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MacGregor’s XY Theory and Ouchi’s Theory Z

MacGregor’s XY Theory and Ouchi’s Theory Z:


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MacGregor’s XY Theory and Ouchi’s Theory Z

  1. 1. Theories X,Y, and Z Douglas MacGregor and William Ouchi Management Styles
  2. 2. 2 Theory X and Theory Y Management Approaches Introduced by Douglas Macgregor in 1960 • MacGregor was a student of Abraham Maslow, creator of the Hierarchy of Needs • Theory X and Theory Y are assumptions about all employee personalities made by a manager.
  3. 3. Theory X and Theory Y 3
  4. 4. Theory X 4 Management Style • Managers are pessimistic of the employee’s intentions • Managers are authoritarian • They prefer control over the employees • Must be hands-on and a Micromanager Assumed Personality of Employee • Avoid responsibility • Dislike work • They prefer to be directed • They are unambitious • They have a preference for security over autonomy
  5. 5. Theory Y 5 Management Style • Managers are more optimistic of employee’s intentions • Managers believe that employees prefer more autonomy • They allow employees to make more decisions Assume Personality of Employee • May believe there is little difference between work and play • They want to be self-directed and have as little exerting control over them as possible • They will work harder for goals they believe in • They accept responsibility and even seek it out • They tend to be ambitious • They have a high degree of imagination and creativity
  6. 6. 6 Theory Z Management Approach Introduced William Ouchi in the 1980s • Evolved from Theory X and Y • Merged Japanese leadership styles with U.S. Cultural values
  7. 7. Theory Z 7 • Work to be proactive, but not overly micromanaging • Try to build long-term relationships • Work to cultivate individual responsibility rather than assume its existence or lack of existence • Have more informal control over subordinates • Works to create more group collaboration Theory Z Managers
  8. 8. 8 Sources • Rice University, (N.D.) MacGregor’s Theory X and Y. Retrieved From Joshua Render Theory XY and Z: