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About Lighting :- Its types and Effects

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  1. 1. Assignment On LIGHTINGS“It is better to light a small candle than to curse the darkness." Submitted By : Yamini Soni IInd Year (I. D.)
  2. 2. LIGHTINGLighting or illumination is the deliberate application of light to achieve some practical or aestheticeffect. Lighting includes the use of both artificial sources such as lamps and light fixtures, as well asnatural illumination by capturing daylight. Proper lighting can enhance task performance, improvethe appearance of an area, and have positive psychological effects on occupants. Indoor lighting isusually accomplished using light fixtures, and is a key part of interior.Light not only illuminates but define one’s path. It can change mood, hide or highlight an object, killor liven up a space. Light never stands in isolation, it can only be seen through its impact on theobject it falls on.Today lighting up a space itself is a major task as nowadays light defines one’s style andmood. There is nothing better than natural light; one should go for its maximum use. But, becauseof its dynamic nature one have to go for artificial lighting which can be used in very playful manner.Unless one sees and experiences nature and application of light in actual space, it is difficult to dealwith it. Lighting can be classified into various different methods of lighting. It can be broadlyclassified as: 1. Direct Lighting 2. Indirect Lighting 3. Concealed lighting 4. Semi-concealed lightingFor any built mass, both indoor and outdoor spaces get affected by natural as well as artificial light.It is important to play in combination of natural and artificial light. It determines functionality of bothspace and style and decor of environment it creates. In homes, a thoughtful selection of lightingschemes enhances the aesthetics of interiors as well as garden spaces.
  3. 3. Purpose Of LightWe use light in buildings for the following reasons: • To carry out tasks or work- reading, writing, operating equipment. • To create an area of comfort or an amenity – this is general lighting to live with either by daylight or artificial light and direct sunlight. • To create effects for aesthetics – displays, artworks, shadows definition. • To ensure safety – ensuring appropriate lighting levels for all those using the facility.How to plan lighting in your homes?At first, there is a need of choosing a particular style and mood of whole interior scheme going upwith one’s living style and then define a schematic design to all spaces of the house so as to avoidclutter of different spatial environments that lighting creates. Initially, one should go for plannedposition of lighting points demarcated by a professional. Later on, one should go for selection oflighting types providing a specific effect to the designated space while enhancing the functionalaspects.Making one’s Living room more inviting • Living room is the core space of the house, the only place where more number of diversified activities take place. One can create drama and interest in the living space to make it more inviting with lighting schemes. • General lighting should be there but for occasions provisions should be made to dim the general lighting which creates different moods according to one’s own choice with the help of decorative lighting fixtures.• One should avoid tube lights and rather go for lighting types mentioned to have clean walls forhighlighting decorative pieces.• Main source of light should always spot the central sitting space then, in contrast or harmony onecan highlight special decorative pieces like plants, paintings, show pieces, just to display best of theart work in the living room.
  4. 4. Bedroom Lighting • The most important light one needs in bedroom bedside lights which can be like mounted on wall (low heighten) should be used but best is to put table lamps aside to have an immediate approach if needed in the middle of the night. • Other tasks can be completed with the help of down lighters which provide general lighting to the room with lower intensity.• One can go for task lights if study table or dressing table is incorporated in bedroom.• Also one can use decorative lights or highlighters for any decorative piece such as painting, wallhangings etc.• Lights should be placed such that they don’t fall on one’s face while sitting or sleeping on bed.• One should use warm color tones with white lights which relax the eyes and give a warmer moodto the room.Kitchen Lighting • First need is of general lighting which can be fulfilled with the help of central pendant lighter 4-5 central hanging lights or down lighters mounted with ceiling to illuminate the circulation area. Central lights help to avoid one’s shadow on working area. • One can flexibly use the pendant light by varying its height, like more the height lesser the intensity but larger area coverage and vice- versa.• Then comes Task lighting to highly illuminate one’s working slab tops, dish washing area etc. Thiscan be done with the help of high intensity down lighters.• One should take care that the cupboards are to be fully illuminated either with the help ofilluminates inside the cupboard or by using general lighting.• One should paint lighter on the walls of kitchen to reflect more light.
  5. 5. Bathroom lighting • One should avoid window or any lighting source in front of mirror of wash basin and dressing table to avoid darkness on the face while looking in the mirror. • Use frosted glass in widow panels to make it comfortable for the user and get sufficient natural lights in day time. • For general lighting one can use down lighters if the space is big and wall mounted decorative lights can also easily solve the purpose.• One should use dimmers or diffused lights to avoid reflection in the mirror. Also, one doesn’t needdirect light in bathrooms.• One should go for side lights in case of mirror so that lights could illuminate ones image withoutcasting any shadow on to the face.Lighting for dining area When choosing dining room lighting, start with a chandelier in the middle of the room, then work out with accent lights. One should use task lighting in terms of hanging lights, pendants which can illuminate the table from top not from sides to avoid casting shadows on plates. Use dimmers for general lighting to highlight the dining area. A Crystal Chandelier over the center of the dining table can help to balance chi in the roomTypes of lighting:Lighting is classified by intended use as General, Decorative, or Task lighting, depending largely onthe distribution of the light produced by the fixture. It is an integral part of design. It determines theutilitarian and the aesthetic environment provided by a designer, thus calling for the most carefulplanning and highest skills.
