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Jon E. Brandt, P.G.  TX AML Program
Resources – extracted for over Mineral 300 years in Texas Most of the mining since 1950 has involved coal, lignite, uran...
 Brief   overview of the Texas AML Program Abandoned       Mine Land Projects  • Summary of completed projects  • Future...
 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) Title   IV – Abandoned Mine Land Recl. Code of Federal Regu...
South TexasInventory Completed by Bureau of Economic Geology in 1989
East TexasInventory Completed by Bureau of Economic Geology in 1990
West TexasInventory Completed by Texas AML Staff in 1991
Over 12,200mine sitesThe majority of thelocations areconstruction-related
I – concerns the protection of Priority public health, safety, general welfare, and property from EXTREME DANGER of adver...
 Dangerous Highwalls (DH) Hazardous Water Body (HWB) Dangerous   Piles & Embankments (DPE) Portals (P) Vertical Openi...
Near Malakoff   Brown Uranium Mine
Near Thurber   Darco Mine
Darco Mine             Sickenius Uranium Mine
Lone Star MineMalakoff
Timpson          Garrison
Malakoff
Marfa-Mariposa MineStudy Butte
 75 contracts 29 coal (17 sites) 31 uranium (16 sites) 16 hardrock (12 sites) 2,500 acres spoil 56,767 ft. highwall...
Archer Co. Copper Mines   Bridgeport                          Coal Mines Thurber Coal   MiningTerlingua Cinnabar       Min...
Franklin               MalakoffMountains   Thurber             Somerset                         Rockdale                  ...
 Palo Pinto, Erath, and  Eastland Counties 1888 to 1930s Bituminous coal  (Pennsylvannian)3   mining companies Texas&...
From Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock(scanned from Thurber, Texas, The Life and Death of a Company    ...
Longwall Mining                     155 – 413 ft. deepAvg. 27-inch seams
Mine No. 9, Texas & Pacific Coal Co.   Shale/gob pile, Strawn Coal Co.
Thurber Brick paved:- Congress Avenue, Austin- Galveston Seawall- Fort Worth Stockyards
 Henderson  County 1890s to 1943 Lignite   (Eocene) Approximately    15    mining companies;    approximately 11    mi...
 Lignite   was found:  • 1 seam  • 6 to 8-feet thick  • 20 to 60-feet deep Earlier        slope mines and later on, vert...
1994      1920s
Lignite discovered here in 1911                                  1991920s or earlier?                                  4Ph...
 Milam County 1890 to 1930s  (underground) Lignite   (Eocene) Around       12 mining companies International-Great No...
 Lignite   was found:                                           • 1 seam                                           • 5 to...
Vogel and Lorenz Coal &                              Manufacturing Co., 1913Milam County Map – 1920s                      ...
Big Lump Company, aroundBlack Diamond Coal Co., 1903                1910, electric haulage       Photo courtesy of Willie,...
N.A.I.P. aerial photograph, 2010Inset: example of undergroundworkings - Texas Coal Co., c. 1913,        Near Rockdale:from...
 Bastrop County 1902 to 1941 Lignite   (Eocene)9  mining companies 23 mines Missouri-Kansas- Texas Railroad
 Lignite   was found:  • 1 to 3 seams  • 3 to 9-feet thick  • 20 to 165-feet deep  • Shafts 40 to 160-feet    deep Slope...
 Consumer’s  Coal Co.          Our Coal Co.Powell Bend     Denison Coal Co.          Calvin Coal Co.          Bastrop...
 Bexar  County Late 1890s to 1930 Lignite (Eocene) Brackenridge             and Kirkwood Mines Artesian   Belt Railroad
 Lignite   was found:  • 1 seam  • 4 to 9-feet thick  • Averages 40-feet deep Slope mines and vertical shafts Subsidenc...
 Two   projects:  • Fall 1985  • Summer 1994
 Brewster   and Presidio  Counties 1890s – 1940s Many     mining companies Mercury (cinnabar), fluorspar, silver, copp...
 Irregular   Ore Zones Prospects    and Mines Shafts,        portals, trenches, pits Shaftdepths range from 50 to 750-...
 Terlingua Study Butte Christmas Mountains Big Bend Nat’l. Park Lone Star / Mariposa Whitroy-Fresno Buena Suerte/Ch...
Backfilling   Grate Closures
Bat Cupola   Bat-friendly Gates
Mortared Walls   CMP Access for Bats
Cable Nets             Recessed Grates
Concrete Caps   Great Views
Four mining periods onMariscal Mountain:1900-1905; Lindsay Mine1917-1919; Ellis Mine1919-1923; Mariscal Mine1941-1943; Viv...
Terlingua in 1936 (Nat’l. ParkService Historic PhotographCollection.).
No. 8 Shaft,                                Sealed in 1986Chisos Mining Company, 1922from Smithers Collection, TheUniversi...
U.S.G.S. Map, 1902
Hill, 1902SmithersCollection,Univ. of Texas
 ElPaso County 1896 to 1910s Mines    and prospects Tin,   copper, and iron
1997   1999
1999   1999
Head frame at Fresno Mine
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program
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Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program

