  As democracy is the best form of government, so it should be appreciated.  Our duty is to nominate and elect the most capable person.  We should maintain a peaceful and administrative atmosphere in the country, even if going to criticize the government over an issue.  We should maintain a cooperative atmosphere with the representatives of governments  Military and Law enforcement departments should ensure the fair and rigging-free elections in the country.  No one should have exemption facing the Judiciary.  And Citizens should have awareness.  In these ways we can have a better democratic and peaceful atmosphere. Conclusion  Total 10 General Elections held in Pakistan: o PPP won 5 times. o PML-N won 3 times. o PML-J won once. o PML-Q won once.  Total 4 time Martial Law was imposed: o 1st Marshal Law (M. Ayub Khan - 1958) o 2nd Marshal Law (M. Yahya Khan - 1969) o 3rd Marshal Law (M. Zia-ul-Haq - 1977) o 4th Marshal Law (Pervez Musharaf - 1999)  Major Parties o PML-N o PTI o PPP  Constitution of Pakistan o Constitution of 1956 o Constitution of 1962 o Constitution of 1973  Democracy vs. Dictatorship Politics of Pakistan from 2008 to 2014 What is Election An election is a formal decision making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century Election Date of 2008 General elections were held in Pakistan on 18 February 2008, after being postponed from 8 January 2008. Due to the death of Benazir Bhutto on December 27, 2007, Rawalpindi
  18. 18. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 18 Results NA PP PS PB KPK Prime Minister of Pakistan Makhdoom Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani was nominated by the Pakistan People's Party (P.P.P) with the support of coalition partners. He was sworn in as the Prime Minister on 25th March 2008 and took the oath of office from former President Pervez Musharraf. Makhdoom Syed Yousaf Raza ”Gilani was born on 9 June 1952 in Karachi but his family comes from the Punjab. Gilani's father was a descendant of Syed Musa Pak, who was a spiritual leader of the Sufi order. He received his early education at the St. Mary's School and La Salle High School located at Multan. In 1970, he graduated in Bachelor of Arts and earned a Master's degree in Journalism from the University of Punjab.” His venture into politics began from the platform of Muslim League of Pakistan in 1978, when the martial law of General Zia-ul-Haq's was in term. He also served as cabinet member during the 3 year governance of Prime Minister Muhammad Khan Junejo. Thereafter, he moved from Muslim League and joined Pakistan People's Party in the year 1988. He then served as cabinet minister again during the rule of Benazir Bhutto, as the Minister of Tourism (1989-1990) and Minister of Housing and Works (January 1990 - August 1990). As a Prime Minsiter Makhdoom Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani was nominated by the Pakistan People's Party (P.P.P) with the support of coalition partners. He was sworn in as the Prime Minister on 25th March 2008 and took the oath of office from former President Pervez Musharraf. Resignation of President Pervez Musharraf President Pervez Musharraf resigned on 18 August 2008 after remaining in power for nine years. (1999 to 2008) Acting President in 2008 Muhammad Mian Soomro Chairman of the Senate, served as acting President. From (18 August 2008 to 9 September 2008)and he belong to Pakistan Muslim League(Q) Pakistani presidential election, 2008 An presidential election was held on 6 September 2008 in Pakistan.The Electoral College of Pakistan – a joint sitting of the Senate , National Assembly and Provincial Assemblies – elected a new President after the resignation of President Pervez Musharraf. As required by the constitution, Muhammad Mian Soomro (in his position asChairman of the Senate of Pakistan) automatically became acting President on 18 August 2008, upon the resignation of Musharraf. The constitution required that a new President be elected by Parliament within 30 days; Candidate Asif Ali Zardari Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui Mushahid Hussain Party PPP PML(N) PML(Q) Electoral vote 481 153 44 President of Pakistan Asif Ali Zardari on September 9, 2008 took oath of his office as Pakistan’s 12th head of state at an impressive ceremony held here at Aiwan-e-Sadr. Chief Justice of Pakistan Abdul Hameed Dogar administered the oath to Asif Ali Zardari under the third schedule of 1973 Constitution. Problems facing by government; 1Energy crisis.2Youth Unemployment. 3Poverty. 4Inflation Terrorism Terrorism in Pakistan has become a major and highly destructive phenomenon in recent years. The annual death toll from terrorist attacks has risen from 164 in 2003 to 3318 in 2009,with a total of 35,000 Pakistanis killed between September 11, 2001 and May 2011. According to the government of Pakistan, the direct and indirect economic costs of terrorism from 2000– 2010 total $68 billion Energy crisis Pakistan is facing Energy crisis from last 8 to 10 years. We knows that Energy resources are the backbone of social economic development of any country. It is essential for the production and making of goods and other things like cotton which contributes a lot of revenue in the budget of Pakistan. Energy is essential for running machinery in industrial facilities, industrial devices, lightening the cities and running the system of transport. Youth Unemployment
