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Artificial intelligence in Health

Recent advances on Artificial intelligence in Health around world and in Nepal.

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Artificial intelligence in Health

  1. 1. Recent advances Kajol Dahal Roll no. 140 MPH 2018 Artificial Intelligence in Health 1
  2. 2. Contents • Introduction & Terminologies 01 • History02 • Artificial Intelligence in Nepal 05 04 • Acceptance and scope of AI in the World • Conclusion06 • Advancement around the Globe in Health and Public health 03 2
  3. 3. In computer science, artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals. The term "artificial intelligence" is used to describe machines that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving". Introduction 3
  4. 4. Terminologies • Algorithms: An algorithm is a set of unambiguous instructions that a mechanical computer can execute. Many AI algorithms are capable of learning from data and can themselves write other algorithms. • Machine learning: It is an application/subfield of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed. 4
  5. 5. Neural networks: Artificial neural networks (ANN) are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks and nodes called artificial neurons. Each connection, like the synapses in a biological brain, can transmit a signal from one artificial neuron to another. Data mining: It is the practice of examining large pre-existing databases in order to generate new information. Cloud technologies: Cloud computing refers to the use of a network of remote servers to store, manage, access and process data rather than a single personal computer or hard drive. 6/11/2019 5 Terminologies contd…
  6. 6. Weak AI (narrow AI) – non-sentient machine intelligence, typically focused on a narrow task. Strong AI / artificial general intelligence (AGI) – machine with the ability to apply intelligence to any problem, rather than just one specific problem, typically meaning "at least as smart as a typical human". Superintelligence –artificial intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human minds. Due to recursive self- improvement, superintelligence is expected to be a rapid outcome of creating artificial general intelligence. Types of artificial intelligence 6
  7. 7. Artificial Intelligence in automated driverless cars 7
  8. 8. Artificial intelligence, weather data, and sensors to give farmers insights on plowing, planting, spraying, and harvesting. Automatic Recognition of Ripening Tomatoes by artificial intelligence 8
  9. 9. Artificial Intelligence in Factories Japan ranked fourth in the world: In 2016, 303 robots were installed per 10,000 employees in the manufacturing industry. 9
  10. 10. Artificial Intelligence in Health Around the Globe 10
  11. 11. Timeline of AI in health Term coined by John McCarthy. Founded as an academic discipline in 1956 in US. 1955 Growth of microcomputer and new levels of network connectivity. AI systems in healthcare was designed to accommodate the absence of perfect data and build on the expertise of physicians. 1980s-1990s • Genomic sequencing databases • AI in electronic health record systems • Natural language processing and computer vision, • Robot-assisted surgery, etc 2010-2019 •Discovery and development of drugs •Preclinical research •Personalized Health Care •And many more 2019 & onwards Produced first problem- solving program, or expert system, known as Dendral assisting to identifying bacteria and recommending antibiotics 1960-1970 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Recent advances in Artificial Intelligence in health 13
  14. 14. No longer science fiction, AI and robotics are transforming healthcare No longer science fiction, AI is transforming healthcare 14
  15. 15. Get a modern PowerPoint Presentation that is beautifully designed. I hope and I believe that this Template will your Time. M A C H I N E L E A R N I N G Role of Artificial Intelligence in Health Technology applications and apps encourage healthier behaviour in individuals and help with the proactive management of a healthy lifestyle. Additionally, AI increases the ability for healthcare professionals to better understand the day-to-day patterns and needs of the people they care, for better feedback, guidance and support. Health Monitoring: Tools to Support Interventions and Healthy Behaviors: Wearable health trackers – like those from FitBit, Apple, Garmin and others – monitors heart rate and activity levels. They can send alerts to the user to get more exercise and can share this information to doctors. 15
  16. 16. Medical chatbots can offer relevant high-quality information, reassurance, answers, and ways of thinking about the situation related to human behaviour. 16
  17. 17. Get a modern PowerPoint Presentation that is beautifully designed. I hope and I believe that this Template will your Time. M A C H I N E L E A R N I N G Role of Artificial Intelligence in Health AI is already being used to detect diseases, such as cancer, more accurately and in their early stages. According to the American Cancer Society, a high proportion of mammograms yield false results, leading to 1 in 2 healthy women being told they have cancer. The use of AI is enabling review and translation of mammograms 30 times faster with 99% accuracy, reducing the need for unnecessary biopsies[1]. Google’s DeepMind Health is working in partnership with clinicians, researchers and patients to solving and detecting real-world healthcare problems. [1] Wired (2016). 17
  18. 18. Using AI for digital retinopathy screening will allow non-clinicians to be trained on retinal imaging, obtaining interpretation of the images within minutes and thus giving patients instant feedback. 18
