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STUDENT RECORD MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (1)

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STUDENT RECORD MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (1)

  1. 1. STUDENT RECORD MANAGEMENT SYSTEM CASE STUDY LIVINGSTONE INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY IN MBALE (UGANDA) BY NANDUTU JULIET S012/BSCIT/U001 A DISSERTATION SUMMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AS PART OF THE AWARD OF THE REQUIREMENT OF THE DEGREE OF BANCHELOR OF SCIENCE ININFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OF LIVINGSTONE INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY MAY 2016
  2. 2. ii DECLARATION I, Nandutu Juliet, declare that this research is my own work and has not been submitted to this or any other institution of learning for any academic award. Author: ..........Nandutu Juliet...... Signature: ............................................................ Date:——————————————————
  3. 3. iii APPROVAL This piece of work was done under my close supervision and is hereby submitted for examination with my approval. Supervisor: MR. Wauyo Fredrik (Dean of Information Technology) Signature: .......................................................... Date: ..................................................................
  4. 4. iv DEDICATION I dedicate this work to my father and mother, Joseph Mulako and Betty Matuka Mulako, to the rest of my family for having guided me to this point of achievement in my life; my friends who made this possible and my Jesus family that supported me through prayer and words of encouragement.
  5. 5. v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My utmost gratitude goes out to the Lord for the protection, provision and discernment He gave to me during the period of research. This task would not have been complete without the guidance and academic support of my supervisor Mr. Wauyo Fredrik, Bwire Felix, Dr. Nambale Moses. I thank all the staff of LivingStone International University, both past and present for the encouragement and the faith they have had in me. I would also like to acknowledge my mentors Katie Allen, Carol Bowland, Laura and Professor Philip Shero for having faith in me. Furthermore, I would like to acknowledge my colleagues, in particular my class mates for the team work they demonstrated during this journey. Sincere appreciation goes to the authors, respondents, and various institutions, for their cooperation, knowledge, and experience shared. Finally, I acknowledge the role played by my family, especially my father, Mulako for the financial support. And my friend Manna Eid, for her support, encouragement, helping me and among others.
  6. 6. vi Table of Content Declaration ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ii Approval------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ iii Dedication ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iv Acknowledgement ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- v List of Figures------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ xi List of Acronyms’ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ xii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION --------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 1.0 Introduction -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 1.1 Background of the Study----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 1.1.1. Historical perspective------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4 1.1.2 Conceptual Perspective---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 1.1.3 Theoretical Perspective---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 1.1.4 Contextual perspective -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 1.2 Statement of the Problem ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 1.3 Purpose of the Study---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 1.4 General Objective ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 1.4.1 Objectives of the study ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 1.5 Research Questions ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 1.6 The Scope of the Study------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 1.7 Significance of the Study------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 1.8 Conceptual Framework------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 1.9 Definition of Operational Terms-------------------------------------------------------------------10
  7. 7. vii CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW ----------------------------------------------------11 2.0 Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 2.1 Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 2.2 Theoretical Under-pinning of the Study.------------------------------------------------11 2.3 Computerized Data Collection on Maintenance of Student Records ---------------12 2.4 Computerized Information Protection on Student Record.---------------------------12 2.5 Computerized Record/Data Management on Maintenance of Student Record.---13 2.6 Summary / Conclusion --------------------------------------------------------------------15 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY ------------------------------------------------------------------------17 3.0 Introduction-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17 3.1 Research Design-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17 3.2. Population of the Study. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 3.2 Sample Size ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------19 3.3 Sampling Method ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20 3.4 Data collection-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------20 3.5 Procedure of the Study---------------------------------------------------------------------------------21 3.6 Data Analysis --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22 3.7 Limitation of the Study --------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 3.8 Ethical consideration-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------23 CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24 4.0 Introduction-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24 4.1 Objectives-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24 4.1.1 Response Rate -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24 4.2 Background information or Biographical Data --------------------------------------------------25 4.2.1 Gender of Respondent ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------26 4.2.2 Age of Respondent -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26 4.2.3 QUALIFICATION -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------27 4.2.4 Marital Status of Respondents -----------------------------------------------------------------------28 4.2.5 Duration of Working Experience of the Respondents------------------------------------------29 4.2.6 Occupation of Respondents---------------------------------------------------------------------------29 4.3 Computerized Data Collection on Maintenance of Student Records-----------------------30 4.4 Computerized Information Protection (MIS) on Maintenance Student Records --------34
  8. 8. viii 4.5 Computerized Records Management on Maintenance of Student Records’. -------------38 4.6 SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION-----------------------------------------------43 4.6.1 System Requirements ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------43 4.6.2 How the System Works--------------------------------------------------------------------------------44 4.6.3 Limitation of Student Record Processing ---------------------------------------------------------44 4.6.4 How the Information was stored --------------------------------------------------------------------45 4.6.5 Problems encountered in the storage of customers and during Data collection----------45 4.6.5.1 Problems Encountered During System Design --------------------------------------------------45 4.6.6 Benefits of the proposed system---------------------------------------------------------------------46 4.7 SYSTEM DESIGN-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------46 4.7.1 System Design-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------46 4.7.2 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM. --------------------------------------------------------------------------46 4.7.3 DETAILED FLOW GRAPH-------------------------------------------------------------------------47 4.7.4 DETAILED FLOW GRAPH-------------------------------------------------------------------------48 4.7.3.1 STUDENT:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------53 4.7.3.2 GRADE:---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------54 4.7.3.3 FACULTY------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------54 4.8 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS----------------------------------------------------------------55 4.8.1 NON- FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS-------------------------------------------------------55 4.8.1.1 Performance Requirements: --------------------------------------------------------------------------56 4.8.1.2 Safety Requirements: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------56 4.8.1.3 Security Requirements:--------------------------------------------------------------------------------56 4.8.1.4 Student Record Management System Design----------------------------------------------------57 4.9 IMPLEMENTATION, TESTING, AND VALIDATION ------------------------------------61 4.9.1 System Testing and Validation ----------------------------------------------------------------------61 4.9.2 System Testing ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61 4.9.3 System Validation --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61 4.10 PRESENTATION AND EXPLANATION OF THE SCREEN SHOTS------------------62 4.10.1 HOME PAGE--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------62 4.10.2 Screenshot of Department-----------------------------------------------------------------------------62 4.10.3 Screenshot of Faculty ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------63 CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION -----------------------------------------------------------------------------66
  9. 9. ix 5.0 Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------66 5.1 Discussions of the Findings---------------------------------------------------------------66 5.2 Computerized Data Collection and Student Records----------------------------------66 5.3 Computerized Information Protection and Student Records -------------------------67 5.4 Computerized Information Management and Student Records----------------------67 5.5 Conclusion-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------68 5.5.1 Efficiency and profitability ---------------------------------------------------------------68 5.5.2 Manpower -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------69 5.5.3 Accuracy-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------69 5.5.4 Limitations ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------69 5.6 Recommendation ---------------------------------------------------------------------------70 6.0 References -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I Appendix I---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV Appendix II-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VII Appendix III:------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------XI
  10. 10. x List of Tables TABLE 1: POPULATION SAMPLE ............................................................................................ 19 TABLE 4.1.1 RESPONSE RATE ............................................................................................... 24 TABLE 4.2 DEMOGRAPHIC SEX OF RESPONDENTS ................................................................ 26 TABLE 4.3 DEMOGRAPHIC AGE OF RESPONDENT ................................................................. 26 TABLE 4.4 DEMOGRAPHIC QUALIFICATIONS OF RESPONDENTS........................................... 27 TABLE 4.5 DEMOGRAPHIC MARITAL STATUS ....................................................................... 28 TABLE 4.6 DEMOGRAPHIC DATA OF RESPONDENTS ............................................................ 29 TABLE 4.8 COMPUTERIZED DATA COLLECTION.................................................................... 30 TABLE 4.8.1 REGRESSION OF COMPUTERIZED DATA COLLECTION ON STUDENT RECORDS. 34 TABLE 4.9 COMPUTERIZED INFORMATION PROTECTIONS ..................................................... 34 TABLE 4.9.1 REGRESSION OF INFORMATION SECURITY........................................................ 37 TABLE 4.10 COMPUTERIZED RECORD MANAGEMENT........................................................... 38 TABLE 4.10.1 REGRESSION OF RECORDS MANAGEMENT ..................................................... 40 TABLE 4.11 STUDENT RECORDS ........................................................................................... 40 TABLE 4.5.1 SYSTEM REQUIREMENT .................................................................................... 43 TABLE 4.6.5.7 PHYSICAL DATABASE DESIGN ....................................................................... 58
  11. 11. xi List of Figures FIGURE 1 CONCEPTUAL FRAME WORK..................................................................................... 9 FIGURE 2.1 RESEARCH DESIGN............................................................................................. 18 FIGURE 4.1 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM....................................................................................... 47 FIGURE 4.2 DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS ..................................................................................... 51 FIGURE 4.4 HOME PAGE........................................................................................................ 62 FIGURE 4.5 DEPARTMENT ..................................................................................................... 63 FIGURE 4.6 FACULTY ............................................................................................................ 63 FIGURE 4.7 GRADES / RESULT............................................................................................... 64 FIGURE 4.8 STUDENT ............................................................................................................ 65 FIGURE 4.9 COURSE .............................................................................................................. 65
  12. 12. xii List of Acronyms’ LIU.................................................................... Livingstone International University SRMS................................................................ Student Records Management System. NCHE............................................................. National Council for Higher Education. HEI’s........................................................ ..... Higher Education Institutions. ACRS.............................................................. Archives and Corporate Records Services JISC..................................................................... Joint Information Systems Committee MSRS.................................................................. Management Student Records System. DBMS.............................................................. ... Database Management System CDC.....................................................................Computerized Data Collection CIP..............................................................................Computerized Information Protection CIM ...................................................................Computerized Information Management
  13. 13. xii ABSTRACT This study aimed at establishing, improvement of Student Records Management System in Livingstone International University. Specifically, this study required to find the data collection of student records in Livingstone International University, to improve on the impact of information protection of student records, and finally, it was done to establish the improvement of computerized information management of student Records In Livingstone international University. The study adopted a descriptive design, with a population of 42, a sample size of 37, sampling methods such as cluster sampling, and Systematic Probabilistic data collection. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS and Excel Software. The finding shows that data collection at Livingstone currently uses manual that is to say form filling, verbal and later kept manually or in files,but they are planning to buy a software for future. The researcher suggests that further research should be conducted in departments at Livingstone since students collect different information and stored in places such as recruitment and among others.