  19. 19. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 19 Workless people can always be dangerous to a country’s security. Unemployment is one of the major issues confronted by our youth today. Every year many new graduates are added into the labor force but few of them get very good jobs; some others get a reasonable one but many keep on looking for jobs for a long time.  Recently, the unemployment rate of Pakistan increased to 6.5% and so it can be said that one out of every 10 people of the country are suffering from unemployment.  The unemployment rate in urban areas of Pakistan increased by 2% to 10.1%, whereas, the unemployment rate in rural areas increased from 4.3% to 5%. Poverty According to United Nation if a person is being fail to receive $2 in a day or 2300 of calories in 24 hours is known as a poor. Causes of Poverty In Pakistan •Government Bad Policies •Corruption •Inflation •Smuggling •Overpopulation •Unemployment •Lack of education Inflation Inflation rises to myriads of in last 5 years. The price of everything raised day by day due to which people of society face many critical problems. Because of inflation it became very difficult to fulfill the basic needs. GDP 2008 -2013 Order of Supreme Court of Pakistan The Supreme Court of Pakistan on Tuesday declared Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani ineligible to hold office; the court said that he had been ineligible since April 26. He has been declared ineligible to be prime minister ever since the verdict in the contempt case had been announced. Prime Minister of Pakistan Raja Pervaiz Ashraf; born 26 December 1950, is a businessman, agriculturist and politician who served as the 17th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 22 June 2012 until completing his designated term on 16 March 2013. National Assembly dissolved As Premier Raja Pervez Ashraf and chief ministers of four provinces agreed to hold elections of the national and provincial assemblies on the same day, the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs issued the notification to dissolve the 13th National Assembly on Saturday night. It is the first time in Pakistan’s 66 years history that the National Assembly has completed its five-year tenure. From 18 February 2008 to 16th March 2013. Caretaker Prime Minister The Honorable Justice Mir Hazar Khan Khoso, was the 23rd and caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan, from 25 March 2013 to 5 June 2013. He September 30, 1929 Pakistani general election, 2013 General elections were held in Pakistan on 11 May 2013 to elect the members of the 14th National Assembly and to the four provincial assemblies of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Elections were held in all four provinces, the federal capital territory of Islamabad and in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Results Results PML(N) PPP PTI Seats won 125 32 30 Popular vote 14,874,104 6,911,218 7,679,954 Percentage 32.77% 15.32% 16.92%
  20. 20. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 20 Prime Minister of Pakistan Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif is the 18th and current Prime Minister of Pakistan in office since June 2013. Contemporary Pakistan The Warrior State: Pakistan in Contemporary World After Independence of Pakistan as Strong One Unit Backed By United States, Saudi Arabia And China. Developing South Asian Economy. Promotion of Jihadi System. Nuclear Proliferation: Iran, North Korea, Libya, Saudi Arabia. Gallup Report: India As 1st Biggest Risk To World Peace. Pakistan As 2nd Biggest Risk To World Peace. Pakistan As Obama’s Nightmare. Pakistan Spending On Its Military With Key Equality With India. Atomic Weapon As Military Securing. Indian Perspective Towards Pakistan As A Real Threat. Pakistan’s Expenditure On ISI. The Money From West In Form Of Aid. Military Hold Since Beginning of Pakistan. The Example of Turkey And Indonesia. Indonesia And Turkey Abstain From Radical Islamist Approach. The Purpose Behind Pakistan’s Illness. The Role of ISI. Murder of Liberal Government Officials And Writers. Kashmir Cause And East Pakistan. USA Favored Government. Hyper-Realpolitick Towards It’s Adversary States. The Advancement Is Important In Technology. Unemployment And Displaced Majority Of Pakistan. The Complex Political System Of Pakistan. ISI Role in Pakistan: Internal And External Factors. Economic Problems Of Pakistan And Their Solutions ( for more details vist: ) Pakistan’s economy continued to face challenges.  Fiscal Policy Monetary Policy  Power Crisis  Law and order situation  Low export and High Import  Lack of tourism Fiscal Policy:  The key objective of Pakistan fiscal policy is sustained economic growth.  Poverty reduced.  The creation of job opportunities.  Investment in physical and human capital.