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Presentation given at the 2010 Surface Mine Reclamation Workshop in Bryan, Texas

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Historical Mining in Texas and the Abandoned Mine Land Program

  1. 1. Jon E. Brandt, P.G. TX AML Program
  2. 2. Resources – extracted for over Mineral 300 years in Texas Most of the mining since 1950 has involved coal, lignite, uranium, mercury, and other industrial minerals (talc, sulfur, sand & gravel, etc.)
  3. 3.  Brief overview of the Texas AML Program Abandoned Mine Land Projects • Summary of completed projects • Future work Virtual Tour of Historical Mining in Texas
  4. 4.  Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) Title IV – Abandoned Mine Land Recl. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 30 (Mineral Resources), Part 943: approval of TX AML Program in June 1980.
  5. 5. South TexasInventory Completed by Bureau of Economic Geology in 1989
  6. 6. East TexasInventory Completed by Bureau of Economic Geology in 1990
  7. 7. West TexasInventory Completed by Texas AML Staff in 1991
  8. 8. Over 12,200mine sitesThe majority of thelocations areconstruction-related
  9. 9. I – concerns the protection of Priority public health, safety, general welfare, and property from EXTREME DANGER of adverse affects of mining practices. II – the same, without extreme Priority danger present
  10. 10.  Dangerous Highwalls (DH) Hazardous Water Body (HWB) Dangerous Piles & Embankments (DPE) Portals (P) Vertical Opening (VO) Subsidence (S)
  11. 11. Near Malakoff Brown Uranium Mine
  12. 12. Near Thurber Darco Mine
  13. 13. Darco Mine Sickenius Uranium Mine
  14. 14. Lone Star MineMalakoff
  15. 15. Timpson Garrison
  16. 16. Malakoff
  17. 17. Marfa-Mariposa MineStudy Butte
  18. 18.  75 contracts 29 coal (17 sites) 31 uranium (16 sites) 16 hardrock (12 sites) 2,500 acres spoil 56,767 ft. highwall 350 vertical openings 70 portals $31 million
  19. 19. Archer Co. Copper Mines Bridgeport Coal Mines Thurber Coal MiningTerlingua Cinnabar Mining Houston-Leon Co. Coal Company Eagle Pass Coal Mines
  20. 20. Franklin MalakoffMountains Thurber Somerset Rockdale and Big Bend Bastrop Area
  21. 21.  Palo Pinto, Erath, and Eastland Counties 1888 to 1930s Bituminous coal (Pennsylvannian)3 mining companies Texas& Pacific Railroad
  22. 22. From Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock(scanned from Thurber, Texas, The Life and Death of a Company Town, by John S. Spratt, 1986)
  23. 23. Longwall Mining 155 – 413 ft. deepAvg. 27-inch seams
  24. 24. Mine No. 9, Texas & Pacific Coal Co. Shale/gob pile, Strawn Coal Co.
  25. 25. Thurber Brick paved:- Congress Avenue, Austin- Galveston Seawall- Fort Worth Stockyards
  26. 26.  Henderson County 1890s to 1943 Lignite (Eocene) Approximately 15 mining companies; approximately 11 mining areas Cotton Belt Railroad
  27. 27.  Lignite was found: • 1 seam • 6 to 8-feet thick • 20 to 60-feet deep Earlier slope mines and later on, vertical shafts
  28. 28. 1994 1920s
  29. 29. Lignite discovered here in 1911 1991920s or earlier? 4Photo reprinted in MalakoffNews, Dec. 16, 2006
