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Critical Review of Research 1

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Critical Review of Research 1

  1. 1. Running head: CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING Critical Review: Digital game-based learning: Impact of instructions and feedback on motivation and learning effectiveness Jennifer Chang Wathall Student ID 663027 Central Michigan University EDU 800 Instructor: Dr. Michael Dennis Deschryver
  2. 2. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 2 Problem (about 1 page) 1. Identify the clarity with which this article states a specific problem to be explored. The problem stated appears to lack some clarity and consistency. Erhel and Jamet (2013) described the problem to be explored was to investigate under what conditions digital game-based learning (DGBL) is most effective by looking at the type of instructions, learning or entertainment, given to learners and introducing feedback in a DGBL environment. The authors assumed that DGBL is more effective than conventional approaches or media for learning and motivation. In any learning environment, the value on the type of instruction and quality of feedback can enhance learning and promote deep learning. In other words, the positive impact of these conditions can be attributed to these instructional strategies, rather than the DGBL tool itself. The authors concluded that DGBL can promote motivation and learning in all situations if learners are given opportunities to actively process the content. This would be true of any environment not just DGBL. What are the authors trying to prove? Is it whether DGBL is effective for learning and motivation as compared with conventional teaching approaches or whether using different types of instruction and feedback promotes learning and motivation in DGBL? If it is the latter, then many studies have already proven that type of instruction and quality feedback promotes learning. It seems there are two separate problems. The goal of the researchers should have been about using different types of instruction and providing quality feedback in DGBL compared with conventional environments and whether the DGBL enhances learning or results in deeper learning. The article identified the issues with researching the benefits of DGBL compared with conventional approaches in that there are too many uncontrollable variables, but I
  3. 3. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 3 cannot agree that a value-added approach can prove the benefits of DGBL when comparing with conventional media or teaching approaches. This will be addressed later in this paper. 2. Comment on the need for this study and its educational significance as it relates to this problem. Digital game-based learning (DGBL) has grown in popularity in recent years due to the proliferation of children and adolescents spending more time playing video/online games. With this gain in popularity, many researchers have investigated whether DGBL truly impacts learning in a deep and meaningful fashion and, in turn, improves learning and motivation. Most past research on DGBL was highly conflicting in terms if effectiveness on learning and no clear conclusions can be made about whether DGBL has a positive effect on learning and motivation. Most studies have concentrated on the effects of DGBL in learning and motivation compared with conventional environments or conventional media; however, this study takes a value-added approach by looking at the type of instructions and feedback given in a DGBL environment and the impact of these on learning and motivation. In other words, outcomes of learners will be compared when using different versions of the same DGBL tool. This article discussed briefly the benefits of using DGBL and then continued to conduct a study to investigate which the type of instructions given to learners and how giving regular feedback can have more impact on learning and motivation. There is an educational significance in terms of researching whether DGBL environments are beneficial to learning, but I am not convinced that this study achieved this. 3. Comment on whether the problem is “researchable”? That is, can it be investigated through the collection and analysis of data?
  4. 4. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 4 If we are purely looking at collecting data by looking at two different types of instructions- learning and entertainment- and providing regular feedback in DGBL, then the problem is researchable. To begin the experiments with an even playing field, a pretest was given to eliminate any participants who had any prior medical knowledge. The next stage of the data collection involved a survey after the DGBL to assess their motivation. The last survey was completing a questionnaire which included paraphrasing type and inference type questions. Theoretical Perspective and Literature Review (about 3 pages) 4. Critique the author’s conceptual framework. The authors’ conceptual framework is well-researched and supports the benefits of DGBL from an entertainment perspective in terms of motivation and engagement. Several studies have also supported the positive relationship of intrinsic motivation and learning scores in DGBL; however, studies to prove the benefits of DGBL compared with conventional approaches and other media have been inconclusive and even highly contradictory. I completely agree with the authors’ explanations of surface learning and deep learning by Kester, Kirchner, and Corbalan (2007) and confirmed by Sweller (1999). Deep learning involves: “the critical analysis of new ideas, linking them to already known concepts and principles, and leads to understanding and long-term retention of concepts so that they can be used for problem solving in unfamiliar contexts” p158.
  5. 5. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 5 One of the goals for DGBL should be to encourage deep learning, but I think the question should be “Does DGBL enhance deep learning compared with conventional teaching environments?” and not about whether type of instructions and feedback result in deeper learning. The authors claimed that deep learning does occur in DGBL when learning instructions are given and also when entertainment instructions are given alongside feedback, but has learning been enhanced by the use of DGBL? The authors also discussed the difference between an incidental and intentional learning environment and the benefits of an intentional learning environment for eliciting deep learning. I do think the inherent nature of DGBL provides an intentional learning environment for learners which may elicit deeper cognitive processing; however, this is not what the authors focus on. Instead the focus for this study is about the type of instructions given by the teacher, specifically in DGBL to elicit deep learning. If the DGBL environment is well-designed and provides intentional learning opportunities with clear learning instructions, then surely additional instructions are redundant. Many examples exist in mathematics learning which utilize DGBL platforms. Mathletics and Manga High are both DGBL environments which provide learners with an intentional learning environment that is well designed and presents purposeful instructions. The specific DGBL used in this study provided another limitation which will be discussed later in this paper. 5. How effectively does the author tie the study to relevant theory and prior research? Are all cited references relevant to the problem under investigation? The authors began by citing references and research about: • the popularity of DGBL and the need to conduct more research about the effects of DGBL on learning and motivation (Graesser, Chipman, Leeming & Biedenbach,
  6. 6. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 6 2009). This research is relevant to the problem under investigation as video and online gaming gains popularity. • the features of a DGBL (Mayer & Johnson, 2010 and Prenksy, 2001). This research about the main features of DGBL is relevant, so there is a common understanding. • the benefits of DGBL in terms of motivation from an entertainment perspective and include goal orientation (mastery versus performance), intrinsic/ extrinsic motivation, interest and self-efficacy. This research is relevant to the problem presented as the impact on DGBL and motivation is one of the aims. • benefits of DGBL compared with conventional teaching and using conventional media. Generally, the studies cited are inconclusive and highly contradictory in regards to whether DGBL has a positive effect on learning and motivation. This is where the mismatch lies in this study. The study is trying to prove the effectiveness of DGBL by using a value-added approach without looking at a baseline for learning and motivation without DGBL. • the importance of different types of instructions and feedback to allow for cognitive processing in an educational setting in general. The research here is relevant to the problem under investigation and provides a justification to why the researchers chose to look at types of instruction and feedback. The authors have applied this research previously based in conventional environments to DGBL environment. 6. Does the literature review conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications for the problem investigated? There is a brief summary of the literature, and a justification is provided by the authors in terms of why they chose the value-added approach. The authors explain many
  7. 7. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 7 studies have compared DGBL with conventional media and are inconclusive when it comes to motivation and learning so suggest looking at one variable initially; type of instruction to investigate the effectiveness on motivation and learning in DGBL. The study conducted a second experiment to look at the effects of each type of instruction with feedback. 7. Evaluate the clarity and appropriateness of the research questions or hypotheses. The purpose of the first experiment was to investigate the hypothesis that learning instruction would impact learners by encouraging them to pursue mastery goals while entertainment instruction would encourage performance goals. Mastery goals are when a learner is motivated to develop or master new skills or knowledge while performance goals are when learners are motivated by one’s ability to succeed. Since the first experiment failed to reveal any relationship between the type of instruction and either mastery or performance goals, the authors embarked on a second experiment. The second experiment looked at the effects of adding feedback in the form of a knowledge of correct response (KCR) and hypothesized that KCR feedback would reduce redundant, low level thinking, resulting in learning to be more relevant with both learning and entertainment instruction. The aim stated is as follows: “to demonstrate that the presence of KCR feedback in the quizzes of a digital learning game can modify learning strategies induced by the instructions” (p163). The two hypotheses based on the two experiments were rather unclearly stated in the body of the paper making them difficult to identify. The appropriateness of these hypotheses is also to be questioned. How can looking at the types of instruction and giving feedback in a DGBL prove that DGBL is more effective for learning and motivation compared with other environments?
  8. 8. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 8 Research Design and Analysis (about 3 pages) 8. Critique the appropriateness and adequacy of the study’s design in relation to the research questions or hypotheses. For the two experiments the authors’ chose to use five experimental phases. Phase one consisted of a pretest on prior knowledge of the DBGL topic: age associated diseases. Participants that scored above three out of six were removed from the next stages of the experiment. Here I question the small number of questions given in the pretest and whether there was an opportunity for participants to guess questions. In addition, since the questions were not related to the DGBL topic, how did the authors know that participants did not have any prior or personal experience with aging associated diseases. To overcome this limitation a questionnaire about the participant’s medical history and experience could have been administered. Phase two consisted of participants following a DGBL simulation on four age associated diseases: Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, myocardial infarction and stroke. Again, I reiterate how did the authors know that participants did not have any personal experience or prior knowledge of any of these four diseases. Phase three consisted of participants completing a quiz about the four diseases with phase four asking participants to fill in questionnaires about motivation in terms of mastery and performance goals and intrinsic motivation items. The final phase consisted of a questionnaire solely based on their knowledge and included two different types of questions: paraphrase type questions measuring memorization and inference type questions which involve more intellectual engagement and comprehension.
  9. 9. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 9 I am surprised that there was no control group to compare the results of groups that received no instruction or feedback. Including a control group would have allowed the authors to rule out other variables that may have influenced the experiment. At the end of this article authors state one of the objectives for this study was to answer the question “Is deep learning compatible with serious games?” (p. 165). In my opinion, this objective/ research question was not clearly stated from the outset. One of the hypothesis presented is “the learning instruction would result in significantly higher scores on the different learning assessments, especially on inference-type questions assessing the quality of deep learning” and the design of the experiment did set it to prove or disprove this. 9. Critique the adequacy of the study’s sampling methods (e.g., choice of participants) and their implications for generalizability. For experiment one the authors’ chose 46 participants (24 women, 22 men) aged 18- 26 years who were all university undergraduates. Choosing an age group from 18-26 years presents limitations with the use of DGBL. This sample represents an older generation that may not have had a lot of exposure to DGBL so experience and comfort levels with using a DGBL may vary and bias the results. This group was then split into the learning (9 men, 15 women) and entertainment groups (9 men, 15 women). In terms of statistical analysis each group is too small in terms of a sample. Most recommendations for data collection are to have at least 30 data points and I would have recommended at least 30 for each group. From the pretest results, more participants were excluded further reducing the sample size.
  10. 10. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 10 In the second experiment, a new group of participants were recruited and consisted of 16 men and 28 women totaling 44. This represents a slight gender imbalance which could further skew results. Men may have more tendencies to be more competitive compared with women and this may be highlighted more in DGBL. Perhaps gender difference may also reveal a difference in preference for either mastery or performance goals in terms of motivation. From the pretest four participants were excluded and if all of these were men then the imbalance between genders would have been even more pronounced, skewing results further. In terms of generalizability of this study I would question the external validity of this study’s sampling methods. Due to the gender imbalances, the small sample sizes and the restricted age group the experiment would not be generalizable across the general population. 10. Critique the adequacy of the study’s procedures and materials (e.g., interventions, interview protocols, data collection procedures). The authors collected data based on a pretest and a quiz about the topic of the DGBL: the four age associated diseases after DGBL. From the pretest participants who scored higher then 50% were eliminated from the experiment. The pretest did not involve any questions about the topic of the DGBL so it is difficult to ascertain whether the participants who were not eliminated had any prior knowledge or personal experience of the DGBL topic namely four aged associated disease. Data was also collected through questionnaires about motivation using performance and mastery questions and three intrinsic motivation items. The last stage of the data collection process was to ask participants to answer two types questions based on the DGBL topic. The two types of questions were paraphrasing questions and inference type questions
  11. 11. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 11 that required more comprehension. It is important to distinguish between the two types of questions given to participants to attempt to collect data about memory recall or whether the conditions such as type of instruction and feedback in an DGBL environment led to deep learning. 11. Critique the appropriateness and quality (e.g., reliability, validity) of the measures used. Reliability of the measures used refers to the consistency of the measurements and if the experiment was to be repeated whether the experiment would yield the same results. There are some reliability issues in both experiments in terms of the small number of participants in each type of instruction group and the gender imbalance. This sampling problem can cause a random error in the measurements and data collected and if this experiment were to be repeated could yield completely different results. The most common measure of reliability is using the reliability coefficient and this study did not include this calculation to check for reliability. Typical methods in social research include: test-retest, alternative forms, split halves, inter-rater reliability and internal consistency. The only internal consistency that could be observed was that the procedures were the same for both experiment one and two. There is no mention in the study of measuring the internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The most important method to increase an experiment’s reliability is to increase the length of measures, in this case the survey questions. In the pretest, there were only six questions given and in the questionnaire asking paraphrasing and inference type questions there were only eight questions in total. Validity is concerned with how well does a test measure what the researchers have set out to measure and can relate to the credibility of qualitative research. There are four