  21. 21. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 21 Monetary Policy:  Monetary policy will have to play an active role in moving the country towards better economic management.  Foreign reserve currency.  Printing of Rupees is also a problem.  Create inflation. Power Crisis:  The most significant problem which has effected the growth of state adversely.  Capital flight.  Increasing Unemployment.  Uses of alternative ( solar energy, coal energy, wind energy) which might reduce load. Law And Order:  Poor economy are always the poor (vicious circle).  Positive relation between crime and major economic variables.  Increase in inflation, poverty, unemployment, and decline in investment.  Modern training may be imparted to police force to combat terrorism. Low Export And High Import:  Crucial problem is budget deficit, shows that import is more than export.  Create gap between import and export deficit.  Restrict import and rely own manufacturing goods.  Reduce gap between import and export. Lack Of Tourism:  Pakistan is a scenic beauty.  Past years this beauty play important role to increase economy growth.  Natural disaster and law and order problem decrease tourism.  Bring foreign currency.  Regain peace, attract the tourist.  Improved economy condition. Unemployment Situation in Pakistan: According to Economic Survey of 2010-11, population of Pakistan is 177.1 million. Total labour force is about 54.92 million out of which 51.87 million is employed and remaining 3.05 million is unemployed. Rate of male unemployment is 5.6 % and female unemployment is 9.3 %. Low Industrial Growth Rate Low industrial growth rate is 1.7 % in Pakistan. Number of industries is not increasing in Pakistan. Lack of industries means less opportunities of employment. Use of Advanced Technology A poor country uses backward techniques of production and labour intensive technologies. But when it uses the advanced technology there spread more unemployment in the country. Mechanization of Agriculture Due to mechanization of agriculture there is less use of labour in agricultural sector. These unemployed persons move to cities to find jobs at less wage rate. Accordingly, use of modern techniques in agricultural sector is also a further cause of unemployment and under employment. High Population Growth Rate The population of Pakistan is increasing at a rate of 2.1 %. Due to this high rate about two million people enter into the labour market each year. Such huge labour force cannot be provided jobs due to backward economic condition. Social Structure of Pakistan Society  derived from Latin word “socious”  a group of people living together in communities  sharing the same geographical social territory  subject to the same dominant culture. Culture  Social heredity  Transferred from our ancestors  characteristics of group of people defined by anything social habits, language, religion (Allama Iqbal) Culture  Islamic Values and traditions  Languages  Mixed culture  Cousine  Dresses  Kaleidoscope Statuses
  22. 22. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 22 Ascribed A social position that a person receives at birth, naturally, or involuntarily Achieved A position in society that a person gets by his efforts and achievements Examples For Statuses Social Classes o Upper class o Middile class o Lower class Upper Class They have high income, belong to high paying profession and live in the cleanest homes. Middle Class  Well known for its progress and struggle for the country  Generally high qualified  Backbone of the country Lower Class  Poor  Unemployed  Sometimes get jobs for time being  Have very low income  Specially from rural areas  Not entertained equally in society Ethnicity:- ETHNIC DIVIDES IN PAKISTAN Definition Before we talk about ethnic devides we need to know what is ethnicity . Ethnicity is defined as: “ The common characteristic of a people, especially a group sharing a common and distinctive culture, religion, language, or the like.” So, an ethnic group is a group of people who have a common characteristic in terms of language,region, culture, ansestors , religion etc. What are ethnic divides?  Knowing that ethnicity forms a group of people using a common chracteristic. it is quite clear that various such groups may not get along.  The act of treating someone differently based on thier ethnicity is called an ethnic divide.  It can be because one ethnic group is not treated par to others.  One example is the sepration of Bengladesh (west Pakistan) in the year 1971.  The bengalis seprated because they felt neglected, this is an ethnic divide based on culture or region. The picture shows one of the many rallys of the Bengali Language Movement from the 1950s. Ethnic divides now  Ethnic divides are not the problem of the past.
  23. 23. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 23  Losing West Pakistan was a big tradegy but the disparities that caused it are still prevailing in our society.  Ethnicity is a natural process. A country is made of its history; its invaders and locals. People from different parts of the world settle in that area and bring thier own culture with them.  But ethnic divides are not natural. They are the result of noncopration, pride, and intolerance. Such hatred divides a country and should be eliminated.  Lets analyze the various divisons present in Pakistan. RELIGIOUS SHIA'S  Population: -5 to 20% of the total population are Shia's. -Estimted to be 40 million in the year 2015.  Beliefs: -Shia's are muslims. The only sepration is on the matter of Caliphs. They think the Caliph should have been chosen by God. They believe Hazrat Ali (RA) was the one who deserved the honour first. -This a 18th century Ottoman levha, (calligraphic panel), which depicts the Shi'i phrase 'Ali is the vicegerent of God' in obverse and reverse, creating an exact mirror image.  History: -It is unknown when the Shia community first established itself in what is now the state of Pakistan or in South Asia. -Historians assume they came as refugees. SUNNI'S  Population: -75% of the p akistani muslims are sunni's.  Beliefs: -Sunni's believe that new Caliph should be elected from among those capable of the job. -Hence they are okay with the fact that Hazrat Abu Bakr(RA) was the first Caliph.  Furthur divisions: SUNNI SECT AHLE HADITH DEOBANI BRELVI ISMALI POPULATION 4% 20% 50% 2% AHMADI'S  Population: -There are approximately 4 million Ahmadi Muslims in the country. -This equates to 2.2% of the population.  Beliefs: -Ahmadis believe in Muhammad(pbuh) as the best law bearing prophet and Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as the Christ of Muslims. -This means that they dont believe in the finality of Prophethood of Muhammad(pbuh).  The amendment: -In the year 1974, the government of Pakistan amended the Constitution of Pakistan to define a Muslim "as a person who believes in finality of Prophet Muhammad" and technically Ahmadis are declared non-Muslims. Non-muslims in Pakistan  After discussing the muslim sects, it is important to discuss the non-muslim minorities of Pakistan.  Hindus: -2.5 to 4.5 million in total. Which makes approximately 1.6% to 1.9% of total population. -Most hindus live in Sindh while a few live in the other provinces. -They mostly speak Sindhi, some also speak English or Punjabi.  Christains: -2.5 million which makes about 1.6% of the total population. -Most of them speak Urdu, Punjabi and English. -The picture is of the Sacred Heart Cathedrel in Lahore.  Jews: -There is a small minority of jews in Pakistan too.
  24. 24. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 24 CULTURAL SINHDI  Population: About 35,700,000.  Language: - Sindhi  Location: -Most of them live in urban areas like Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, and Mirpur Khas. Hyderabad is the largest centre of Sindhi Hindus in Pakistan with 100,000-150,000 people  Culture: -Sindhi culture is highly influenced by Sufi doctrines and principles. Some of the popular cultural icons are Raja Dahir, Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, Jhulelal, Sachal Sarmast and Shambumal Tulsiani.  Religion: -Hindus constituted about 6.5% of the total population of Sindh province. -This group can be regarded as concurrently following Hinduism and Sikhism. -Many Sindhis are coverted muslims.  History: -Sindh was one of the earliest regions to be influenced by Islam after 632 AD. -Before this period, it was heavily Hindu, and Buddhist. -After 632 AD, it was part of the Islamic empires of the Abbasids and Umayyids. PUSHTO  Population: -about 30,699,037 (Not included Pashtun Afghan refugees) -constitute the second-largest ethnic group of Pakistan.  Language: -Pushto:main language -Dari and Urdu: secondary languages  Culture: -Pashtun culture is mostly based on Pashtunwali(self governing tribal system) and the usage of the Pashto language. -Pre-Islamic traditions, dating back to Alexander's defeat of the Persian Empire in 330 BC, possibly survived in the form of traditional dances. - literary styles and music reflect influence from the Persian tradition and regional musical instruments fused with localised variants and interpretation. - Pashtun culture is a unique blend of native customs with some influences from South and Western Asia  Religion: Islam  History: -Pashtuns are predominantly an Eastern Iranian people. -A variety of ancient groups with eponyms similar to Pakhtun have been hypothesized as possible ancestors of modern Pashtuns. The Greek historian Herodotus mentioned a people called Pactyans who were living in the same area as early as the 1st millennium BC.  Location: -West of the Indus River , which includes Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and part of Balochistan.. PUNJABI  Population: - approx 93,500,000  Language: -Punjabi, Urdu and English.  Location: -Mostly in the Province of Punjab.  Culture: -The culture of Punjab derives its basis from the institution of Sufi saints. -The fairs and festivals of Punjab reflect the entire gamut of its folk life and cultural traditions. -The crafts in the Punjab are of two types: the crafts produced in the rural areas and the royal crafts.  Religion: -Islam,mainly.  History: -Punjab was home to a developed civilization in 5th to 4th millennium BC: The ancient Indus Valley Civilization. -The earliest known notable local king of this region was known as King Porus and he fought a famous Battle of the Hydaspes against Alexander. -Centuries later, areas of the Punjab region were ruled by local kings followed by the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Mughals, and others. -When the Muslim Umayyad army led by Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 AD, by defeating Raja Dahir. Some of the Muslims are said to have settled in the region and adopted the local culture. BALOCHI  Population: approx 6,900,000  Language: Mainly Balochi. But regional languages are also spoken.  Culture: -The Balochi generally live in remote mountainous and desert regions, which have protected them from invasion and allowed them to form a distinct cultural identity. -Balochi customs and traditions are conducted according to codes imposed by tribal laws. -The tradition of a Baloch mother singing lullabies to her children has played an important role in the transfer of knowledge from generation to generation since ancient times. -Balochi dresses are loose with decent threadwork.  Religion: -Predominantly Sunni Islam  History: -the original homeland of the Balochi tribes was likely to the east or southeast of the central Caspian region. -The Baloch began migrating towards the east in the late Sasanian period.  Location: -Mainly Balochistan CASTS IN PAKISTAN  Jutt: -Live in northern areas -Agricultural community, are brave and loyal.  Rajputs: -Name means ‘Son Of King’. -Descendants of warrior dynasties of India. -Have roots in Rajisthan.  Sheikh: -Meaning in arabic:’ elder of tribe’. -Come from Persia(Iran), Central Asia and Arab.  Mughal: -They are the ones who were able to flee during downfall of Mughal empire. -They consider themselves brave and royal.