  14. 14. 2 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION The study aimed at improving the student management records in Livingstone International University Mbale Uganda. 1.0 Introduction This section outlines Background of the Study, Statement of the Problem, Purpose of the Study, Objectives of the Study, Research Questions, the Scope of the Study, Significance of the Study, Conceptual Framework, and Definition of Operation Terms. 1.1 Background of the Study Livingstone international university was opened on a leased campus near the center of Mbale, Uganda, approximately 250 kilometers (160 miles), by road, northeast of Kampala, the capital and largest city in the country Livingstone International University plans to occupy this leased campus for a period of up to three years while simultaneously constructing a permanent campus. Fifty-six acres of land have already been purchased just outside of Mbale municipality on the main road that goes west toward Kampala. A campus master plan has been developed, and fund-raising is taking place for eventual construction of LIU's permanent campus on this site. Livingstone International University Strategic Plan 2009-2014 was completed December 19, 2007 and submitted to the Uganda National Council for Higher Education (NCHE) with the goal of being chartered as a fully accredited university by the Uganda government. The first step in this process was accomplished December 19, 2008 when the NCHE issued
  15. 15. 3 to Livingstone International University a Letter of Provisional Authority. This allowed Livingstone International University to begin buying property, prepare curricula, hire faculty and staff and set up banking and other business tasks. Livingstone International University received its Provisional License from the NCHE in March, 2011. This prepared the way for the first student intake in January, 2012. Currently Livingstone International University is working under the guidance of the NCHE toward qualifying for a full university charter. In Livingstone international University Campus, information of management for student records are recorded every semester, and at the end of the year, the summary is done. The recording is done by the secretary, registrar and recruitment office. Most eastern universities manage the student records, Livingstone international university with the latest Technology/advanced Technology, still use paper based methods during recording whereby it takes long hours just to capture one’s information from paper into system and yet they have daily activities to do (Bonetti, 2000). And the students sometimes are counted using the registered students or counting; this system is characterized by manual form filling to get bio-data of the students, and later transfer of the information from manual data, capture forms to computerized datasheets, therefore, it has led to an excessive number of mistakes to the final displacement of some student’s forms hence leading to confusion at the time of comparing the results. The main advantage of paper based systems is that papers are easily human auditable and storage and can be stored properly without the virus affecting them, according (Henry, 1988). However the disadvantages overweighs the disadvantage as, for instance the need to print the record of the student when it is in paper system, it slows the system, inflexible.
  16. 16. 4 Over the past semesters, there have been a number of student observers who have suggested management organizations should introduce electronic capturing, storing at academic department or recruitment department. This will simplify on capturing and storing of data for a long period of time 1.1.1. Historical perspective The student records management system is the SRMS that will hold the business in its goal to a paperless office environment. From the acronym itself, the SRMS is that management process that will protect information and data to ensure that all the records and the files in the system database of the business organization is protected and easily accessed by users in the framework. In the shortest definition of the automated records management system, it is simply that process that is employed by the organization in the maintenance of records and files from the very moment that they arrive to the business or were created by the enterprise up to the period when they will be deemed ready for eradication and deletion from the archived or active databases. The records handled by the student records management system may come in tangible forms that will be translated to digital formats with the use of the latest technologies in the market. According to Muhenda &Lwanga (2000) noted that Student record used for storing large database or knowledge base. It can be used for knowing the current status of any aspect of the business due to its on-line real time processing capability. As governance issues take center stage in the management of Educational Institutions, the management of students’ records becomes imperative in the improvement of services offered in Higher Educational
  17. 17. 2 Institutions (HEI’s) in Uganda. Proper records management underpins policy formulation, decision making, protects interests of organization, and protects rights of employers and students in addition to helping Institutions conduct business and deliver services in a consistent and equitable manner. There are five Areas for student Records Management System which includes:  The student records management system will affect in its inception to the business organization. Such as the system will work in the active records section. This mean that it can give you access and help you manage the most current documents and data that the operations are handling.  The second sector would be the data protection and jumping, which is the area that will ensure all the files are properly filed and archived for record keeping purposes. In time, the next area and sector would be the determination of destruction of the documents in a secured manner that will ensure that all of the data from the files will still be kept secret and confidential.  The other sections would be the records management area and the document management and imaging. The student records management system will give the business organization streamlined operations that will reduce paper based transactions to the bare minimum. Simply, the automated records management system is a method that will do all the filing and management of documents for the organization. According to King’s college London defined Student Records as a web-based service that allows Students to manage their personal information and academic administrative staff to view student information and perform student administration tasks.
  18. 18. 3 1.1.2 Conceptual Perspective In 1997 the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) commissioned a Study of the archival records of British universities (Elizabeth Parker and Christine Smith, Oct 1997). The study found (p.15) that the greatest volume of institutional records deposited in university archives, in equal quantities to governance records, was student records. This report thus brought into focus the huge storage implications for all universities, including King’s College, which traditionally has taken the paper “student record” into its archives for permanent retention. Accord to king’s college explained that “student record” was identified as particularly containing a vast array of materials with large variation between Schools as to what was being held. The Archives and Corporate Records Services (ACRS) undertook preliminary costings associated with various options for retention and media conversion and it was evident that the current general practice of retaining all documentation was not sustainable. 3. A working group was then established (in early 2003) to determine whether it would be possible to control costs associated with archiving through an evaluation of what should be kept. The working group tentatively identified the core information which should be kept, but agreed that a thorough survey was required to support its conclusions. According to (Sauer 1993 ) argued that some people will see them as an expense, others as a solution, a control mechanism, a threat to the quality of working life or even as a technical problem in 1993. The diverse perceptions of the Information system resulted in a huge differences in the definitions of IS that are available. Lucas (1995) describes an
  19. 19. 4 information system as helping to control operations in an organization, whilst Laudon & Laudon (2002) defines it technically as a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store, and distribute information to support decision making, coordination, and control in an organization. Information systems are seen as a strategic resource within the organization, that is, they have an important impact on key operations which determine the livelihood of the organization (Martin, 1992). Student information system literally means the general information systems for maintaining and providing student information. It exists in all the schools, colleges, universities and any other education institutions. However, those information systems vary. Some of them are paper based; heavily manual work is involved in managing and maintaining information such as student personal records files. However, recently, most schools, even down to the very smallest, utilize computers in some way or another. The uses to which the computers are put vary enormously, ranging from word processing and spreadsheet through to worldwide on-line access, complicated user access permission system and vast functionalities. According Safarzade &Mansoori; (2009) student record management system refers to as the assembly of several subsystems based on the databases in the organization. These subsystems range from data collection, transaction processing and validating, processing, analyzing and storing the information in databases. MIS is a system which receives data from different units and produces information and provides managers in all levels with relative, just-in-time, precise and uniform information for decision-making and MohdEhmer Khan and Farmeena Khan; (2011) (Information and Knowledge and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-5758 (Paper) ISSN 2224-896X (Online) Vol 1, No.2 ) defined management information system as an integrated, uniform method for
  20. 20. 5 collecting and reporting information about a particular program, event or activity. According to King’s college London (2006 ) defined Student Records as a based service that allows students to manage their personal information, academic and administrative staff to view student information and perform student administration tasks. 1.1.3 Theoretical Perspective According to Jonelle (2002) noted that management information system is vital in assisting executives and the general workforce in performing any tasks related to the processing of information and Satyanaraya (2009) said that , management information system in maintenance student records in university helps to provide accurate and timely information necessary to facilitate the decision-making process and enable the organizations planning, control, and operational functions to be carried out effectively. 1.1.4 Contextual perspective Student records management system (SRMS) is basically concerned with the process of collecting, processing, storing and transmitting relevant information to support the management operations in any organizations. it is “the application of systematic and scientific control to all the recorded information that a University needs to do business. Poor record management results in difficulties in administering, planning and monitoring an education system. In fact, poor records management and the lack of staff development along the entire information cycle are responsible for problems with management and policy implementation in University.