  19. 19. Get a modern PowerPoint Presentation that is beautifully designed. I hope and I believe that this Template will your Time. M A C H I N E L E A R N I N G Role of Artificial Intelligence in Health IBM’s Watson for Health is helping healthcare organizations review and store far more medical information – every medical journal, symptom, and case study of treatment and response around the world – exponentially faster than any human. Medical Imaging: Machine learning algorithms can process unimaginable amounts of information in the blink of an eye and provide more precise than humans in spotting even the smallest detail in medical imaging. The company Zebra Medical Vision developed a new platform called Profound, which analyze of all types of medical imaging reports that is able to find every sign of potential conditions such as osteoporosis, breast cancer, aortic aneurysms and many more with a 90 percent accuracy rate. 19
  20. 20. The AI train a convolutional neural networks (CNNs) using a dataset of 1,29,450 clinical images to classify a type of cancer. 20
  21. 21. M A C H I N E L E A R N I N G Role of Artificial Intelligence in Health Improving care requires the alignment of big health data with appropriate and timely decisions, and predictive analytics can support clinical decision-making and actions as well as prioritise administrative tasks. Digital Consultation For example, the digital health firm HealthTap developed “Dr. A.I.,” and apps like Babylon in the UK use AI to give medical consultation based on personal medical history and common medical knowledge. Users report their symptoms into the app, which uses speech recognition to compare against a database of illnesses and asks patients to specify symptoms to triage whether they should go to the ED, urgent care, or a primary care doctor. 21
  22. 22. In todays world health emergencies are numerous and medical personnel are limited. This study has designed a consciousness index to substitute the factor by manpower and improved the classification accuracy (triage) by applying a machine learning algorithm. 22
  23. 23. Get a modern PowerPoint Presentation that is beautifully designed. I hope and I believe that this Template will your Time. M A C H I N E L E A R N I N G Role of AI in Health Treatment Design Artificial intelligence systems have been created to analyze data – notes and reports from a patient’s file, external research, and clinical expertise – to help select the correct, individually customized treatment path. Precision Medicine Instead of developing treatments for populations and making the same medical decisions based on a few similar physical characteristics among patients, medicine has shifted toward prevention, personalization, and precision. Genetics and genomics look for mutations and links to disease from the information in DNA. With the help of AI, body scans can spot cancer and vascular diseases early and predict the health issues people might face based on their genetics. 22
  24. 24. These technologies such as genomics, biotechnology, wearable sensors, or artificial intelligence (AI) are gradually leading to three major directions. They have been (1) making patients the point-of-care; (2) created a vast amount of data that require advanced analytics; and (3) made the foundation of precision medicine. 24
  25. 25. Get a modern PowerPoint Presentation that is beautifully designed. I hope and I believe that this Template will your Time. M A C H I N E L E A R N I N G Role of Artificial Intelligence in Health We are living much longer than previous generations, and as we approach the end of life, we are dying in a different and slower way, from conditions like dementia, heart failure and osteoporosis. It is also a phase of life that is often plagued by loneliness. AI have ‘conversations’ and other social interactions with people to keep aging minds sharp. Medication Management: Improving client adherence The National Institutes of Health have created the AiCure app to monitor the use of medication by a patient. A smartphone’s webcam is partnered with AI to autonomously confirm that patients are taking their prescriptions and helps them manage their condition. 24
  26. 26. Get a modern PowerPoint Presentation that is beautifully designed. I hope and I believe that this Template will your Time. M A C H I N E L E A R N I N G Role of AI in Health 26 Research on Molecular epidemiology: Recently, the greatest statistical computational challenge in molecular epidemiology is to identify and characterize the genes that interact with other genes and environment factors that bring the effect on complex multifactorial disease. This phenomenon cannot be solved by traditional statistical method due to the high dimensionality of the data and the occurrence of multiple polymorphism. Hence, there are several machine learning methods to solve such problems by identifying such susceptibility gene which are neural networks (NNs), support vector machine (SVM), and random forests (RFs) in such common and multifactorial disease
  27. 27. M A C H I N E L E A R N I N G Role of Artificial Intelligence in Health AI allows those in training to go through naturalistic simulations in a way that simple computer-driven algorithms cannot. The advent of natural speech and the ability of an AI computer to draw instantly on a large database of scenarios, means the response to questions, decisions or advice from a trainee can challenge in a way that a human cannot. 27
  28. 28. AI-robot assisted surgery: Robots have been used in medicine for more than 30 years. Surgical robots that can either aid a human surgeon or execute operations by themselves. They’re also used in hospitals and labs for repetitive tasks, in rehabilitation, physical therapy and in support of those with long-term conditions. Role of Artificial Intelligence in Health 28
  29. 29. Role of AI in Public health Role of AI in water treatment Role of AI in Disease Surveillance Role of AI in screening Role of AI in Epidemic Prediction 29
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  31. 31. SemanticMD AI Box can analyze a chest X-ray within 20 seconds and can run off a portable phone charger SemanticMD aims to scale its AI solution to provide low- cost, accessible TB detection to vulnerable populations, particularly throughout Southeast Asia, China and Africa. The company is already working with partners in China, South Africa, The Gambia, Rwanda and Nigeria – offering instant detection for less than $1 per scan. The solution integrates with X-ray devices to work. It can be accessed from the cloud or deployed locally (where internet access is limited).