  25. 25. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 25 Sectarianism  Sectarian violence in Pakistan refers to attacks against people and places in Pakistan motivated by antagonism toward the target's sect, usually a religious group.  Targets in Pakistan include the Sunni, Shia and the small Ahmadi, Hindu and Christian religious groups.  4,000 people are estimated to have been killed in Shia-Sunni sectarian fighting in Pakistan between 1987–2007.  Since 2008 "thousands of Shia" have been killed by Sunni extremists.  2011 and 2012 Pakistan minority groups Hindus, Ahmadi, and Christians "faced unprecedented insecurity and persecution in the country".  These attacks are powered by the pride and intolerance of one sect for the other. Such behaviour is not encouraged in Islam or in the constitution.  Following is the summary of the sectarian attacks amoung muslims of Pakistan during just 3 months of 2013 DATE LOCATION CASUALTIES SUMMARY 16th Feb 2013 QUETTA 113 Sunni (Lashkar-e-Jhangvi) took responsibility 18th Feb 2013 LAHORE 2 Unknown attackers killed Shias. 3rd Mar 2013 KARACHI 45 unknown militants put bomb outside Shia mosque 26th July 2013 PARACHINAR 60 Sunni(Ansarul mujahideenhas) took responsibility  Many other ocassions of targeted killings and bombings occured too.  Mass anti-Christian violence occurred in the 2009 Gojra riots and in the 2013 Joseph Colony riot and the 2013 Gujranwala riot.  Anti-Shia violence includes the February 2012 Kohistan Shia Massacre, the August 2012 Mansehra Shia Massacre and the particularly deadly January 2013 and February 2013 Quetta bombings.  The Ahmadiyya community in Pakistan was targeted in the similarly deadly May 2010 attacks on Ahmadi mosques in Lahore  The New York Times noted on that occasion that "Minority sects like the Ahmadis and the Shiites and have come under increasing pressure as religious extremism has taken hold, fomented by sectarian groups like Jaish-e-Mohammad and Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, formerly state- sponsored organizations." Territorial Conflict  Issues like distribution of economic resources through NFC(National Finance Commission), water-sharing problem between provinces and dominant position of one ethnic group at the power structure created a sense of alienation among deprived ethnic identities.  The 1956 constitution remained unable to resolve the problem of provincial autonomy, because of Punjabi domination.  The 1962 constitution gave a presidential form of government. Which meant a sense of alienation among the people of both wings.  Particularly Bengalis were not happy with the policies of central ruling authority.  The constitution of 1973 had a federal and concurrent list leaving the residuary powers to provinces. Concurrent list has been abolished by the Pakistan Peoples Party government.  Ethnic groups come into conflict when a particular group becomes successful to have authority at the helm of the affairs and formulates policies in the best interests of their own specific group by ignoring other ethnic groups.  For Example,During Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto era Sindhis became successful to have more facilities than Urdu speaking Mohajirs in the province of Sindh. These moves created tussle between Sindhis and Mohajirs.  Solution: -Political stability, peace, harmony and unity can be achieved through removal of sense of deprivation among various ethnic groups. - Economic equilibrium. -Just distribution of power. -No discrimination Language Conflict  Language is like the unified, seprate identity of a group.  In fact, language was the key point in the alienation of Bengalis.  They insisted on the recognition of Bengali as the national language along with Urdu.  Thier demand was ignored and they felt neglected.  The linguistic groups, Sindhi, Mohajirs, Punjabis, Pathans, Baloch, and Gujrati have been involved in conflicting situation with each other on various occasions.  In 1972 Sindhis retaliated the dominance of Urdu and Sindhi was declared as the official language of Sindh.  The Mohajirs demonstrated against this and the Government through issued an ordinance in favour of Urdu.
  26. 26. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 26 Conclusion  Inter –ethnic group conflict in Pakistan, has destabilized the political system and undermine foundations of the state.  The things like inter-tribal conflict in the tribal areas, the Sindhi and non-Sindhi violent conflict in Sindh, Shia-Sunni crueland regressive activities have become a norm of Pakistani society.  The key is to not only promote unity but treat everyone equally.  No discrimination of any kind should be done to a group.  When everyone feels like they are being heard, conflicts don’t arise. Foreign Policy of Pakistan Review of Foreign Policy of Pakistan • Foreign Policy: the systematic plan, intention, aspiration, and ideals of any country on how to deal with its neighbours • Guiding Principles of Pakistan Foreign Policy: Freedom and Sovereignty, Muslim Countries, U.N Charter, World Peace, Non- Alignment, Self-Determination, Disarmament Objectives of Foreign Policy The objectives of Pakistan Foreign policy can be derived from the guiding principles and are listed below: 1. Promoting Pakistan as a dynamic, progressive, moderate, and democratic Islamic country. 2. Developing friendly relations with all countries of the world, especially major powers, immediate neighbors and Muslim countries and avoiding policy of confrontation 3. Safeguarding national security and territorial integrity including Kashmiris’ right for self-determination 4. Consolidating commercial and economic cooperation with international community. 