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8 muda waste_identifying_preview

As early as in the 1950s, Taichii Ohno (Toyota Motor Company) identified and described in detail 7 Main Types of Waste (Japanese word: MUDA). In LEAN methodology, yet another type of waste appeared in the 1990s, which is unused Human Intellect, or the human potential for streamlining.

What purpose did Toyota pursue? By labelling each type of ineffectiveness and identification of places where they can be hidden. This resulted in an opportunity for taking up effective and system-based actions to fight MUDA. Examples of waste, perfectly described, typical places in which it may occur and its evident consequences .This causes rising awareness among both the management and direct labor, obviously on condition that all are appropriately trained in this field.

Module 14 of LEAN Academy provides an excellent opportunity to use this awareness to improve the skills of effective identifying well-hidden MUDA. Identifying its sources and understanding why it gets rooted so easily in our processes. This knowledge is absolutely indispensable for implementing effective methods of loss elimination as well as for improving the quality of standards and discipline.

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8 muda waste_identifying_preview

  1. 1. © Lean & Mean Consulting. All rights reserved. 2015© Lean & Mean Consulting. All rights reserved. 2016 14/ 16 8 Types of Waste Identifying & Eliminating MUDA World-Class Standards & Best Practices of Operational Excellence
  2. 2. World-Class Standards & Best Practices of Operational Excellence © Lean & Mean Consulting. All rights reserved. 2016 LEAN Management Academy - Outline Knowledge & Expertise / Editable Training Presentations / 16 Modules
  3. 3. 3 Contents What Is Waste?  Paradigms, Continuous Improvement Principles a) Value, Non-Value Added, NVA But Necessary b) Rules to Determine Value Added Activities  How Does Waste Take Root?  Benefits Of Identifying and Eliminating Waste a) Relationship of Waste and KPI’s  8 Types Of Waste (Manufacturing) a) Definition And Examples Of Each Type Of Waste b) Causes Of Each Type Of Waste c) How To Eliminate The Waste
  4. 4. 1 Identifying & Eliminating MUDA Module. 14
  5. 5. 5 Paradigm: A set of rules and regulations that establish boundaries and help solve problems within the boundaries. Paradigms dramatically affect our judgment and our decision making by influencing our perceptions. . Paradigm Effect: We constantly select from the world of data that best fits our rules and regulations and try to ignore the rest. What may be perfectly obvious to a person with one paradigm may be totally imperceptible to someone with a different paradigm .Paradigm Paralysis: The belief that there is and can only be one way to do things, and there is no other or better way. We lock ourselves into one specific way of solving problems. Going Back to Zero Rule: When a paradigm shifts, everyone goes back to zero. Your past success guarantees nothing in the future of paradigms. Paradigm Example: Driver side sliding door No driver side sliding door Paradigms
  6. 6. 6 “Everything that can be invented has been invented.” -Charles H. Duell, Director, US Patent Office, 1899 “Who the wants to hear actors talk.” -Harry M. Warner, Warner Bros. Pictures, 1927 “Heavier than air flying machines are impossible.” -Lord Kelvin, President, Royal Society, 1895 Challenge the Paradigm
  7. 7. 7 What Is Value-Added? Value-Added:  Is any activity that increases the market, form, or function of the product/service: the activity must be done right the first time  These are things the customer is willing to pay for: Customer must recognize the value!  An activity that transforms or changes raw material or information to meet customer requirements: the product must physically change during the process
  8. 8. 8 Traditional Distribution Of Activities Non Value Added (Necessary) 38% Value Added 2% Non-Value Added (Waste) 60%
  9. 9. VA activities NVA activities • Moving Material to a workstation • Processing / assembly • Load, Unload, Start • Batching in between operations • Inspecting • Shipping • Batching in between operations • … • Moving parts between workstations • Restocking (by operators) • Changeover / setup • Waiting / idling • Reworking • Excessive inspecting • …