  32. 32. Role of AI in Disease Surveillance This study used a combination of case reports, Baidu (China’s top search engine) search queries, and climate factors. Then they compared their working models with existing results from five other provinces, and discovered that their data models showed stronger statistical significance. 32
  33. 33. How does AI in disease surveillance work
  34. 34. GUARDIAN (Geographic Utilization of Artificial Intelligence in Real-Time for Disease Identification and Alert Notification) surveillance system is automated and operates in real time. From a practical point of view, as soon as the cases come to the Emergency Department, real-time analysis is performed on various aspects of electronic health records (chief complaints, vital parameters, etc.) and laboratory results. This means that a physician is informed and alerted of a case as soon as it is identified. The main benefit is avoiding delays and preventing further spread of contagious infectious diseases such as influenza, plague and anthrax. Role of AI in Symptoms Screening 34
  35. 35. Acceptance and scope of AI in the World Strategies Acceptance Future investments Researches 34
  36. 36. GOOD GLOBAL SUMMIT for AI The “AI for Good Global Summit” took place at ITU in Geneva, Switzerland, on 7-9 June 2017 organized by ITU and the XPRIZE Foundation, in partnership with twenty UN agencies. This summit discussed how Artificial Intelligence (AI) could follow a development course able to assist the achievement of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. 36
  37. 37. Countries with AI in its national strategies 37
  38. 38. Acceptance 38
  39. 39. According to the research firm, Allied Market Research, the AI in medicine market was valued at $719 million in 2017 and is expected to reach $18,119 million at the end of 2025. One analysis has found that the use of AI applications could result in approximately $150 billion in saved healthcare costs annually by 2026 in the USA. Investments in Artificial intelligence
  40. 40. Researches in AI 1 - CHINA According to the Times Higher Education, in the period between 2011 and 2015, China published over 41,000 papers on AI. 2 - UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Between 2011 and 2015, the US published almost 25,500 papers. With over 1000 companies and US$10 billion in venture capital, companies like IBM, Microsoft, Google, Facebook, and Amazon. 3 - JAPAN 11,700 papers published. At present, about 55% of work activities in Japan could be automated. Switzerland (2.71) Impact factor of such researches in AI Singapore (2.24) Hong Kong (2.00) 40
  41. 41. Artificial Intelligence for Universal Health Coverage & in SDGs Healthcare (SDG Goal 3) Developing countries are endemically short of medical workers. AI applications have the potential to fill this gap. Education (SDG Goal 4) A UNESCO study shows trained teachers are in short supply in many countries. AI for education, AI can potentially provide customised teaching and automated teaching. 01 02 41 In principle, AI can be applied in all sectors and industries. Therefore, AI can contribute to achieving all SDGs. Major goal: Industry, innovation and infrastructure (SDG Goal 9) and responsible consumption and production of energy (SDG Goal 12) SDGs
  42. 42. Artificial Intelligence in Nepal There is a hope…. 42
  43. 43. Present uses of AIs in Nepal In our practical life today, we see, and talk to AI: • Have you ever wondered how some online shopping websites know your preferences to list relevant items for you? Or how any email service providers know which email is spam for you? • Or facebook self tags people in your photos, or collages old photographs or wishes you on your birthday automatically. • Siri app; your virtual friend, Zini your mobile doctor are some examples of simple AIs. Medicine Delivery in the rural area • Medicine delivery to the rural area is difficult and this has a severe effect on the health of locals in those areas. Drones are best utilized in such situation with vital medicines being delivered on time and cheaper. Medical field can have other benefits with the use of AI. 43
  44. 44. Artificial Intelligence in Nepal • AI is still in infancy period in Nepal. It started in 2011 with the establishment of Fusemachine company working in the field of Artificial Intelligence. • As far as our country is concerned, Nepalese youths have done pretty good work in the field of Artificial Intelligence & Robotics. However, Fusemachine, AID and Paaila Technology are major tech-company working in AI for a long time. Still there are around 10+ tech companies working to come up with innovation in AI. This means we have future of possibility to work more for AI in our country Nepal. M-health DHIS 2 Robot waiters Nepali Speech Recognition Query-AI powered chatbots Nepali Text To Speech 44