  30. 30.  Milam County 1890 to 1930s (underground) Lignite (Eocene) Around 12 mining companies International-Great Northern Railroad
  31. 31.  Lignite was found: • 1 seam • 5 to 14-feet thick • 33 to 180-feet deep  (avg. closer to 50-60 ft)Slope Mine, 1890  Slope mines and vertical shafts  Approx. 40 mines Photos courtesy of Willie, Vogel’s first shaft Gus, and Louise Lorenz mine, 1890
  32. 32. Vogel and Lorenz Coal & Manufacturing Co., 1913Milam County Map – 1920s Photo courtesy of Willie, Gus, and Louise Lorenz
  33. 33. Big Lump Company, aroundBlack Diamond Coal Co., 1903 1910, electric haulage Photo courtesy of Willie, Gus, and Photo from Phillips & Worrell, Louise Lorenz 1913
  34. 34. N.A.I.P. aerial photograph, 2010Inset: example of undergroundworkings - Texas Coal Co., c. 1913, Near Rockdale:from Phillips and Worrell Potential Subsidence
  35. 35.  Bastrop County 1902 to 1941 Lignite (Eocene)9 mining companies 23 mines Missouri-Kansas- Texas Railroad
  36. 36.  Lignite was found: • 1 to 3 seams • 3 to 9-feet thick • 20 to 165-feet deep • Shafts 40 to 160-feet deep Slope mines and vertical shafts
  37. 37.  Consumer’s Coal Co.  Our Coal Co.Powell Bend  Denison Coal Co.  Calvin Coal Co.  Bastrop Lignite Coal Co.  Carr Coal Co.  Independence Mining Co.  Belto Coal Co.  Waugh Coal Co.
  38. 38.  Bexar County Late 1890s to 1930 Lignite (Eocene) Brackenridge and Kirkwood Mines Artesian Belt Railroad
  39. 39.  Lignite was found: • 1 seam • 4 to 9-feet thick • Averages 40-feet deep Slope mines and vertical shafts Subsidence Problems
  40. 40.  Two projects: • Fall 1985 • Summer 1994
  41. 41.  Brewster and Presidio Counties 1890s – 1940s Many mining companies Mercury (cinnabar), fluorspar, silver, copper, lead, and zinc
  42. 42.  Irregular Ore Zones Prospects and Mines Shafts, portals, trenches, pits Shaftdepths range from 50 to 750-feet deep
  43. 43.  Terlingua Study Butte Christmas Mountains Big Bend Nat’l. Park Lone Star / Mariposa Whitroy-Fresno Buena Suerte/Chinati Big Bend Ranch S.P. 320 vert. openings 52 portals
  44. 44. Backfilling Grate Closures
  45. 45. Bat Cupola Bat-friendly Gates
  46. 46. Mortared Walls CMP Access for Bats
  47. 47. Cable Nets Recessed Grates
  48. 48. Concrete Caps Great Views
  49. 49. Four mining periods onMariscal Mountain:1900-1905; Lindsay Mine1917-1919; Ellis Mine1919-1923; Mariscal Mine1941-1943; Viviana Mine
  50. 50. Terlingua in 1936 (Nat’l. ParkService Historic PhotographCollection.).
  51. 51. No. 8 Shaft, Sealed in 1986Chisos Mining Company, 1922from Smithers Collection, TheUniversity of Texas, Austin
  52. 52. U.S.G.S. Map, 1902
  53. 53. Hill, 1902SmithersCollection,Univ. of Texas
  54. 54.  ElPaso County 1896 to 1910s Mines and prospects Tin, copper, and iron
  55. 55. 1997 1999
  56. 56. 1999 1999
  57. 57. Head frame at Fresno Mine
  • StanleyDempsey

    Dec. 7, 2020
  • JennyBandy1

    Aug. 18, 2015
  • kennyhowell94

    Dec. 14, 2014

Presentation given at the 2010 Surface Mine Reclamation Workshop in Bryan, Texas

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