  10. 10. 10 Waste Takes Root When We Accept Temporary Improvement A Problem Occurs Evading the problem “For the time being, let’s…” Talking about, not doing “Let’s find ways to work around it.” A habit of mind “We’ve always done it like this.” Justification for doing it… “No one has any objection to the way we do this now.” Provisional solution (a stopgap) Ask “why” until root cause is understood Real Improvement Apply best solution Problem is solved Standardize and Communicate Solution
  11. 11. 11 Relationship Of Waste And KPI’s Examples Examples Of KPI’s Examples Of Type Of Wastes Scrap Defects, over-processing Freight Transportation Inventory Over-production, motion, waiting, people Sorting, Containment Defects Overtime Defects, waiting, over-production Lean People Launch People, defects, over-production, over-processing etc. etc.
  12. 12. 1a Identifying & Eliminating MUDA Module. 14
  13. 13. 13 8 Types Of Waste (Manufacturing) Motion Extra physical / mental motion that doesn’t add value Waste Waiting Employees waiting for another process or information Over production Producing more than what the customer needs Intellect Not using employees full intellectual contribution Over processing Adding excess value when the customer does not require it Defects Reprocessing, or correcting work Inventory Building and storing products the customer has not ordered Transportation Moving from one place to another
  14. 14. 14 Transportation  More inventory naturally leads to more transportation  Transportation refers to any conveyance of materials, parts, assembly parts, or finished goods, from one place to another for any reason  Transporting parts and materials around the plant  Material handling is one part of transportation
  15. 15. 15 Motion Waste  Any movement of people or machines that does not add value to the product or service  Motion waste is similar to processing waste but relates more closely to the discrete movements of operators themselves  Motion waste refers to movement that is not really needed to perform an operation
  16. 16. 16 Causes Of Motion Waste Isolated operations:  Poor work layout  Lack of training  Underdeveloped skills  Bad parts presentation Instability in operations:  Increase in staff or worker hours  Working ahead
  17. 17. 17 Re-stocking & walking Bending Pick-up / Return Risk of a hit Crouching Reach up high! Examples Of Motion Waste
  18. 18. 18 How To Eliminate Motion Waste Gradually switch to flow production:  Create U-shaped cell layout of equipment  Make standardization thorough all operations  Increase training  Increase operator’s motion awareness  Improve part presentation based on operators input  Use gravity to our advantage  Use both hands at the same time
  19. 19. 19 How To Eliminate Motion Waste Example: Ergonomics Ace • Observation-based tool (qualitative) • Identify ergonomic issues and improvements • 10 easy to remember items • Useful as Posture technique coaching tool • Check For… – 4 simple solution strategies – Remember Ergonomics-Manufacturing System Wastes
  20. 20. 20 8 Wastes Summary  Transportation  Inventory  Motion  Intellect (Not Utilizing)  Waiting  Over-production  Over-processing  Defects
  21. 21. 21 Eyes For Waste “Just do it” Others Visible Not Visible Be Open Minded Help others to see the opportunity Breakthrough opportunity You Visible Not Visible VA-NVA/Safety Observation Sheet
  22. 22. 2 Identifying & Eliminating MUDA Module. 14
  23. 23. 23 The Three MUs Meaning in English Explanation (using example of Capacity versus Load) Muda • Waste • Capacity exceeds Load Mura • Unevenness • Inconsistency • Variation • Capacity sometimes exceeds the Load • Load sometimes exceeds the Capacity Muri • Overburden • Irrationality • Load exceeds Capacity Explanation of the Three MUs
  24. 24. 24 Classifications Of Waste 5M&QS Waste Classification Material Waste • Of parts • Of bolts • Of welds • Of function • Of Retention Method Waste • Lots production • Inventory • Conveyance • Pick up and setting down work pieces Man (People Related Waste) • Walking • Watching • Searching • Operating • Invisible Management Waste • Materials • Meetings • Management/Control • Communications Safety Waste • In disaster prevention methods • In fixing defects • “Safety first” requires removing all waste that can lead to accidents and/or injuries Machine Waste • Of large machines • Of general purpose machines • Of conveyors • Of machines that “process air” • Created by breakdowns • In machine handling Quality Waste • In making defective goods • In fixing defects • In making mistakes • In Inspection • In quality control
  25. 25. 25 Classifications Of Waste Production Factor Waste Classification Considering the “flow of goods” in production as the basis for finding and eliminating waste. • Retention Stopping flow of goods without adding any value to them. This type of waste creates inventory in different forms: warehouse and in-process inventory. • Conveyance Occurrence whenever goods are being moved without having any value added.
  26. 26. 26 Classifications Of Waste • Processing Related to altering and/or attaching parts or material • Inspection Identification and elimination of defectives from the production flow.
  27. 27. 3 Identifying & Eliminating MUDA Module. 14
  28. 28. 28 1. Using the back door 2. Bringing latent waste to the surface 3. Analyzing current conditions Three Approaches To Discover Waste
  29. 29. 29 1. Look at the three real things:  The factory  The facts  Work-in-process 2. Ask “What?”  Ask what the operation is about 3. Ask “Why?”  Ask why the operation is necessary Five Key Points For Discovering Waste Through The Back Door 4. Everything that is not work is waste  Once you have found out what the operation’s essential function is, you can properly identify as waste everything in the operation that does not directly execute that function 5. Ask “Why?” at least five times to find root causes  Ask why at least five times concerning each wasteful part of the operation. This will lead you to the real waste Draft an improvement plan. Ask “How?”
  30. 30. 30 Analyzing Current Conditions  There are many tools you can use to analyze current conditions quickly and effectively.  In this section, a brief outline of three of the following tools are presented:  Value Stream Mapping  Value-Added Flow Chart  Flow Analysis Chart
  31. 31. 4 Identifying & Eliminating MUDA Module. 14
  32. 32. 32 1. Adopting the necessary attitude for removing waste 2. Removing waste in the movement of goods 3. Removing waste in the actions of people 4. Removing waste in the way people, goods and machines are combined Guidelines for Removing Waste
  33. 33. Removing Waste in the Way People, Goods & Machines Are Combined Identifying & Eliminating MUDA Module. 14
  34. 34. 34 Removing Waste in the Way People, Goods & Machines Are Combined  Remove anything that does not harmonize with production flow by designing the combination of people, materials and machines so that they work in optimum relationship to each other  There are three ways that people and machines can work together  Serial  Partially parallel  Parallel
  35. 35. 35 Serial Operations  In serial operation, the worker and machine take turns adding value to the materials Worker’s operations Machine’s operations 30 seconds 40 seconds Completion time: 70 seconds
  36. 36. 36 Partially Parallel Operations  In a partially parallel operation, worker activity and machine activity overlap: Worker’s operations Machine’s operations 30 seconds 40 seconds Completion time: 50 seconds
  37. 37. 37 Parallel Operations  In parallel operation, worker and machine work side by side at the same time Worker’s operations Machine’s operations 30 seconds 40 seconds Completion time: 40 seconds
  38. 38. 5 Identifying & Eliminating MUDA Module. 14
  39. 39. 39 How to Prevent Waste  There are six important methods for maintaining a waste-free production environment:  Standardization  Visual controls  Auditory controls  5W + 2H
  40. 40. 40 Standardization  Standards are required for:  Machines  Operations  Defining normal and abnormal conditions  Clerical procedures  Procurement
  41. 41. 41 Standardization
  42. 42. 42 Visual & Auditory Controls  In a factory, you need to be responsive to changes in the environment so that problems can be quickly addressed:
  43. 43. 43 Visual & Auditory Controls  There are six visual and auditory tools you can use:  Red-tagging  Signboards  Outlining  Andons  Kanban  Pitch and inspection buzzers
  44. 44. 44 5W & 2H  Remember three essentials for fact-finding:  Go to where the problem occurred  See the problem first-hand  Confirm the facts based on your own observations  Be a walker and an observer:  Supervisors and managers must continually walk through the factory to see that standards are being followed and to practice seeing waste  Operators need to continually examine their own operations and be alert for new problems and new ideas
  45. 45. 45 Waste Finding Format Examples Process Name Transportation Inventory Motion People Waiting Overproduction Overprocessing Defects WasteMagnitud ImprovementRanking Improvement Ideas WASTE FINDING CHECKLIST
  46. 46. 46© Lean & Mean Consulting. All rights reserved. 2016