  21. 21. 6 Although different methods or systems can be used to bring about efficient records management, there are some basic rules that must be respected. So as to manage any information well, it is vital initially to determine its characteristics and functions. This is important, because the way in which records (which contain the information) are arranged depends on the type of information they contain. 1.2 Statement of the Problem Management student Record system (MSRS) is the process of collecting, processing, and storing transmitting relevant information to support the management operations in any organizations. Where it helps to provide accurate and timely information necessary to facilitate the decision-making process and enable the organizations planning, control, and operational functions to be carried out effectively. However, at Livingstone international University has technology, but accessing Students records in Livingstone international university has always been problematic for example Cases of delayed marks, incorrect grades, delays in issuing academic awards have all been too common therefore findings will reveal poor records management as the biggest problem facing Universities especially Livingstone. 1.3 Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to establish the impact of management information system on maintenance of student records in University.
  22. 22. 7 1.4 General Objective To develop student information system to overcome the problem of paper work in the university as stated above. 1.4.1 Objectives of the study The study will base on the following objectives; i. Impact of computerized data collection on maintenance of student records in Livingstone international university. ii. Impact of computerized information protection (MIS) on maintenance student records iii. Impact of computerized records management (MIS) on maintenance of student records’. 1.5 Research Questions The study will be guided with the following research questions i. What is the impact of computerized data collection on maintenance of student records in University? ii. What is the impact of computerized information protection (MIS) on student records? iii. What is the impact of computerized records management on maintenance of student records? 1.6 The Scope of the Study The proposed system is intended to manage specific information of students such as personal details, course details, faculty details, department details and exam details etc. It is
  23. 23. 8 not Student Information Management System which has a broader application. It is only a part of Student Information Management System. This project/research when completed will provide comprehensive Student information System for Academic department of Livingstone International University. The system should be able to capture, validate, sort, classify, calculate, summarize, store, retrieve, reproduce and communicate operational data. Student information System will store semester details, course details, department details and all the details of students including their background information, educational qualifications and personal details etc. The proposed system will have the following features: Login module: Login module will help in authentication of user accounts. Users who have valid login id and password can only login into their respective accounts; Search module: This model allows one to search for a Particular student or group of students using search criteria such as name of student, Index number, course code among others; Registration Module and Account Management: This module will help the student get registered from anywhere if internet is present .This module will really simplify the task of the manual registration. User Management: This module will help the registrar in enabling/disabling a user 1.7 Significance of the Study The findings on impact of management information system in maintenance of student records would help to provide; accurate and on timely information to the student instead of taking time to sort/ crosschecking in papers by the registrar, it helps Academic registrar to
  24. 24. 9 deliver the information to the student on line without frequently visiting in his/ her office to access the information hence the Significance of the study. 1.8 Conceptual Framework Independent Variable Dependent variable Explanation Figure 1 conceptual frame work In this study, management information system was the independent variables and the constructs under this variable included information/ data, information protection and management. Management Information System Data collection Information protection Records Management ModeratingVariables Cultural Human Organizational Student Records Personal information Academics Administrative staff
  25. 25. 10 On the other hand student record was the dependent variable whose constructs include personal information, Academics, data. Under Ideal conditions, the constructs under management information system should translate into appropriate maintenance of student records, however ideal conditions were rare and this could be as a result of a host of intervening variables that included cultural, human, and organizational and among others. The discussion of the findings of the study based on conceptualization of these variables on the study. 1.9 Definition of Operational Terms Student information system literally means the general information systems for maintaining and providing student information. It exists in all the schools, colleges, universities and any other education institutions. However, those information systems vary. Some of them are paper based; heavily manual work is involved in managing and maintaining information such as student personal records files. However, recently, most schools, even down to the very smallest, utilize computers in some way or another. The uses to which the computers are put vary enormously, ranging from word processing and spreadsheet through to worldwide on-line access, complicated user access permission system and vast functionalities. SRMS can be defined as a system providing management with accurate and timely information necessary to facilitate the decision-making process and enable the organizations planning, control, and operational functions to be carried out effectively. Student Records as a based service that allows students to manage their personal information, academic and administrative staff to view student information and perform student administration tasks.
  26. 26. 11 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction This chapter presented/outlined the sections in this chapter that is to say Introduction, Theoretical underpinning of the study, and literature review of computerized data collection and student record, information protection and on student records, and record management on the student records. 2.1 Introduction This section presents a review of related literature to the study of management information system and student records: the review has been done in accordance with the research objectives which are impact of computerized data collection on maintenance of student record, computerized information protection on student record and computerized record management in maintenance of student records in Livingstone international university. 2.2 Theoretical Under-pinning of the Study. According to the university of Florida (2012) explained that a student is an individual who is registered for a university credit course or program. A student record, also known as an education record, contains information directly related to a student, which means that the record is personally identifiable. Personal identifiers that relate a record to a student include student name, student ID/social security number, student address, parent/family member names, and a list of personal characteristics. Student records are
  27. 27. 12 Maintained in multiple media including handwriting, print, computer’s main memory, magnetic tape, cassette, disk or CD. Student records may be presented by the student, submitted on behalf of the student, or created by the University. These records are used to assist offices in their support of basic institutional objectives and to document student progress and achievement in the educational process of the University. 2.3 Computerized Data Collection on Maintenance of Student Records According to Sharapova (2014) noted that systematic literature review was employed as follows: (1) A variety of combinations of search strings were applied to selected scientific databases and search engines. The search string matrix was developing continually throughout the review process. (2) Papers pre-selected on the basis of their title and abstract were downloaded to the citation manager, together with their full text (3) All duplicates, multiple entries and irrelevant papers were removed; remaining papers were scanned for the information of interest. (4) When a relevant document was cited that had not been previously identified by database queries, it was downloaded. 2.4 Computerized Information Protection on Student Record. According to kyobe, South African university (2009) explained that computerized Information security issues (e.g. access to information, cyber-crime, privacy, and virus Attacks, and commercial data mining) are of major concern in academia today Myler and Broadbent (2006). According to Wamukoya and Mutual (2005) noted that poor security
  28. 28. 13 and confidentiality controls have been identified as major factors contributing to the failure of capturing and preservation of electronic records in eastern and southern African institutions of education. Chinyemba and Ngulube (2005) found that 89% of the academics surveyed at the University of KwaZulu-Natal did not adequately protect and secure their electronic records. Jones and Soltren (2005) found that 58% of the students surveyed were not concerned at all about risks to privacy on social network systems. However, little protection of the information of student records is not serious because other students access the information about other students or colleagues without permission hence the need for proper protection for the student records well 2.5 Computerized Record/Data Management on Maintenance of Student Record. According to student records manual prepared by University of South Florida (office of the registrar) the creation and maintenance of records relating to the students of an institution are essential to: Managing the relationship between the institution and the student; Providing support and other services and facilities to the student; Controlling the student’s academic progress and measuring their achievement, both at the institution and subsequently; Providing support to the student after they leave the institution. In addition, student records contain data which the institution can aggregate and analyze to inform future strategy, planning and service provision. A student is an individual who is registered for university credit course or program. A student record/data contains information directly related to a student, which means that the record is personally identifiable. Personal identifiers that relate record to a student include student name, student ID, student address, parent/family member names, and a list of personal characteristics. Student records could be maintained in multiple media including handwriting, print, microfilm/fiche, computer’s main memory, magnetic tape, cassette, disk or diskette. Student records/data may be presented by the student,
  29. 29. 14 submitted on behalf of the student, or created by the University. These records are used to assist offices in their support of basic institutional objectives and to document student progress and achievement in the educational process of the University. Educational institutions and agencies are required to conform to fair information practices. This means that persons who are subjects of data systems (i.e., students at an institution) must: Be informed of the existence of such systems Have identified for them what data about them are on record, Be given assurances that such data are used only for intended purposes Be given the opportunity to request an amendment or correction to their record and Be certain that those responsible for data systems take reasonable precautions to prevent misuse of the data. According to Allen (1989) analyzed some studies undertaken to analyze patron’s response to using bibliographic databases on CD-ROM in academic libraries and found that patrons prefer CD-ROM to comparable printed reference tools. Lombardo and Condic (2000) set out to determine user acceptance of the On-line Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) and found that users overwhelmingly preferred the OPAC and found it easy to use. Similarly, Isman (2004) found that students in Eastern Mediterranean University have very positive attitude towards Internet use; just as Allen (1997) found that the students surveyed were receptive towards electronic information resources while the internet was their most used of these resources available to them. Even Idowu (1997) found that the Nigerian university librarians have a positive disposition towards the computerized systems. On the other hand computerized records management may be defined as that part of records management that deals with records in electronic form. According to Johnston and Bowen (2005) computerized record management includes 'the creation, use, maintenance and disposal of electronically created records for the purposes of providing evidence of
  30. 30. 15 business activities'. Archivists’ emphasis that the term 'record' does not simply refer to a collection of data, but to a product or an event. It is a specific type of information reflecting and providing evidence of business processes or individual activities (Bantin 2001) On the other hand according to Scottish Government of Scotland(2008) noted that computerized records management is the process of managing records throughout their life cycle, from their creation, usage, maintenance and storage to their ultimate destruction or permanent preservation. According to Muhenda (2000) Proper records management underpins policy formulation, decision making, protects interests of organization, and protects rights of employers and students in addition to helping Institutions conduct business and deliver services in a consistent and equitable manner. Little is yet known about the management of computerized records management and compliance with electronic communication regulations by academics and students in Livingstone international university. 2.6 Summary / Conclusion Finally, since the data generated in day to day transactions by School of information Technology. Formal according to the registrar, it is worthwhile and full to develop strong student information management system for the school to hold the large amount of data that is generated. The proposed system, SIMS, should be able to stand the test of time because student records should be kept as long as is necessary to:  Fulfill and discharge the contractual obligations established between the institution and the student, including the completion of any non-academic disciplinary action;  Provides information on the academic career and achievements of the student to employers, licensing/regulatory bodies and other organizations, as well as to the student as part of their lifelong learning record. The information gathered whilst reviewing existing.
  31. 31. 16 Literature on student information management system has been very useful in the development of the proposed system. The project when completed will provide an efficient way to store and organize data than spreadsheet. It will also serve as a centralized facility that can easily be modified and quickly shared among multiple users. The proposed system will have a well-designed interface that allows users to interact with the system. Therefore the study from different countries and nations explained management information system on student record has helped in improving and providing efficient information and timely to the information needed to all the student and administration and when comes to Livingstone international university has always been problematic for example Cases of lost marks, incorrect grades, delays in issuing academic awards have all been too common therefore findings will reveal poor records management as the biggest problem facing Universities especially Livingstone.
  32. 32. 17 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction This chapter presents the methodology that the study employed and they included Research design, Population of the study, Sample size, Sampling methods, Data collections method, the procedure of the study, Data analysis, Limitation of the study, and ethical issue that are under the consideration. 3.1 Research Design The study will be a case study design and descriptive design in which both quantitative and qualitative approaches will be used. Descriptive design will be used to describe the phenomenon. Therefore, since the present study seeks to describe the impact of management information system on maintenance of student records in universities, descriptive design will be appropriate for the study , and this will involve the examination of available documents, conducting interviews, observation of the current system, and administering questionnaires to different categories of the people as shown in the sample size. Examination documents and research will be carried out for clarity and verification of facts to be collected and information about existing systems an associated problems avenue like reference books, journals and the internet. The design phase will be carried out as illustrated by the diagram below;
  33. 33. 18 Figure 2.1 Research Design 3.2. Population of the Study. The population of the study targeted the population of total number of forty two (42) people where they included as below: Top administrator = 3 (Three) people Student leaders = 15 (sixteen) people Lecturers =12 (nine people Assistant administrator = 6(five) people. Administrator = 6(five) people Total of population=42(forty Two) people Requirement identification and analysis Design of the system Implementation of the system System Testing and Validating
  34. 34. 19 3.2 Sample Size The study used the Slovene formulae method to determine the sample size of the study and it will be determined as illustrated below. Slovene formulae is given by n=N/1+Ne2. Where n= means sample size N= means Population, e= means sampling error constant (0.05). Therefore , using the population of the study and the Slovene formulae , the sample size of the study will be determined as illustrated below by substituting the population into the Slovene formulae, ņ=N/1+Ne2, Where N=42, e=0.05. Therefore n=42/1+42*(0.05*0.05) 42/1+42(0.0025) 42/1+0.13 42/1.13 =37. Therefore n=37 Table 1: population Sample Category Population Sample size Top administration 3 2 Student leaders 15 13 Lecturers 12 11 Assistant Administrator 6 5
  35. 35. 20 Administrators 6 5 Total 42 36 3.3 Sampling Method The study used sampling techniques which include cluster sampling that will be used in collection of the information from the lecturers, systematic probabilistic method where the list of different respondents will be selected for example non-teaching administrators, student leaders and purposive non probabilistic method will also be used in the collection of the information where the selected people or respondents will be selected such as top administrator, because these are the people who will be having the information needed in the research (people controlling and managing the information) 3.4 Data collection The aim of this study was to determine whether academics and students manage electronic records effectively. The study employed multiple techniques to capture data/ manage the records or data that is to say both quantitative and qualitative which included a questionnaire and interview methods where the top administrators, lecturers, non-teaching administrators, case study was used on student leaders and also lecturers. This ensured triangulation and verification of the findings. A (closed structured) questionnaire was used as the primary instrument for the collection of data from academics and students (according to Kothari, 2004).
  36. 36. 21 Interview is a powerful tool for data gathering since it allows the interviewer to probe and clarify a number of issues. Face to face Interview was used to interact with the deputy vice chancellor of academic Affairs and users of the proposed system to obtain the data required for student information system in Livingstone International University. 3.5 Procedure of the Study The study was done in Livingstone international university in Mbale Uganda, when the proposal was approved, the researcher got a letter of introduction to the organization where the researcher was allowed to carry out research , then I designed the instruments of data collection that tested the reliability and validity of the research, then the researcher collected data by use of questionnaire, observation guides, the questionnaire technique used the Pearson formulae for testing the validity and reliability of the information where the validity of the instrument was given by a formulae = CVI = VR+R/Total, where the VR=15, V=15, and Total = 33 Therefore: CVR = (15+15)/33 CVR = 0.909 (90.9%) Therefore the questionnaire designed for research was allowed to be used because it was tested for validity and shows the results of 90.9% hence allowed and determined the final research report. And the reliability of the study was computed as follows R= ∑xy-(∑x∑y)/N ( ∑x2 -(∑x2 )/N))(∑y2 )(∑y 2 )/N
  37. 37. 22 Therefore R= reliability, xy = 190, X = 54, Y = 52, X2 = 200, Y2=184. THUS reliability ((184 – 54*52)/30) / (200-542 /30)(184 – 522 /30) 90.4 (102.8)*(93.867) Therefore reliability = 0.92027 However, since we are using split half method, the r obtained is half of the expected value. Spearman’s correction formula is given by; r = 2rhh, so by substation; 1+rhh r = (2*0.92027) / (1+0.92027) = 0.9584 So reliability = 0.95 3.6 Data Analysis The study will use both quantitative and qualitative techniques, therefore the thematic data will be carried out due to the interview, editing of the information and the information will be in theme formats out of the information collected. The quantitative technique will use the descriptive method where there will be the calculation of the mean, modes, modes, median variance and standard deviations that will help to determine the statistics in the collection of the information.
  38. 38. 23 3.7 Limitation of the Study The study was affected with many problems like delay to respond to the letter of introduction of the researcher, delay to fill the questionnaires, hard to meet the top management people due to busy schedules, hard for the respondents to give right information due to fear to lose their jobs and among others. The study has a problem of the new staffs who were still learning what happens at the university hence the information expected was not the exact information given hence affected the study of the research the data will involve the non-teaching staff were by the time of research may have recruited new administrators will not be having the information needed in research hence a limitation to the study. 3.8 Ethical consideration The study will observe the security consent of the respondents, have freedom to move out for exercise without crush, and names of identity will not be disclosed, and also there will be no use of personal opinion and harming of respondents will not exist, therefore the study will be strictly for academic purposes only.
  39. 39. 24 CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS 4.0 Introduction This chapter deals with the presentation and interpretation of the findings of the study which done in relation to the reviewed literature and regards to specific objectives. 4.1 Objectives iv. Impact of computerized data collection on maintenance of student records in Livingstone international university. v. Impact of computerized information protection (MIS) on maintenance student records vi. Impact of computerized records management (MIS) on maintenance of student records’. The findings are presented with the help of tables for purposes of easier understanding, clarity and interpretation. 4.1.1 Response Rate The response rate from the research shows that they were 36 respondents that where targeted for the research, 35 people were needed to fill the questionnaire and only one was needed to be interviewed and it was done as shown below Table 4.1.1 Response Rate Category Population Sample size Actual percentage of (questionnaire ) Percentage Actual percentage of interviews Percen tage Top administration 3 2 1 50% 1 50% Student leaders 15 13 13 100% Lecturers 12 11 11 100%
  40. 40. 25 Assistant Administrator 6 5 5 100% Administrators 6 5 5 100% Total 42 36 36 100% Source: Primary Data (2016) The study targeted 36 respondents from Livingstone International University in Mbale Uganda, Top administration, student leaders, Lecturers, Non-Teaching staff. The response rate was 100% from the targeted respondents. The questionnaires that were sent to the respondents all of them were returned as far as the attrition percentage is concerned this was 100% response rate. Therefore, this implies that when the response rate is above 80% is relevant according to Jack E. Fincham, 4.2 Background information or Biographical Data The analysis of data, interpretation was analyzed by SPSS software that stands for Statistical package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), therefore I preferred SPSS because of the advantages even though ,it has disadvantages such as menu, syntax and terminology differ across applications, much more functionality than one typically requires, and lag between new versions and existing documentation, therefore the advantages overweighs the dis advantages hence the choice and the following are the advantages of SPSS. o It reduce/eliminate errors in calculation o It helps in data management such as add variables and observations, recode variables and among others. o Its graphic utilities o It is faster, more efficient
  41. 41. 26 o It allows multiple users to work with the same data file. 4.2.1 Gender of Respondent The study had both gender represented in varying proportions as shown in Table 4.1 below. Table 4.2 Demographic Sex of Respondents Sex Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Male 21 60.0 60.0 60.0 Female 14 40.0 40.0 100.0 Total 35 100.0 100.0 Source: Primary Data (2016) From Table 4.1, it was found out that 60% (21/35) of the respondents were males while 40% (14/35) of them were females. This indicates a ratio of 1:2 that female to male are less in this study. Therefore, from the observation on the ground , it shows that the organization has many of the males people . 4.2.2 Age of Respondent The study had Age represented in varying proportions as shown in Table 4.2 below Table 4.3 Demographic Age of Respondent Age Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 20-30 20 57.1 57.1 57.1 31-40 8 22.9 22.9 80.0 41-50 3 8.6 8.6 88.6 Above 50 4 11.4 11.4 100.0 Total 35 100.0 100.0
  42. 42. 27 Source: Primary Data (2016) From Table 4.2, it found out that most of the people were aged between 20-30 years old as represented with the frequency of 20 and the percentage of (57.1%) and followed by ages between 31-40 with the frequency of 8 and the percentage of (22.9%), then above 50 years old with the frequency of 4 with the percentage of 11.4% and the age of 41-50 was the least with the frequency of 3 with 8.6%. this indicates that majority of the people are at the age bracket of 20-30 years. This therefore indicates that majority of the people were in their youthful stage 4.2.3 QUALIFICATION The study had qualifications represented in varying proportions as shown in Table 4.3 below. Table 4.4 Demographic Qualifications of Respondents Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Certificate 3 8.6 8.8 8.8 Diploma 1 2.9 2.9 11.8 Degree 24 68.6 70.6 82.4 Masters 5 14.3 14.7 97.1 PHD 1 2.9 2.9 100.0 Total 34 97.1 100.0 Missing System 1 2.9 Total 35 100.0 Source: Primary Data (2016) From Table 4.3, it was seen that majority of the people are Degree holders where its frequency is high with the 24 which is indicated with the percentage of 68.6%, followed by masters with the frequency of 5 with the percentage of 14.3%, then certificates with the
  43. 43. 28 percentage of 8.6%(3) with only 1 to 1 respondents with Diploma and PHD, where one respondent with missing system failed/ refused to reveal the qualifications in research. in conclusion, it is shown that most people in the case are degree holders compared to other qualifications as seen in the table. This indicates that majority of the people were Degree holders and it was shown by the percentage above in the table 4.3 4.2.4 Marital Status of Respondents The respondents were asked to state their marital status and below are the responses. Table 4.5 Demographic Marital Status Marital Status Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Single 21 60.0 60.0 60.0 Married 12 34.3 34.3 94.3 Separate 1 2.9 2.9 97.1 Widowed 1 2.9 2.9 100.0 Total 35 100.0 100.0 Source: Primary Data (2016) From Table 4.4, it was shown that majority of the respondents were single as seen with the frequency of 21 (60.0%), followed with frequency of 12 representing the married people with the percentage of 34.3%, with 1 frequency in Separate, Widowed also with 1 person who was the widowed with the percentage of 2.9%. Therefore, since the research was on student records management system, from research it was shown that most of the people involved were the single people hence the highest percentage.
  44. 44. 29 4.2.5 Duration of Working Experience of the Respondents The respondents were requested to share their duration of working Experience in the organization. Table 4.6 Demographic Data of Respondents Duration of Working Experience Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Less than 5 years 20 57.1 57.1 57.1 6-10 Years 9 25.7 25.7 82.9 Above 10 Years 6 17.1 17.1 100.0 Total 35 100.0 100.0 Source: Primary Data (2016) From Table 4.5, it was seen that majority of the people had worked in the organization for less than 5 years with the frequency of 20 with the percentage of 57.1% as seen in the table above, followed with 6-10 years with the frequency of 9 with the percentage of 25.7%, and the least with 6 with the percentage of 17.1%. therefore the people who have worked with the student records in an organization are the ones with less experience of less than 5 years and those who have worked with the students records in that department are less therefore, it’s better to provide chance to the people with long experience to work with the student records since they have stayed in the system for many years and have experience. 4.2.6 Occupation of Respondents The study had the Occupation represented in varying proportions as shown in Table 4.6 below Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
  45. 45. 30 Valid Student Leaders 13 37.1 37.1 37.1 Lecturer 11 31.4 31.4 68.6 Assistant Administrator 5 14.3 14.3 82.9 Administrator 5 14.3 14.3 97.1 Top Management 1 2.9 2.9 100.0 Total 35 100.0 100.0 (Primary data 2016) From Table 4.6, it was found out that majority of the student leaders were leading with the frequency of 13 with the percentage of 37.1%, followed by the lecturer with the frequency of 11 with the percentage of 31.4% since they are the ones who have the details about a student in class, then the Assistant Administrator with the frequency of 5 respondents with the percentage of 14.3%, then Administrator with the frequency of 5 also with the percentage of 14.3 and the Top management with frequency of 1 with the percentage of 2.9% as seen in the table above. This indicates that the students whom they get the information had more information compared to other categories of respondents who participated in this research. 4.3 Computerized Data Collection on Maintenance of Student Records Objective one of this study sought to improve on the student records management system of the independent variable of computer data collection. Data collected by using questionnaire, observation. Table 4.8 Computerized Data Collection STATEMENTS/ITEMS SD D NS Agree SA Mean Std dev I collect the student's document such as admissions and enrolment electronically 5 (14.3%) 7(20.0% ) 9(25.7%) 10(28.6%) 4(11.4%) 3.03 1.248
  46. 46. 31 I collect payment of non-academic disciplinary proceedings electronically 8(22.9%) 5(14.3% ) 6(17.1%) 13(37.1%) 3(8.6%) 2.94 1.349 There is use of technology to record the student documents for individual and consumers services provided by the institution like IT support services, careers, and employment services 0(0).0% 1(2.9%) 7(20.0% 15(42.9%) 12(34.3%) 4.09 .818 The computerized data collection programs undertaken has increased academic progress and performance awards 0(0.0%) 0(0.0%) 12(34.3%) 11(31.4%) 12(34.3%) 4.00 .840 There is frequent use of technology to give academic, disciplinary, social data/information to the institution 1(2.9%) 0(0.0%) 8(22.9%) 15(42.9%) 11(31.4%) 4.00 .907 There is use of technology to collect the data of the students uniquely without confusing them and causing interference with others 1(2.9%) 2(5.7%) 9(25.7%) 16(45.7%) 7(20.0%) 3.74 .950 Average Mean 3.63 1.018 (Source: Primary Data (2016) Legend 4.1-5.0 strongly Agree -High impact 3.1-4.0 Agree -Has impact 2.1-3.0 Not Sure -Moderate impact 1.1-2.0 Disagree -Low impact 0.1-1.0 Strongly disagree -very low impact From the research, it reveals that most of the respondents agreed that they collect the students document such as admissions and enrollment electronically shown with the percentage of (28.6+11.4= 40%) with the frequency of 10 +4 (for both agree and strongly
  47. 47. 32 agree, and 12 respondents did not agree with the electronica collection of data shown with the percentage of 34.3 % as shown in the table above, and 9 respondent are not sure if they do it electronically or manually. Therefore, from this it indicates that there is need to train and update the staff and the students the method they use to collect information which improve on the performance of the student. As seen in the table above, it shows that the institution collects payments of non-academic like disciplinary proceedings electronically as represented with the frequency of 16 with the percentage of 45.7%, followed with 12 respondents who disagreed with it with the format of collection with the percentage of 37.5%, and only 6 respondents who were not sure if they use electronic or manually , and in conclusion there’s need to teach people or inform the people about the Technology they are using in the institution for smooth working. Form the analysis, it shows that most of the respondents agreed that they use technology to record student documents in the institution and this is proved by the frequency computed and seen as 27 with the valid percentage of 77.2%, the 7 respondents answered by saying they are not sure with the valid percentage of only 20% and this indicates that the institution uses the computers and different devices to record or keep the student records like academics and among others. From the observation, it seen that the computerized data collection has increased programs has increased on academic progress and performance awards where majority of
  48. 48. 33 the respondent agreed with this with the frequency of 23 with the valid percentage of 65.7%, followed by 12 respondent who were not sure of what happens in the institution with only 34.3% hence encouraged all the people in the institution to take the responsibility to know what takes places. According to the analysis, it shows that majority of the people agreed that there’s frequent use of technology to give academic, disciplinary, social data/information to the institution with the frequency count of 26 respondents with the valid percentage of 74.3%,followed with only 8 respondents with the valid percentage of 22.9% and this indicates that there are people who does not pay attention to the activities of the university and they need encouragement to be able to use them and only 1 respondent strongly disagreed with this valid percent of 2.9, therefore since the highest percentage from the duration of work showed the highest percentage with less than 5years then this respondent might be new so does not know what happens in the university. According to the analysis from the table above , it indicates that majority of the respondents who participated in the research agreed that there is use of technology to collect data of the students uniquely without confusing them and causing interference with others with the frequency of 23 people with the valid percentage of 65.7% , 9 people were not sure of the method they use in collecting data of the student and this was indicated with valid percentage of only 25.7%, and the least number of the people that is to say with only 2.9(1 person ) disagreed with the system, this indicates that the institution
  49. 49. 34 uses the system to collect the inform and store the record of the students uniquely without interfering with others. From the Table 4.8, the average mean was found to be 3.63 and basing on the legend above, it means that computerized data collection on Maintenance of Student Records has a high impact on data collection and with the standard deviation of 1.018. However, data collected from interviews one said that “They collect the data from the student manually and entered manually into the computer” From the analysis of the regression, it was seen that in the table below; Table 4.8.1 Regression of Computerized Data Collection on Student Records. Mode l Change Statistics R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Sig 1 .201a 8.320 1 33 .007 a. Predictors: (Constant), The computerized data collection programs undertaken has increased academic progress and performance awards From the regression, it was seen that there’s a high significant of .007 as seen with the significance F change, the R Square change. 201a therefore the computerized data collection on the students has the high significance, hence it should be used. 4.4 Computerized Information Protection (MIS) on Maintenance Student Records The second objective of this study was to find out the impact of computerized information protection on maintenance of student records in Livingstone international University. Respondents were therefore asked to give their opinions and the responses were as summarized in the table below. Table 4.9 Computerized Information Protections SD D NS A SA Mean Std dev Unique identifiers are used to 1(2.9%) 1(2.9%) 11(31.4%) 10(28.6%) 12(34.3%) 3.85 1.022
  50. 50. 35 protect the student records Different passwords are used for protection of the student records in order to access the information 1(2.9%) 1(2.9%) 514.3% 12(34.3%) 16(45.7%) 4.17 .985 Student records is limited to the staff who have need to know 1(2.9%) 2(5.7%) 7(20.0%) 8(22.9%) 17(48.6%) 4.09 1.095 There are backups for the student records for better protection in order to prevent loss of record 0(0.0%) 2(5.7%) 3(8.6%) 18(51.4%) 12(34.3%) 4.14 .810 There are both paper and computerized data/ information protection for better management 0(0.0%) 2(5.7%) 4(11.4%) 10(28.6%) 19(54.3%) 4.31 .900 The electronic systems are not centrally management, designated staff, and then should have Backup copies to prevent loss 2(5.7%) 1(2.9%) 7(20.0%) 15(42.9%) 10(28.6%) 3.86 1.061 Average mean 4.07 0.98 Source: Primary Data (2016) Legend 4.1-5.0 Strongly Agree -High impact 3.1-4.0 Agree -Has impact 2.1-3.0 Not Sure -Moderate impact 1.1-2.0 Disagree -Low impact 0.1-1.0 Strongly disagree -very low impact From the analysis or research the above information was observed where the respondents agreed that there are unique identifiers used to protect the student records such as passwords and this was seen by highest number of respondents with the total frequency of 22 (12+10) people and with the valid percentage of 62.9%(34.3+28.6), followed with those who are not aware of what happens with the percentage of 31.4% with the frequency of 11 people, and only 2 respondents disagreed where 1 strongly disagreed total , and this
  51. 51. 36 indicates that the institution is using different identifiers to store the information or protect the records. According to the analysis done, the table above shows that different passwords are used for protection of the student records, and it was shown with the frequency number of 28 respondents with the valid percentage of 80%, 5 respondents were not aware of what happens / not sure if the passwords are used or not and it is indicated with the valid percentage of 14.3%, and only 2 people /respondents disagreed. However from the analysis since the highest number agreed that the passwords are used, then it is recommended that different passwords are used but the 7 people need to carry out more research about the university/an institution. The research shows that the student records are limited to the staff who have need to know as shown with the highest percentage of 71.5%, frequency of 25 respondents out of 35 respondent, followed with the percentage of 20% with the frequency of 7 people who were not sure about who the records are limited too and the least population reveals that they disagree that the student records are not limited to the staff who are in need to know hence the skills needs to be passed to the rest of the people who are not aware of what happens in the organization, and it is indicated with only 1 person with the valid percentage of 1.9%. The analysis reveals that there are backups for students for better protection in order to prevent loss of records with the highest percentage of 85.7% with the frequency of 30 respondents out of 35, and only 3 respondents were not sure of what happens in an institution a, 2 people only disagreed with the statement but since the majority agreed that there backups then the remaining people need to require so that they might be at the same level with others in an organization. From the analysis on the table above, it shows that there are both paper and computerized data for better management, and it is indicated with the valid percentage of 83.9%, with the frequency of 29 people, followed with 11.4% of the total population who were not sure about what happens in the institution, and the least population of the people with only
  52. 52. 37 5.7%(2) respondents who disagreed with the system. Therefore it shows that the institution uses both paper and computerized for data storage or protection and management. According to the analysis, it reveals that majority of the respondents agreed with the electronic systems are not centrally managed, designated staff, and it was show with the highest valid percentage of 67.5%with the frequency of 25 people out of 35, 20% of the respondents were not sure about the system being centrally managed or not, and 3 respondents disagreed that the electronic system is not centrally managed and it is indicated with the percentage of 8.6%. From the Table 4.9, the average mean was found to be 4.07 and basing on the legend above , it means that Computerized information protection on Maintenance of Student Records had a very high impact on information protection, and with the standard deviation of 0.98. However, in conclusion the computerized information security has been determined by the regression that shows the correlations between the information security and the student records as shown below in the Table 4.9.1. However, the research from the interviews shows that “The student information was identified by the serial numbers for easy identifications” Table 4.9.1 Regression of Information Security Mode l Change Statistics R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Sig 1 .203a 8.407 1 33 .007 a. Predictors: (Constant), Unique identifiers are used to protect the student records From regression analysis, it is shown with highest significant level of .007 that is to say Sig. F Change, with the R Square Change of .203a , and this indicates that there’s a significant / correlation between information security and student records.
