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Photosynthesis

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Light dependent Reaction, Calvin Cycle

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Photosynthesis

  1. 1. PHOTOSYNTHESIS JANET BRIGIDA A. CATIPON MHS SCIENCE TEACHER MAE-CHEMISTRY, BSU
  2. 2. LESSON’S OBJECTIVES To identify the structures involved in the food making process in plants To identify the raw materials and end products of Photosynthesis To understand the process of Food Making of Plants
  3. 3. MODULE 4 ECOSYSTEM: Life Energy P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
  4. 4. WHEREDOESPHOTOSYNTHESISTAKEPLACE? Inside the leaves of plants The Chloroplast Thylakoid Membrane of Chloroplast Stroma of the Chloroplast
  5. 5. MODULE 4 ECOSYSTEM: Life Energy P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S Chlorophyll THE CHEMICAL PROCESS
  6. 6. MODULE 4 ECOSYSTEM: Life Energy P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF A LEAF Guard Cell Cuticle Cuticle Mesophyll Cells Upper Epidermis Chloroplasts Palisade Parenchyma Xylem Phloem Lower Epidermis Spongy Mesophyll
  7. 7. MODULE 4 ECOSYSTEM: Life Energy P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S THE CHLOROPLASTS OUTER MEMBRANE INTERMEMBRANE SPACE INNER MEMBRANE GRANUM LAMELLA LUMEN
  8. 8. MODULE 4 ECOSYSTEM: Life Energy P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S INSIDE THE THYLAKOID MEMBRANE THE FIRST STAGE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TAKES PLACE CALLED PHOTOSYSTEM I – LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION. It happens in the presence of light. It occurs inside the thylakoid membrane and converts light energy to chemical energy. Absorbed water through the roots of plants is utilized and facilitates the formation of the electrons and oxygen. The energy harvested in this stage is stored in the form of ATP ( Adenine Triphosphate) and NADPH (Nicotinamide Adenine Diphosphate Hydrogen) ATP and NADPH will be needed in the 2nd stage of Photosynthesis ( Photosystem II) called the Calvin Cycle or Dark Reaction (Light Independent Reaction.
  9. 9. MODULE 4 ECOSYSTEM: Life Energy P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S INSIDE THE THYLAKOID MEMBRANE
  10. 10. MODULE 4 ECOSYSTEM: Life Energy P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S IN THE STROMA THE SECOND STAGE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TAKES PLACE CALLED THE CALVIN CYCLE - LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION OR DARK REACTION. It happens in the STROMA of Chloroplast where the Carbon Dioxide absorbed by the leaves of the plant is converted into sugar. The reaction does not require light from the sun. The reaction is divided into three main stages: carbon fixation, reduction, and regeneration of the starting molecule. In fixation, the first stage of the Calvin cycle, light-independent reactions are initiated; CO2 is fixed from an inorganic to an organic molecule. In the second stage, ATP and NADPH are used to reduce 3-PGA into G3P; then ATP and NADPH are converted to ADP and NADP+, respectively. In the last stage of the Calvin Cycle, RuBP is regenerated, which enables the system to prepare for more CO2 to be fixed.
  11. 11. MODULE 4 ECOSYSTEM: Life Energy P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S THE CALVIN CYCLE
  12. 12. MODULE 4 ECOSYSTEM: Life Energy P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S STAGES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  13. 13. MODULE 4 ECOSYSTEM: Life Energy P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S IMPORTANT TERMS 3PGA 3-phosphoglyceric acid RuBP ribulose1,5-biphosphate. an organic substance that is involved in photosynthesis, reacts with carbon dioxide to form 3-PGA RuBisCo a plant enzyme which catalyzes the fixing of atmospheric carbon dioxide during photosynthesis by catalyzing the reaction between carbon dioxide and RuBP. ATP Adenine Triphosphate NADPH Nicotinamide Adenine Diphosphate Hydrogen ADP Adenine Diphosphate NADP Nicotinamide Adenine Diphosphate Carbon Fixation refers to the conversion process of inorganic carbon (carbon dioxide) to organic compounds by living organisms. Reduction Reduction phase of Calvin Cycle –uses NADPH, ATP, and carbon dioxide (which enters from atmosphere intochloroplast at this time) to make glucose Regeneration With 3molecules of ATP, the remaining five G3P molecules remain in the cycle and are used to regenerate RuBP, which enables the system to prepare for more CO2 to be fixed.

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