  6. 6. 1. General / Ambient lightingGeneral lighting needs to illuminate the overall spaceso that no corner could look dark. It is the combinationof light reflections from various surfaces to produce auniform illumination called as ambient lights. It isplaced in the middle of the room. Criteria for Ambient Lighting: • The ambient lighting systems should be able to withstand heavy abuse as they are mounted within the reach of the users. • Well designed furniture integrated lighting should be used as it is easy to maintain. • Electric discharge lamps should be used as they last longer than incandescent sources and therefore require less frequent servicing. • Total possible connected electric load predictions between 1.5 to 2.5 watts per sq. Ft are considered energy efficient. • In offices with partitions or other high obstructions, annoying shadows should be avoided. • Ceiling finishes should be diffuse and highly reflective (80-90%) to compliment ambient lighting.2. Task lightingTask lightings provide high illumination to a specificarea to perform a specific task e.g. reading, sewing,working on the computer working on the computeretc. It improves visual clarity and offsets tiredness.Good task lighting can help decrease eye strain. Criteria for Task Lighting: • The lighting to be provided on the work, in addition to the building lighting, must be determined either by individual analysis of the visual tasks in terms of the critical details and critical contrasts inherent in these tasks. • The table below gives a selection of generalized visual tasks with an indication of recommended levels of work lighting. The essential features of task lighting • Tasks of great visual difficulty require levels of illumination which cannot be supplied either economically or without visual discomfort except by the provision of local lighting. • Tasks of average or little visual difficulty can be performed in the levels of illumination recommended for the building lighting.
  7. 7. 3. Decorative lightingThese lighting themselves can act as focal points for aroom. Combination of glass, color and light canchange whole mood of the environment. Decorativelighting can refer to any lighting used in the space thatadds aesthetic appeal to the home as well asfunctional lighting. Shadow play: Occurs where pattern of light is the background, or negative space, and shape of shadow carries the message. Beam play: Opposite of shadow play where light beam becomes the visual feature. Sometimes achieved with gobos. Sparkle: Occurs when bits of small brightness appear on a dark background. Requires very high contrast to be effective. Colored light: Use of colored light sources to create special visual effects.Criteria For Decorative Lighting: • The luminaries should be capable of 358 degree of rotation. • It should have minimum tilt of 35 degree. • An accent light should accommodate color filters and spread lenses and be able to hold both the filter and the lens at the same time.
  8. 8. • It should have adequate baffling to prevent direct sight of the lamp from normal viewing angles when the lamp is tilted. • The luminaries’ working components should be easily accessible from either below or above the ceiling line in order to adjust direction, change lamps, change color filters and lenses, or change the orientation of light pattern produced by the lamp. • It should be possible to lock all adjustable features in place once they have been focused so that the light scheme is not altered. • An accent light should accommodate a variety of lamp wattages and beam distributions without the need for external adaptors. • Any accent light should be efficient, some direct most of their light inside the lamp housing when tilted more than 10 degrees.Accent lightingsAccent lighting is one of the four types of light, along with ambient or background or generallighting, task and decorative lighting. Used to illuminate architectural or interior elements. Generalrule, if you add too much accent lighting the effect will be lost. Common techniques include: Grazing: Used to emphasize textural qualities of vertical surfaces and to define a space by featuring one wall over another. Achieved by directing light parallel to featured surface, appx 6-12” from surface. Wall washing: These are ceiling mounted lightings which illuminate vertical surfaces like a column or a wall; provides soft, ambient reflected light; attracts attention to wall; and unifies diverse objects on wall, unifies a wall with sheet of uniform brightness. Backlighting: A light source placed on the opposite side of the “subject” (model, actor) from a viewer’s (camera, audience) point of view. Rear lighting technique that diffuses light through translucent materials. Highlighting: Emphasizes featured object by creating 5 to 10 times the amount of brightness on the object than in the background. When light hits a surface, it naturally catches on the most prominent areas. High contrast attracts attention.
  9. 9. Silhouetting: Sandwiches an object between viewer andsheet of light. Object is outlined by the light the brightnessof which serves as negative space. Details on face of objectare obliterated. It involves placing the light source at theback of any object that needs to be lit.Down lighting: These lights in downward direc tion andcan be fully or half- inscribed in ceiling. Mainly down lightersare used for general lighting of a space but, it can also beused under cabinets of kitchen to illuminate the slab area.Up lighting: These lights upwards and are mainly used forthe steps of staircase in homes. Good ambient lightingtechnique or accent for interesting surfaces that are “up”;important that surfaces have high value, matte finish toreflect light.