5. Safeguarding the interests of Pakistan on international level 6. Effective utilization of natural resources for regional and international cooperation and better economic and trade relations 7. Achieve international prestige, honour and recognition with its foreign policy, because a state is like an individual who likes that everyone respects him and give him honors. Challenges to Pakistan Foreign Policy 1. Security Concern Post 9/11 attacks • Pakistan’s security is seriously threatened in recent times • Earlier threats were from India, Russia’s military adventure and then Afghan civil war • Presently, threat from India as well as internal and external extremist • Suffered huge economic losses, more than $80 billion losses since 2001 and more than 50000 lives • Atmosphere of fear and unrest in people and decline in foreign investment due to war against terrorism continue 2. Safeguarding Sovereignty • US hot pursuit of Al-Qaeda and Taliban remnants continues • drone attacks on different villages of Bajour agency and Waziristan • Attack on Salala check post, Abbottabad raid, cross firing across western border the effects of these attacks are: • The causalities and death toll of innocent civilians, women and children • There is a strong public reaction against these drone attack • Further resulted in suicide attacks on Pakistan law enforcing agencies, airports, police station and civilian places • Violation of Pakistan’s territorial sovereignty and dignity Pakistan facing the challenges: 1. How to secure its western border? 2. How to avoid a conflict with the US and its allies? 3. How to preserve the sanctity of its sovereignty while ensuring the flow of foreign aid/loans? 4. Whether to continue as an ally for war against terrorism or to pull out of the war? 3. Terrorist Label and Rogue state • Combatting Western self created concept of blaming Muslim as terrorist • Pakistan faces tremendous pressure from western media, which links Pakistan armed forces and nuclear scientists with Al-Qaeda and Taliban and responsible for nuclear proliferation • The US expressed serious concern regarding the authenticity of the control and command system and Pakistan’s ability to protect its nuclear assets and prevention of transfer of nuclear technology to other states. • This is the biggest challenge of the time 4. Baluchistan issue: • After Akbar Bugti’s assassination, situation worsened, attacks on national installations, armed forces and civilians • External interference in Baluchistan is also found • Small nationalist groups in Baluchistan are also threats to national integration and federation. • Baluchistan's strategic importance and China investment in Gawadar Port is also not liked by many states 5. Kashmir Policy • Pakistan is facing a big internal challenge on its Kashmir policy • The plight of Kashmiris have not changed so far as result of giving trade concessions to India, putting Kashmir issue in the back drop and declining support for Kashmir cause • India’s continual violation of cease fire and exchange of fire across working boundary • India’s propaganda against Pakistan for supporting terrorists groups in Indian Held Kashmir 6. Others • Decrease in foreign investment due to law and order situation and Energy crises • Unwillingness of foreign sport teams and players to come to Pakistan for playing and tourists due to security situation Challenges to Pakistan Foreign PolicySome Recommendation • A clear foreign policy is still lacking • Need to quickly address these challenges • Lack of concrete and clear foreign policy and national stand • Needs to convince the international world to help in stopping drone attacks which are against international law
  27. 27. April 15, 2018 ARSLAN CHAUDHRY ( N o t e s : P a k i s t a n s t u d i e s B s C h e m i s t r y ) ( P r e p a r e d b y : A r s l a n A s h r a f ) Page 27 • Needs to involve China, European Union, Muslim countries, OIC, western media etc. to stop drone attacks through an impressive diplomatic initiatives • Invite western media to visit places where drone attacks are made to observe the actual casualties of innocent people • Protecting Pakistani dignity and label of being a terrorist • Pakistan needs to wash away the title of extremist and project the real face as a peace loving country • Through our foreign policy we need to present a picture that we are a responsible and moderate Muslim country • Waziristan operation is going successful- now also use negotiation and dialogue with weak Taliban to help in arriving at a more sustainable peace in the region • Pakistan should give the message to the outside world as a democratic country that if decisions are taken in isolation without considering and honoring the sentiments of Pakistani society, it will not only inflame public opinion but also create internal security problems. • Kashmir issue be raised on all diplomatic level and talks on this issue shall be re-scheduled and should be the main agenda • Talks with Baluchistan leaders and sardars through grand jirga • Economic reforms and attractive package be introduced and more provincial autonomy be given to provinces • Inviting foreign teams to come to Pakistan for playing and assuring them of complete security (also announcing attractive incentives to players to initiate foreign visits) • Tackling energy crises on emergency basis and to provide incentives to foreign investors and guarantee of their investment • Pakistan needs to reconsider, reschedule and reframe its foreign policy and set new priorities and goals to promote and protect its national interests. • Needs to work more closely with China, middle-east and European countries as well as US