  53. 53. 38 4.5 Computerized Records Management on Maintenance of Student Records’. The third objective of this study was to find out the impact of computerized records management on maintenance of student records in Livingstone international University. Respondents were therefore asked to give their opinions and the responses were as summarized in the table below. Table 4.10 Computerized Record Management Statements/items SD D NS A SD Mea n Std.dev Student Records are clearly defined 1(2.9%) 2(5.7%) 6(17.1% ) 14(40.0%) 12(34.3% ) 3.97 1.014 Student Records are well documented 0(0.0%) 4(11.4%) 3(8.6%) 11(31.4%) 17(48.6% ) 4.17 1.014 There is a clear complete maintenance, accurate and update of every student records 0(0.0%) 3(8.6%) 5(14.3% ) 19(54.3%) 8(22.9%) 3.91 .853 There is clear definition of the minimum content of the core student record in the institution 1(2.9%) 3(8.6%) 12(34.3 %) 11(31.4%) 8(22.9%) 3.63 1.031 There is provision of information on the student's academic performance and award to potential students 0(0.0%) 6(17.1%) 3(8.6%) 14(40.0%) 12(34.3% ) 3.91 1.067 Average Mean 3.3 0.83 Source: Primary Data (2016) Legend 4.1-5.0 Strongly Agree - Very high impact 3.1-4.0 Agree -Has impact
  54. 54. 39 2.1-3.0 Not Sure -Moderate impact 1.1-2.0 Disagree -Low impact 0.1-1.0 Strongly disagree -very low impact From analysis, it was observed that, 26 people or respondents agreed that the records are clearly defined with the valid percentage of 74.3%, followed with 6 people who were not sure of what happens in the institution and it was seen from the analysis of the data , and it was seen with the frequency of 6 and valid percentage of 17.1%, and only 3 respondents disagreed that the records are not clearly with the valid percentage of 8.6% defined but this does not have an effect on the analysis since the majority have agreed that the student records are clearly defined. It is noted that student records are documented with the frequency of 28 out of 35 respondents that gives the valid percentage of 80%, only 3 respondents were not sure of what happens if they are well documented or not and it shown with the valid percentage of 8.6%, and finally 4 respondents disagreed that the student records are not well documented Therefore, since majority of the respondents had taken only less than 5 years in service then it is true some are not yet aware of what happens in the organisation. From analysis, it is observed that, majority of the respondents agreed with the statement that there is clear complete maintenance, accurate and update of every student records with the total frequency of 27 out of 35 and with the valid percentage of 77.2%, followed with 14.3%(5) respondents who were no sure about what happens in an organisation, and the least with 8.6%(3) respondents who totally disagreed. From item number 22 it shows that 19 respondents agreed that there is clear definition of the minimum content of the core student record with the valid percentage of 54.3%, followed with 34.3% with the frequency of 12 respondents who were not sure of what happens in the institution, followed with % with the frequency of 4 respondents who strongly disagreed. From the Table 4.10, the average mean was found to be 3.3 and basing on the legend above, it means that Computerized Records Management on Maintenance of Student
  55. 55. 40 Records had a very high impact on records management, and with the standard deviation of 0.83 as seen above in table 4.10. In conclusion, it was observed that the records management has very high significant on student records as seen in the regression table. However, data collected from interviews one said that “The student records are kept in files, according to their alphabetical order, year, and among others, and they are kept with the registrar alone since she is that one who keeps the information of the students.” Table 4.10.1 Regression of Records Management Model Change Statistics R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Sig. 1 .222a 9.397 1 33 .004 a. Predictors: (Constant), There are backups for the student records for better protection in order to prevent loss of record From the analysis, shows that the regression of the data reveals that there’s a correlation of records management on student records as shown with Sig. F Change of .004, and R Square Change of .222a . 1.1 Student Records This section presents how the student records are accessible or updated maintenance of student records in Livingstone international University. Respondents were therefore asked to give their opinions and the responses were as summarized in the table below. Table 4.11 Student Records Items/statements SD D NS A SA Mean Std.dev Student records are accessible only to authorized staff 0(0.0%) 1(2.9%) 3(8.6%) 14(40.0%) 17(48.6%) 4.34 .764 There is adequate space for all 0(0.0%) 1(2.9%) 12(34.3%) 16(45.7%) 6(17.1%) 3.77 .770
  56. 56. 41 the student records which need to be produced There is an appropriate environmental condition for the record media/ system use 0(0.0%) 4(11.4%) 7(20.0%) 16(45.7%) 8(22.9%) 3.80 .933 student records provide personal reference for a certain limited time after the student leaves the institution 2(5.7%) 1(2.9%) 11(31.4%) 16(45.7%) 5(14.3%) 3.60 .976 Student records are stored, and retrieved quickly and easily 0(0.0%) 4(11.4%) 2(5.7%) 17(48.6%) 12(34.3%) 4.06 .938 Student records are indexed for identification 0(0.0%) 3(8.6%) 8(22.9%) 11(31.4%) 13(37.1%) 3.97 .985 Average Mean 3.9 0.89 Source Primary Data (2016) Legend 4.1-5.0 Strongly Agree -very high impact 3.1-4.0 Agree -high impact 2.1-3.0 Not Sure -Moderate impact 1.1-2.0 Disagree -low impact 0.1-1.0 Strongly disagree -very low impact From the Table above, beginning with item 1, it should be noted that 88.6% agreed that students’ records are accessible only to authorized staff with the frequency of 31 respondents, followed with 3 respondents with 8.6%, and only 1 respondent with the percentage of 2.9%. For 25rd item, it should be noted that 22 respondents agreed that there’s adequate space for all the student records with the valid percentage of 62.8%, followed by 12 respondents who were not sure of what happens with the valid percentage of 34.3%, then only 1 respondent
  57. 57. 42 disagreed with the statement with 2.9%. Therefore, it was observed that the institution has enough space for keep the records of the students even though the least dis agreed and not sure. For 26th item, it should be noted that 24 respondents agreed that there is environmental condition for the record media with the valid percentage of 68.6%, followed by 7 respondents who were not sure of what happens with the valid percentage of 20.0%, then only 4 respondents disagreed with the statement with 11.4%. Therefore, it was observed that there are appropriate environmental condition for record media system use. For 27th item, it should be noted that 21 respondents agreed that there’s adequate space for all the student records with the valid percentage of 60%, followed by 11 respondents who were not sure of what happens with the valid percentage of 31.4%, then only 3 respondents disagreed with the statement with 8.6%. Therefore, it is observed that the institution provides personal references for a certain limited time as shown by the highest percentage. For 28rd item, it should be noted that 29 respondents agreed that the student records are stored, and retrieved quickly and easily with valid percentage of 82.9%, then 4 respondents disagreed with the statement with the valid percentage of 11.4%, then finally with only 2 respondents with the valid percentage of 5.7% Therefore, it was observed that student records are easily and quickly retrieved from the system. For 29rd item, it should be noted that 19 respondents disagreed that there’s misuse of records such as un authorized access to or alternation of records with the valid percentage of 54.2%, followed by 10 respondents who agreed of what happens with the valid
  58. 58. 43 percentage of 28.5%, then only 6 respondent were not sure with the statement with the valid percentage of 17.1%. Therefore, it was observed that there is misuse of records such as unauthorized access to or alternation of records. From the Table 4.11. , the average mean was found to be 3.9 and basing on the legend above , it means that Student Records had a high impact on Student records, and with the standard deviation of 0.89 4.6 SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION In order to design a system that could facilitate the capture, storage and retrieval of customers’ room records, the data collected was analyzed to determine the best way it could be stored and retrieved through using the Entity Relationship Model and Data Flow Diagrams and therefore the basic requirements for the design of the student records management system are:  Every user should have their own identity  Login facility.  User can update his/her personal information and can view the notice, results, placement and exam section updates etc.  Faculty, placement and exam sections can update any of the information. 4.6.1 System Requirements In order for the system to perform as expected, the following system specification for hardware and software, security and operations are required. Table 4.5.1 System Requirement Hardware Requirement Software Requirement Processor Pentium Operating system Windows 7, 8, 10
  59. 59. 44 Memory 64 RAM Application Environment Visual basic Disk space 30 GB Microsoft office Microsoft access 2010 During the analysis of the student records management system at Livingstone , the following methods were used to capture information about how the system is done, the data needed , and how it flows from one department to another ; Methods used include the following; i. Questionnaire ii. Interviews 4.6.2 How the System Works The student process was operating manually with a registration form, which is filled by the potential resident and handed into the registrar. The registrar then receives the hard copies of the documents of the student and keeps only the hard copies without scanning them and have the soft copies. The registrar records the documents and keeps it for further references. 4.6.3 Limitation of Student Record Processing i. It was time consuming as students had to meet the registrar to hand in the hard copies. ii. Students sometimes lost their forms like medical forms iii. Follow up of records was difficult because of paper files which is time consuming iv. A lot of paper work
  60. 60. 45 4.6.4 How the Information was stored i. Mostly manually; it was captured on forms and stored in a file especially for newly student. The information flow i. By physically carrying the written information ii. It was verbal iii. It was by use of registration forms , student requests 4.6.5 Problems encountered in the storage of customers and during Data collection i. When stored in large files information retrieval was difficult, since they are many students so it has to take some. The problems encountered during the early stage of the project study were; The accessibility to the DVCAA was difficult by the nature of the administration, however later I was allowed to collect the information about the student records management. ii. The staffs of Livingstone were afraid of the fact that their confidential information will be used by the administration and affect them by losing their jobs. i explained to them that the research will help to improve on the storage and performance of the University. 4.6.5.1 Problems Encountered During System Design i. Limited time due to confusion of doing two things at a time that is to say Dissertation and project and later confirmed to combine which affected a lot. ii. The application programs used were new to use, so it needed to learn first which consumed a lot of time.
  61. 61. 46 4.6.6 Benefits of the proposed system i. There shall no confusion and misallocation of resources since the system enforces standards and security. ii. Student records are now easy to retrieve and update hence saving time iii. Efficiency will be achieved of minimized data loss. 4.7 SYSTEM DESIGN 4.7.1 System Design The design of the system will be accomplished by the use of the following techniques; This deals with data flow diagram, detailed flow graph, requirement analysis, and the design process of the front and back end design of the student record management system. 4.7.2 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM. A Data Flow Diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the “flow” of Student Record System. A data flow diagram can also be used for the visualization of Data Processing DFD shows the interaction between the system and outside entities. This context-level DFD is then “exploded” to show more detail of the system being modeled. A DFD represents flow of data through a system. Data flow diagrams are commonly used during problem analysis. It views a system as function that transforms the given input into required output. Movement of data through the different transformations or processes in the system are shown in Data Flow Diagram of Fig. 3.
  62. 62. 47 This paper mainly focuses on the managing the information of the students, faculty, placement cell information, exam section, related information of the college which is maintained by the college administration through various levels of controlling. The function of the individual entities will be explained in detail in the flow graph. 4.7.3 DETAILED FLOW GRAPH The detailed flow graph is shown in Fig. 4 .The design of the student information management system includes the design of the home page which provides the way for all the students, staff and other user to access the SRMS. Every user of the SRMS has a unique username and password provided by the web master of the college. The home page mainly contains a login form through which a new user can register, or an existing user can login to the system by entering the username and password provided by the web master. Data Flow Diagram Figure 4.1 Data Flow Diagram Faculty Student Records management DepartmentStudent Course Administration
  63. 63. 48 This paper mainly focuses on the managing the information of the students, faculty, placement cell information, exam section, related information of the institution which is maintained by the institution administration through various levels of controlling. The function of the individual entities will be explained in detail in the flow graph. 4.7.4 DETAILED FLOW GRAPH The detailed flow graph is shown in Fig. 4 .The design of the student information management system includes the design of the home page which provides the way for all the students, staff and other user to access the SRMS. Every user of the SRMS has a unique username and password provided by the web master of the college. The home page mainly contains a login form through which a new user can register, or an existing user can login to the system by entering the username and password provided by the web master.
  64. 64. 49 start Home page Login AdministrtorPlacement cellExam sectionFacultyStudent Login fails Figure 4.2 Detailed Flow Diagram
  65. 65. 50 Student View course updates Update details View college Notificaion View Exam section and placement updates Faculty Update student/course inormation View college notification View student details Exam section Send supervision list to faculty Update exam timetable Check the internal marks by faculty Update the final exam results
  66. 66. 51 Placement section Update the final exam results Update eligibility list for placement Update recruitment student information Administrator Enter student information Update the college notifications Enter the faculty information Check all the updates Figure 4.2 Data Flow Diagrams
  67. 67. 52 Student View course updates Update details View college Notificaion View Exam section and placement updates Faculty Update student/course inormation View college notification View student details Exam section Send supervision list to faculty Update exam timetable Check the internal marks by faculty Update the final exam results
  68. 68. 53 Placement section Update the final exam results Update eligibility list for placement Update recruitment student information Administrator Enter student information Update the college notifications Enter the faculty information Check all the updates 4.7.3.1 STUDENT: The student is of center focus, because in every college student plays the very important role. Student can access the information of the college, course details, subject details, faculty details, training and placement cell information and exam section information. The course details include information regarding branch he is studying, the academic curriculum of the college, year wise subject offered by the branch, the subject details include the syllabus of the subjects, information regarding the staff handling the subjects, the subjects he presently registered for the semester she/he is presently studying, attendance and internal marks of the subjects, he can also ask any queries to the staff regarding the
  69. 69. 54 subjects. The placement details include the information about the companies, the eligibility criteria for attending recruitment of the companies, the process of recruitment, the date and time of the recruitment. The placement lockup updates the students’ information who got selected for a company. The exam section details include the internal and external time tables, the room allocation for the exams; it also contains the semester end results. 4.7.3.2 GRADE: The student grade enables the administrator to enter the grades of the student like the course unit; code credit unit of the course and the earned points of it hence compute the GPA of the Semester. 4.7.3.3 FACULTY The administrator is responsible for entering the new student, promoting the student from one class to another, from one semester to another and from one year to another. Managing the student accounts like any changes regarding to the name, address etc. The administrator also manages the faulty accounts like entering a new faculty, assigning the faculty to the subjects. The administrator also updates the college related information like calendar of events, information regarding any other events that occur in the college. The administrator will check the all the updates i.e. student updates, faculty updates, exam updates etc. The administrator has the highest level of power in the student information system. 4.1.1.1 Data Design (Entity Relationship Diagram) The diagram below shows the entity Relationship diagram that shows the primary and the foreign constraints.
  70. 70. 55 Department PK DepartmentID DepartmentName Category OfficePhone CollegeName Semester PK SemesterID SemesterName Year Course PK CourseID CourseName CourseDescription Credits DepartmentID SemesterID Faculty PK StaffID LecturerName CourseCode DepartmentID Student PK StudentID FirstName MiddleName LastName DOB Gender Place_of_Birth HomeTown Nationality MobileNumber Address DegreeType DegreeLevel DegreeTime FatherName MotherName DepartmentID ProgramName Status Start_year End_Year Figure 4.3 Entity Relationship Diagrams 4.8 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS Student record management system aims to improve the efficiency of Student information management, and the main function is managing and maintaining information. 4.8.1 NON- FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS i. Enabling the university administration to have access to students records
  71. 71. 56 ii. Capture the details of the student, faculty department, course and among others iii. Retrieve the students personal data and all the records iv. Capture the details of the student academics such as UCE, UACE, and Other qualifications v. Enable the attributes that concern the student, faculty and among others. vi. Enable proper flow of information from one department to another for example the admission to academic registrar vii. Ensure the security and privacy of both administration and student’ data viii. Help the student to know the numbers, details, and the faculty he/she belong. 4.8.1.1 Performance Requirements: The proposed system that we are going to develop will be used as the chief performance system for helping the organization in managing the whole record of the student studying in the organization. Therefore, it is expected that the record would perform functionally all the requirements that are specified. 4.8.1.2 Safety Requirements: The database may get crashed at any certain time due to virus or operating system failure. Therefore, it is required to take the database backup. 4.8.1.3 Security Requirements: We are going to develop a secured database. There are various categories of people namely Administrator, Student who will be viewing either all or some specific information from the database. Depending upon the category of user the access rights are decided. It
  72. 72. 57 means if the user is an administrator then he/she can be able to modify the data, append etc. All other users only have the rights to retrieve the information about database. 4.8.1.4 Student Record Management System Design It is fair to say that database play a critical role in almost all areas where computers are used, including business, electronic commerce, engineering, medicine, law, education, and library science. Therefore, a database is collection of a related data. A database has the following implicit properties: A database represents some aspect of the real world, sometimes called the mini- world or the Universe Of Discourse (UOD) changes to the mini world are reflected in the database. A database is a logically coherent collection of data with some inherent meaning. A random assortment of data cannot correctly be referred to as a database. A database is designed, built, and populated with data for a specific purpose. It is an intended group of users and some preconceived application which these users are interested. Database Management System (DBMS) is a collection of programs that enables users to create and maintain a database. DBMS is a general –purpose software system that facilitates the process of defining, constructing, manipulating, and sharing database among various users and applications. Defining a database involves specifying the data types, structures, and constraints of the data to be stored in the database. The database definition or descriptive information is also stored in the database in the form of dictionary; it is called Meta
  73. 73. 58 data constructing the database is the process of storing the data on the storage medium that is controlled by the DBMS. Manipulating a database includes functions such as querying the database to retrieve specific data, updating the database to reflect in the mini-world, and generating reports from the data. Sharing a database allows a multiple users and programs to access the database simultaneously. Application program accesses the database by sending queries or request for data to the DBMS. A query typically causes some data to be retrieved; a transaction may cause some data to be read and some data to be written into the database. Table 4.6.5.7 Physical Database Design Table faculty Attribute Data type Constraint Staffid Text Primary key(required) Course Code Text Departmentid Text Foreign key Staff_Gender Text Staff_Name Text Staff qualifications Text Qualification copies Attachments It shows which type of the information is captured on the department and this include Staff ID, Course code, Department, Gender, Staff Name, and Qualifications shown in the shot below. Table Course Attribute Data type Constraint Courseid Text Primary key
  74. 74. 59 Course Description Text Course Name Text Credits Text Departmentid Text Foreign key Semesterid Text Foreign key The Table above shows the details of the course that includes course ID, course Description, Credits, and Department Semester ID as shown above. Table Grade Attributes Data type Constraints Student id Text Primary key Course unit Text Credits Number Credits earned Number Grade points Calculated Code Text Total Credits Calculated Semester GPA Calculated The table above shows the details how the grades are determined at the institution, it is represented with the table above. Table Semester Attributes Data type Constraint
  75. 75. 60 Semesterid Text Primary key Semester Name Text Academic Year Date/Time Table student Attribute Data type Constraint Student id Text Primary key(not null) First Name Text Last Name Text DOB Date/Time Gender Text Nationality Text Mobile phone Number Degree type Text Degree level Text The table above shows the details that is found in the student form where, it shows what a student is required to fill in as shown in the table and represented in the figure below.

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