  12. 12. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 12 types of validity and they are: statistical conclusion validity, internal validity, construct validity and external validity. This study is lacking construct validity which refers to how well an idea had been transformed or translated into a “functioning and operating reality” (Drost, 2011). The authors attempt to prove the benefits of DGBL in learning and motivation based on looking at types of instruction and giving feedback in DGBL. Proving deep learning is present by using different instructions or feedback in a DGBL does not prove that the DGBL itself was the cause of the deep learning. Any learning environment will promote deep learning with different types of instructions and providing quality feedback. This study is also lacking external validity in that the conclusions cannot be generalized to the general population, settings or at a different time. As mentioned before, the sampling methods used in this study have to be called into question in terms of the external validity. C. Interpretation and Implications of Results (about 3 pages) 13. Critique the author’s discussion of the methodological and/or conceptual limitations of the results. There are three main limitations discussed in this study: issues arising from the choice of the specific DGBL, data collected from the quizzes on the DGBL and the methodology that was employed. The choice of the DGBL (ASTRA) proposed limitations as it was not a well-designed, interactive DGBL example. This is a valid limitation. Many mathematical DGBL examples are highly interactive, provide quality feedback during DGBL and have specific learning intentions. ASTRA on the other hand encouraged very little interaction and appeared to be more of a video presentation rather than providing authentic DGBL. ASTRA could be seen as a flipped classroom tool providing direct
  13. 13. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 13 instruction rather than a competitive, interactive DGBL where learners respond dynamically by being given challenges at different levels. The second limitation was that generally participants scored highly on the quizzes so there were very few opportunities to receive feedback. This means that feedback alone cannot be attributed to deep learning as participants received very little feedback overall. The third limitation outlined the issue with the methodology in terms of using offline data to measure the effects of learning or entertainment instruction. This limitation is less clearly stated and perhaps implies that real time collection of data may be more useful in order to investigate whether the time taken for deep processing when feedback is provided is relevant. 14. How consistent and comprehensive are the author’s conclusions with the reported results? The authors conclusions are inconsistent in terms of the reported results. The results from experiment one conclude that learning instruction as opposed to entertainment instruction in a DGBL environment resulted in higher comprehension scores but had no effect on motivation. The second experiment concluded from the results that the entertainment instruction group performed better on the comprehension questions once feedback was provided. The final conclusion was that entertainment instruction should not be used in DGBL and is not effective for learning. However, in the second experiment entertainment instruction with feedback was found to have an effect on inference type questions and comprehension. These are two conflicting conclusions, however to give credit
  14. 14. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 14 where it is due, the authors do recognize the fact they cannot explain why the entertainment instruction was better than the learning instruction in experiment two. 15. How well did the author relate the results to the study’s theoretical base? The first experiment failed to find any effects of DGBL and motivation however results were significantly higher in the inference type questions quiz compared with the paraphrasing type questions for the learning instruction group suggesting that learning instruction may impact comprehension and deep learning in a DGBL. I pose the question “How can learners not be able to recall memorized facts but still comprehended and answer higher order questions?” Without some factual base learners would surely struggle to comprehend and answer higher level questions, in my opinion. 16. In your view, what is the significance of the study, and what are its primary implications for theory, future research, and practice? The conclusions drawn are inconsistent with the reported results. The main conclusions drawn are that learning instruction in DGBL elicited deeper learning compared with entertainment instruction however when feedback was introduced entertainment instruction resulted in deeper learning. Based on this no conclusion about the type of instructions and the effect in motivation and learning can be made for DGBL. The two variables: type of instruction and feedback in DGBL, could be used in a conventional teaching environment and be just as effective or better to promote deep learning. How do we attribute deeper learning to the DGBL environment compared with conventional environments or other media? The SAMR (Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition by Puendetura, 2007) model for technology integration suggests that digital
  15. 15. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 15 tools should be used to encourage higher order cognitive processing. The goal of this model is to use technology to promote higher levels of achievement. In this particular study, the DGBL tool ASTRA appeared to be using technology as a substitution/ augmentation level and as a result, the deep learning that occurred in terms of the inference type of questions cannot be attributed to DGBL. Future research should look at the design of DGBL and how this fits in with the SAMR model as illustrated in figure 1. A well designed DGBL tool should be aiming towards the redefinition level by creating an opportunity for learners to experience deeper learning that was previously inconceivable with conventional approaches. The goal of modification and redefinition is to enhance learning and promote deeper cognitive processing and any digital tool needs to address this in the design stage. So far, the research is inconclusive and fails to find a positive link between DGBL and learning and motivation compared with conventional environments of media. Figure 1 SAMR Model Puentedura, R. (2013) SAMR Model. Retrieved from http://www.hippasus.com/rrpweblog/
  16. 16. CRITICAL REVIEW OF DIGITAL GAME-BASED LEARNING 16 References Drost, Ellen. (2011). Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research. Education Research and Perspectives. 38. 105-124. Erhel, S. & Jamet, É. (2013). Digital game-based learning: Impact of instructions and feedback on motivation and learning effectiveness. Computers & Education. 67. 156-167. 10.1016/j.compedu.2013.02.019. Puentedura, R. (2013). SAMR: A Contextualised Introduction. Retrieved from http://www.hippasus.com/rrpweblog/archives/2013/10/25/SAMRAContextualizedIntroduction.pdf

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