Futuristic Outlook of Pakistan Pakistan is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity and 41st largest in terms of nominal Gross Domestic Product. As Pakistan has a population of over 186 million (the world's 6th-largest). Pakistan is a developing country and is one of have a potential to become one of the world's large economies in the 21st century. The prospect of a change in the country mainly rests with its youth who form 65% of its population. Some 40 years back one could witness a lot of youthful energy and hope across all segments of the population. Pakistan is stuck up in a quagmire. In today Pakistan, we are facing many problems. Like energy problems, terrorism, Health Problems, Education etc. Following are the measures to Solve these Problems: Honest and capable leadership Social justice Education Health care Economic growth Energy sector Terrorism Foreign affairs Austerity Police 1. Honest and capable leadership It is rather sad but the fact remains that our present leadership has not succeeded to create an atmosphere in which both institutions and the individuals could best realize their potential. We have a vibrant and dynamic society. However, to exploit this God-gifted advantage, we need an exemplary governance system pioneered and executed by a set of God-fearing, talented, self-sacrificing, and highly dedicated leaders assisted by an equally efficient bureaucracy. 2. Social justice There should be an independent judiciary to dispense social and legal justice so that people feel that their basic rights are safe and intact. They should enjoy equal opportunities to work and build up their career. Their fundamental rights of expression, movement and earning of respectable livelihood should be preserved at all costs. 3. Education There should be a unique system of education for all. Syllabi should be devised in such a way that modern education in science and technology as also in vocational subjects be imparted and the moral and ethical values of our society be upheld. At least 5 per cent of GDP should be allocated to education sector and education be made compulsory for all. Financial assistance is given to the poor and incentives be introduced for the talented students. Government should take steps to increase the literacy rate in the country and government should provide facilities' in this regard. Government should also motivate the private sector too. 4. Health care We spend only 2.5 per cent of our GDP on health which is perhaps the lowest in the world. Precisely, only five poverty stricken countries fall behind us. Even India and Sri Lanka are ahead of us with 3.9 per cent and 3.4 per cent respectively. It is also deplorable that our physicians’ density is 0.81 per 1,000 persons. According to the World Health Organization it should not be less than 2.3 per 1,000. Another amazing fact is that in our hospitals we have 1 bed for 1,667 persons while in Sri Lanka they have 1 bed for 323 persons. One can imagine as to where do we stand in the domain of healthcare. The authorities must rise to the occasion and give special attention to this prime sector. 5. Economic growth Problems of Pakistan have become more complex and formidable. Lawlessness and ethnic conflicts have risen even more. Economic situation has further aggravated. Inflation, price-hike, lack of public amenities have taken their toll on the masses. Our country is a mineral treasure of sorts and we need to exploit this treasure to protect our economic interest, to reduce our dependence on the debt and finally to stand on our own feet. Agriculture sector has been awfully ignored. Land tillers in the rural areas must needs be supplied electricity, graded seeds, fertilizers, insecticides and weed-killers, all at low rates. Measures should also be taken to provide them transportation facilities from field to market. Industry has had a great set back in the past. It needs round the clock power supply to survive. Good incentives are given to new investors. It will multiply domestic production and provide opportunities of employment to the needy and jobless. Radical measures are required to be taken to beef up the steel mills, railways and PIA. 6. Energy sector Load shedding has been and is still a major threat to industry and business and an appalling hardship for domestic consumers. Exploration of hide power and coal is inevitable. Power generation is the need of the hour and must be given priority to help solve the current energy crisis. 7. Terrorism The country has been in the grip of terrorism for the last about three decades. The extremists have no regard for the life and property of innocent people. Bomb blasts, target killings and suicidal attacks have become a normal routine and have created an atmosphere of horror and terror. The business community is constrained to shift its enterprise to the neighboring countries. In these uncongenial circumstances we cannot expect foreign investment in Pakistan. We have been front line partners of America in her war in Afghanistan having suffered heavy losses of life and property. We have spent more than $85 billion to combat terrorism on our streets and alleys. Can’t we ask America to compensate us by paying off our external debt or else we shall be compelled to review our strategic policy? 8. Foreign affairs