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The Spanish American War

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The Spanish American War

  1. 1. The Spanish-American War April 25 1898- August 12, 1898
  2. 2. Causes of War <ul><li>Cuban independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under Spanish rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebellion b/c of lack of reforms (1895) under leadership of Jose Marti. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans were sympathetic to Cuban independence. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. General Weyler Y Nicolau <ul><ul><li>To quell rebellion, Spain sent General Valeriano Weyler Y Nicolau (the Butcher) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Got name in Ten Years War (1868-1878) b/c of ruthless suppression. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rounded up peasants and put into concentration camps! Thousands died of starvation and disease. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Response to Weyler <ul><li>Brutality of Weyler angered Americans and the press sensationalized the stories of atrocities </li></ul><ul><li>Weyler was recalled by the Spanish Government. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Causes of War <ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manifest Destiny – United States had the right to expand its territory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The media supported this idea </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Media <ul><li>William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer promoted manifest destiny and war. </li></ul><ul><li>Published sensational stories about Cuba calling for the U.S. to take the Cuban side. – Yellow Journalism </li></ul>
  7. 7. The USS Maine <ul><li>Sent to Havana to protect U.S. citizens in Cuba. </li></ul><ul><li>Underwater explosion destroyed Maine and killed 266 soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Papers blamed the Spanish and the national battle cry became – “Remember the Maine!” </li></ul>
  8. 8. The USS Maine
  9. 9. Declaration of War <ul><li>Even though Spain had agreed to a peace plan President McKinley asked Congress to grant the U.S. permission to intervene in Cuba. </li></ul><ul><li>He said it was “in the name of humanity.” </li></ul><ul><li>April 20 1898 Congress recognized Cuba’s independence and agreed to send U.S. Military to secure it. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fighting in Cuba The Caribbean Theater <ul><li>U.S was unprepared for war in Cuba. </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers had little training and bad supplies. (wool uniforms…) </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers landing in Daquiri Bay, Cuba </li></ul>
  11. 11. Blockade of Cuba <ul><li>Needed to cut supplies off from Spain. Then Spain could not maintain itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Navy had to be destroyed </li></ul>
  12. 12. Santiago <ul><li>Aim was to take the area north of Santiago. </li></ul><ul><li>This would allow the U.S. to aim guns down on the Spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>Had to capture El Caney and San Juan Hill </li></ul><ul><li>El Caney was taken with one U.S. division/ </li></ul>
  13. 13. San Juan Hill <ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt led a Calvary unit known as the Rough Riders (about 1,000 men) </li></ul><ul><li>The men had to charge Kettle Hill to San Juan hill and flanked the Spanish fortification. </li></ul><ul><li>They had to do this on foot b/c their horses had not been shipped to Cuba. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Roosevelt called the day of the battle – the greatest day of his life.
  15. 15. Rough Riders on San Juan Hill
  16. 16. The Philippines The Pacific Theater <ul><li>The Philippines was a Spanish colony and the U.S. had to wipe out naval bases on this Island as well as Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt cabled Commodore George Dewey to attack the Philippines if the U.S. went to war. </li></ul><ul><li>On May 1 1898, Dewey’s fleet sailed into Manila Bay, and destroyed the Spanish fleet within hours. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Battle of Manila Bay
  18. 18. <ul><li>A Filipino rebellion against the Spanish had been in progress when Dewey landed in Manila. </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey used the rebels, led by Emilio Aguinaldo to help him defeat the Spanish on land </li></ul>
  19. 19. Emilio Aguinaldo
  20. 20. Defeat and Peace Treaty <ul><li>The Spanish surrendered in the Philippines on August 14 1898 and in Cuba on July 17, 1898. </li></ul><ul><li>Peace treaty was signed on December 10, 1898 in Paris </li></ul>
  21. 21. Conditions of Peace <ul><li>Spain leaves Cuba under temporary U.S. control . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. could not take over Cuba b/c of Teller Amendment, which in order for the U.S. to declare war it was prevented from taking over Cuba </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain ceded Puerto Rico, and Guam to the U.S. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Results of War <ul><li>Ended Spain’s colonial Empire </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. emerged as a world power and a military power </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. established rule in the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>5400 American soldiers died </li></ul><ul><ul><li>400 in battle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And the rest from disease and food poisoning </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Conditions of Peace <ul><li>Spain gave up the Philippines in return for a U.S. payment of $20 million. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Philippines <ul><li>Debate on annexation of the Philippines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For annexation: Filipinos were not ready for self-government and if the U.S. did not help some other European country would. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Against annexation: region was not vital to U.S. interests and was against principles of democracy </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. U.S. maintained military presence in the Philippines <ul><li>Tensions intensified with U.S. troops and Filipino rebels </li></ul><ul><li>War with Filipino rebels lasted more that 2 years – very bloody </li></ul><ul><li>Filipino troops used guerrilla warfare to battle the U.S. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Results of Filipino insurrection <ul><li>200,000-600,000 Filipinos died (most b/c of disease and famine) </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer than 5,000 U.S. soldiers died. </li></ul><ul><li>Revolt was subdued in 1901 when rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo, swore allegiance to the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Philippines gained independence from the U.S. in 1946 (July 4) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Sites <ul><li>http://www.spanam.simplenet.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://encarta.msn.com/find/Concise.asp?ti=03A9F000 </li></ul><ul><li>http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/events/spanam/eve-pge.htm </li></ul>

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