Constantino, Jerel. Potential eligible ridesharing areas for Sacramento. https://jpconstantino.maps.arcgis.com/apps/Minimalist/index.html?
appid=5a34d11e46584c43bf0ef107a104db8f. Also at goo.gl/dfvrv4.
 Kevin DeGood and Andrew Schwartz. Can New Transportation Technologies Improve Equity and Access to Opportunity. Washington DC: Center for American
Progress, 2016. Accessed December 1, 2016. https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/20121438/TransportEquity1.pdf.
 Results based on author’s calculation from National Transit Database, Lyft Fare Estimator, Google Maps Trip Planner, CA Dept. of Industrial Relations.
Displacement in inner-cities has pushed former
residents to the suburbs, contributing to the
suburbanization of poverty. However, transit is not
walkable for many in the sprawl. It is neither cost-
effective nor time-effective for transit authorities to
extend fixed-line bus service into areas outside of
major road arteries. 
Public subsidies for ride-shares can be an alternative
solution to extending the reach of transit.
APPROACH: A THEORETICAL PILOT FOR SACRAMENTO RT
• Defining boundaries: Areas not in the walk-shed from
Regional Transit (RT) light-rail stops and corridors with
frequent bus service, but within RT’s service area. (F.1.)
• Determining eligibility: Identify ‘disadvantaged’
communities not within the transit walk-shed. (F.1.)
• Setting the subsidy: A $3 subsidy would bring the
minimum cost of a ride-share to $2.75 per user.
Subsidies can be applied for first-and-last mile
connections to transit, or be combined among users
to fund carpools.
• A 1% reduction in RT’s revenue bus service yields a
cost savings of $830,440, which is sufficient to provide
for 276,813 rides. This total would allow RT to offer $3
subsidies for a year’s worth of commutes —480 rides—
for 576 individuals. 
• Carpools can cut costs for each user in half.
• Results from a hypothetical commute under the pilot
program from Upper Land Park, a disadvantaged tract
within the highest average percentile, to the South
Sacramento Industrial Area: (F.2.)
• Current Transit: 78 minutes. $2.75 fare card.
• Transit and ride-share: 42% reduction in commute
time. 92% increase in cost to user.
• Carpool ride-share only: 79% reduction in commute
time. 1.09% increase in cost to user.
• Compared to RT’s current operating expense of $5.70
per unlinked bus passenger trip, a $3 ride-share subsidy
per participant will yield a 47% decrease in costs. 
• Transit authorities should design pilot programs for ride-
• To minimize vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and costs,
shared rides through carpools should be prioritized.
• Investments in fixed-rail lines to suburbs, and
pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure —especially in
disadvantaged communities— should remain the
priority for budgets.
• Governments should explore redistributive taxes
imposed on premium ride-share tiers (UberLux, Lyft
Premier) to fund transportation equity programs.
• Utilize funding opportunities from the Federal Transit
Authority’s (FTA) Mobility-on-Demand (MOD) Sandbox
F.2. Commute times in minutes. Includes cost of trip, expressed in work-hours, at CA 2017 minimum wage rate, needed to recuperate cost. 
30 60 90
F.1. Darkened areas indicate
‘disadvantaged’ tracts [defined
as at or above the local mean
CalEnviroScreen score of 28]
which are outside of the transit
walk-shed of 0.5 mile from rail,
0.25 mile from bus [filter
applied: bus lines with < 30
min. service frequency]. 
ArcGIS map with demographic layers at:
IV: TRANSIT ONLY
(INDIVIDUAL, NO SPLIT)
DV: TRANSIT & RIDE-SHARE
(INDIVIDUAL, NO SPLIT)
DV: CARPOOL RIDE-SHARE ONLY
(SPLIT BETWEEN 2 PASSENGERS)
University of California, Santa Barbara
Can Technology-Enabled Mobility Help Improve Social Mobility
By Overcoming Barriers to Physical Mobility?SMART CONNECTIONS
Governor’s Office of Planning and Research
University of California Center Sacramento