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Friday xpress

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Friday xpress

  1. 1. Evolution of TechnologyEvolution of Technology
  2. 2. Evolution of 1GEvolution of 1GThe first commercially automated cellular network (the 1G generation) was launched in Japan by NTT(Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) in 1979.Within five years, the NTT network had been expanded to cover the whole population of Japan andbecame the first nationwide 1G network.History of 1GSpeed1G speeds vary between that of a 28k modem(28kbit/s) and 56k Modem(56kbit/s),meaning actual download speeds of 2.9KBytes/s to 5.6KBytes/s.What is 1g1G refers to the first-generation of Wireless telephone technology, mobiletelecommunications. It uses digital signalling to connect the radio towers(which listen to the handsets) to the rest of the telephone system
  3. 3. Evolution of 2GEvolution of 2GWhat is 2g2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Second generation 2G cellulartelecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (nowpart of Elisa Oyi) in 1991.It enablesthe various mobile phone networks to provide the services such astext messages, picture messages and MMS (multi media messages).About 2Gtechnologies2G technologies can be divided into TDMA(GSM)-based and CDMA-based standards depending onthe type of multiplexing used. The main 2G standards are GSM (TDMA-based), originally from Europe but used in almost all countries on all six inhabitedcontinents. Today accounts for over 80% of all subscribers around the world. CDMA-based, commonly referred as simply CDMA in the US), used in the Americas and parts ofAsia. Today accounts for about 17% of all subscribers globally. Over a dozen CDMA operators havemigrated to GSM including operators in Mexico, India, Australia and South Korea
  4. 4. Advancement of 2GAdvancement of 2G2.5G (GPRS)2.5G ("second and a half generation") is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a packet-switched domain in addition to the circuit-switched domain• The first major step in the evolution of GSM networks to 3G occurred with the introduction ofGeneral Packet Radio Service (GPRS). It can be used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol(WAP) access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), and for Internet communication services such asemail and World Wide Web access2.75G(EDGE)GPRS1 networks evolved to EDGE networks with the introduction of 8PSK encoding. EnhancedData rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier(IMT-SC) is a backward-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved datatransmission rates
  5. 5. Evolution of 3GEvolution of 3GWhat is 3g3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications is a generation of standards for mobile phones andmobile telecommunication services fulfilling the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile Internet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobileenvironment. Its basic feature of 3G Technology is fast data transfer rates.11 December 2008, India entered the 3G arena with the launch of 3G enabled Mobile and Dataservices by Government owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd MTNL in Delhi and later inMumbai. MTNL becomes the first 3G Mobile service provider in India. After MTNL, anotherstate operator Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. (BSNL) launched 3G services on 22 Feb 2009 inChennai and later launched 3G as Nationwide. The auction of 3G wireless spectrum wasannounced in April 2010 and 3G Spectrum allocated to all private operators on 1 September 2010.Entrance of 3g inIndia
  6. 6. Advancement of 3GAdvancement of 3GThese radio technologies operate under CDMA, TDMA and FDMA.CDMA holds for IMT-DS(direct spread), IMT-MC (multi carrier). TDMA accounts for IMT-TC (time code), IMT-SC (singlecarrier). FDMA has only one radio interface known as IMT-FC or frequency code 3GTechnologies holds the vision that they should be expandable on demand. The aim of the 3G(Third Generation Technology) is to allow for more coverage and growth with minimum investment. There are many 3G technologies as W-CDMA, GSM EDGE, UMTS, WiMax and CDMA2000.Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution or EDGE is termed to as a backward digitaltechnology, because it can operate with older devices.EDGE allows for faster data transfer than existing GSM.EDGE was introduced by AT& T in2003.EDGE has increased the GSM coverage up to three times more.UMTS is a complex network and allows for covering radio access, core network•WiMax is a 3G Technology and it is referred to as worldwide interoperability for microwave access.It is a wireless technology. It transmits variety of wireless signals. It can be operated on the multipoint and point modes. it is portable technologyAbout 3Gtechnologies
  7. 7. Evolution of 4GEvolution of 4GIn telecommunications, 4G is the fourth generation of cell phone mobile communications standards.It is a successor of the third generation (3G) standards. A 4G system provides mobile ultra-broadbandInternet access, for example to laptops with USB wireless modems, to smartphones, and to othermobile devices. Conceivable applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gamingservices, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing and 3D television.What is 4gRequirement set by International TelecommunicationsUnion-Radio communications sector (ITU-R)• Peak data rates of up to approximately 100 Mbit/s for high mobility such as mobile access and up toapproximately 1 Gbit/s for low mobility such as nomadic/local wireless access.• Dynamically share and use the network resources to support more simultaneous users per cell.• Scalable channel bandwidth 5–20 MHz, optionally up to 40 MHz.• Peak link spectral efficiency of 15 bit/s/Hz in the downlink, and 6.75 bit/s/Hz in the uplink(meaning that 1 Gbit/s in the downlink should be possible over less than 67 MHz bandwidth).• System spectral efficiency of up to 3 bit/s/Hz/cell in the downlink and 2.25 bit/s/Hz/cell for indoorusage• Smooth handovers across heterogeneous networks.• Ability to offer high quality of service for next generation multimedia support.
  8. 8. Advancement of 4GAdvancement of 4GYet to launch 4G inIndiaIn India the reliance industries will start offering 4G services probably in the summer of this year.Sources within the RIL, headed by Mukesh Ambani, revealed to The Economic Times that it plansto provide 4G connectivity to 700 cities by June of this year, which will definitely be a big steptoward its developing India.RIL will be touting speeds of up to 50–100 Mbps on its network.Taking this into account, low costs and high speed are the main avenues through which it will risein the market, with its speed being 7 times that of 3G.It is also planning to launch low-cost datacards and Android-powered tablets to counter the price-sensitive market of India4G applications are set to evolve in a multiplatformenvironment. 4G apps will be available across various wirelesstechnologies like LTE, Wi-Fi, etc., and also in devices like cellphones, laptops, e-readers, digital cameras, printersDiverse uses of 4G

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    Oct. 27, 2013


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