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Attention: Basics of Psychology

B.Sc Nursing Psychology: Attention.

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Attention: Basics of Psychology

  1. 1. Attention Mr. Johny Kutty Joseph Assistant Professor SMVDCoN
  2. 2. Meaning of Attention • It is essential for acquiring the knowledge. • It is not awareness. • “Act of directing one’s thought” towards a particular act or object • Concentration or focusing of consciousness upon one object • Eg. Military command – prepares a soldier for an action -Woodworth
  3. 3. Definitions of Attention • Attention is the concentartion of consciousness upon one object rather than upon another. - Dumville, 1938 • Attention is the process of getting an object of thought clearly before the mind -Ross (1951) • Process which compels the individual to select some particular stimulus according to his interest and attitude out of the multiplicity of stimuli present in the environment -Sharma R. N. (1967)
  4. 4. Characteristics • It is Selective mental activity: It is a filtering process through which we respond selectively to the incoming stimuli. We may ignore something or accept something else. • Shifting from one object to another. :Attracted by new things. It is not a fixed thing. Shifting eyes from one part of the body others. • Makes clear in our consciousness the object which we attend to: Arouses the individual to attend the particular objects • Creates a attentive attitude of the individual. • It creates motor adjustments such as muscles and sense organs to improve the response.
  5. 5. Determinants/Factors of Attention • External/Objective Factors. • Internal/Subjective Factors.
  6. 6. External/Objective Factors. • Intensity of Stimulus: loud sounds, bright lights, intense odor (strong or weak stimuli). • Change in intensity/quality of stimulus: a loud noise outside the ward, sudden decrease in breath rate. • Movement: moving objects attract more attention. Eg. LED boards. • Size: large object/small object against large background attract attention. • Contrast: Eg. Spot on clean dress, color combinations. • Novelty: Eg. Unique equipment, design or fasion. • Repetition: Repeated exposure Eg. Summary of class. • Definite shape: attending the figure more than background.
  7. 7. Internal/Subjective Factors. • Interest: purpose and taste of changes according to age, sex. Eg. Dress, automobile, preferences. • Habits & Attitude: personal habits, occupation, profession. A sports person observes sports page on news paper/TV. • Motives & Organic States: drives and physical/psychological status. Hungry child cry at the bottle avoiding favorite toys. • Emotions: A sleepy mother is not disturbed by a sound at home but faint cry of the child wakes her up. • Past Experiences: Checking the expiry date of product before purchasing based on pat experiences. • Value and Purpose of the stimulus. Eg. Prevent forgetfulness by keeping costly products.
  8. 8. Types of Attention Attention Non- volitional Enforced Spontaneous Volitional Implicit Explicit
  9. 9. – Non-volitional: attention aroused without will. • Enforced –(sustained by instincts): Eg. Attraction to opposite sex. • Spontaneous -(sustained by a sentiment): mothers attention to child’s cry. – Volitional: Voluntary with will. There is always a goal behind it. • Implicit -(obtained by a single act of will)Eg. Attending to a mathematical problem when teacher threatens of punishment. • Explicit -(obtained by repeated acts of will. It requires strong will power and strong motives.) Eg. Attention paid during examination.
  10. 10. Meaning: Degree/Span of Attention • Attention may not be constricted to one object at a time; it may be more than one objects. • Span means the number of objects or events one individual can attend to at a given time • It is a threshold to perceive at a glance at a given duration of exposure: At a glance how many letters, digits one can see and reproduce • Amount of information which can be received from a complex stimulus in a single moment. • It is different from duration of attention. Eg. Remembering phone no., learning spelling etc.
  11. 11. Test Span of Attention
  12. 12. Test Span of Attention • How many birds are flying in given sceneries? • How many windows does the house has? • How many trees are in the sceneries? • Does the house has a chimney? • How many doors does the house has?
  13. 13. Definition of Span of attention
  14. 14. Measured by Tachistoscope A tachistoscope is a device that displays an image for a specific amount of time. It can be used to increase recognition speed, to show something too fast to be consciously recognized, or to test which elements of an image are memorable. Before computers became common, tachistoscopes were used extensively in psychological research to present visual stimuli for controlled durations.
  15. 15. Duration of Attention • It is defined as the length of one’s ability to pay attention toward perceived stimuli. It is understood under two divisions. a. Shifting /fluctuation of attention: in the course of time the centre our consciousness shifts either from one stimulus to another stimulus or from one part to another part in the same stimulus. We have central and marginal consciousness. A wall clock in a room is central consciousness and other things in the room are marginal. b. Sustained attention: done with the help of strong desire. Continuous concentration on one happening/object. Eg. A hunter waits for his shot, solving a Math’s problem.
  16. 16. Alteration in attention/Distraction • It is the changes in the forms, modes and quality of the attention paid to a stimulus. Kind of stimulus which distracts our attention from the objects which we are focusing • A distracter may be defined as any stimulus whose presence interferes with the process of attention. • Example: -Sound of music played on streets – disturbs – attention of the students in a classroom
  17. 17. Causes of Distraction • Internal: headache, stomachache, emotional disturbance, anxiety, mis- happening etc. • External: noise, music, improper lighting, uncomfortable seats, unfavorable temperature, inadequate ventilation, improper behavior of person dealing with us.
  18. 18. Methods of Eliminating Distraction • Much emphasis and importance must be given to the task • Create favorable situation • Make lesson interesting • Training in concentration • Attention-distracting objects removed from the neighborhood • Encounter same type of distraction everyday – used to them and start ignoring it
  19. 19. Inattention • The absence of attention to a particular stimuli. • Its outward signs – a. The student is careless about the object which of primary attention b. Movement of students’ eyes are random and not fixed c. Seems to be perplexed – does not understand and receive clear impressions d. Seems to be restless and writhing/squirming movements of the body. Restlessness.
  20. 20. Causes of Inattention Lack of interest or need Fatigue Presence of distraction Lack of Motivation
  21. 21. Types of Inattention • Absolute in attention: disappearance of complete consciousness. • Partial in-attention: careless attention/ low intensified attention.
  22. 22. Nursing Implications • Receive necessary instructions from attending doctors, change of shift etc. • Alertness for execution of professional duties. • One nurse has to take care of more than one patients. • Overcome the obstacles of attention by removing internal and external distractions.
  23. 23. THANK YOU