  45. 45. Kathmandu, Feb 8: Wiseyak is a health care IT company that uses artificial intelligence and machine learning to provide services to hospitals, patients and doctors. The company is trying to build clinical decision support system which would make it easier for the doctors to reach to the proper diagnosis. “The software will take the report of the patients, lab results and come to the conclusion. It will not replace the doctor but will assist the doctor while doing diagnosis of the patient, so whatever the doctors need is right in front of them. If a patient comes in to see the doctor with a headache, then the algorithm will ask the patient about other reoccurring symptoms, making it easier to identify the disease which will reduce the chances of misdiagnosis providing transparency to the doctors and patients, also saving the time of both patient and doctor from unnecessary tests, “said Ravi Bajaracharya, chief technical officer and co- founder of the company. A majority of hospitals in Nepal use paper documents instead of electronic record data and doctors in Nepal are outnumbered by the number of patients, making it difficult to give time to each patient. “This innovation will improve the accuracy of the doctor and digitize patient’s medical records. Another benefit of this technology is that it will make diagnosis in rural areas easier where doctors are not easily available,” said Dr Hemanta Shrestha COO and co-founder of the company. A team of three members came up with an idea of this unique innovation. The prototype of this technology will be ready in a month and the final product will be launched within six months in South Asia. This innovation will surely give health care a new direction in Nepal. Wiseyak: a health care IT company in Nepal which uses artificial intelligence and machine learning to provide services to hospitals, patients and doctors. The company has built clinical decision support system which would make it easier for the doctors to reach to the proper diagnosis. The project is in piloting stage in some hospitals of Kathmandu. This innovation will improve the accuracy of the doctor and digitalize patient’s medical records. Another benefit of this technology is that it will make diagnosis in rural areas easier where doctors are not easily available. Present uses of AIs in Nepal 45
  46. 46. This data was fed through an AI engine called AIDR (Artificial Intelligence Disaster Response) to generate a “Live Crisis Map”. Flowminder, a Swedish NGO, collaborated with Ncell to use cell phone location data to estimate population movements after the quake in order to inform the relief efforts. Present uses of AIs in Nepal 46 Public Services Besides impacting the economy and employment, AI is optimizing the delivery mechanisms of public goods and services. During the earthquake in Nepal, the UN used its 1500 strong group of volunteers of its Digital Humanitarian Network to label the tweets coming out of Nepal as “urgent needs”, “infrastructure damage”, and “response effort”.
  47. 47. • On October 27, 2018, project called PD3R, lead by team of Artificial intelligence for Development (AID), Naxa and BuildChange, won runner up position in International AI competition called, Call for Code, organized by IBM. • Together, the team created Post-Disaster Rapid Response Retrofit (PD3R). The solution, which is based on AI taught by 3D model images, has the potential to provide displaced families with immediate access to engineering advice following a natural disaster. • PD3R is an AI Solution which uses Deep Learning to classify houses which can be retrofitted or not. Present uses of AIs in Nepal 47
  48. 48. 6/11/2019 48
  49. 49. Need and Possibilities of AI in Nepal • The doctor to population ratio for the whole country is 1:1724. Like most developing nations, doctors are geographically mal- distributed in Nepal. • Medicine delivery to the rural area due to its geography is difficult and this has a severe effect on the health of locals in those areas. There is to mention AI can be effective in these circumstances. • Community Leaders Program (CLP) in Nepal is mostly targeted to students and new learners in AI, so that they can take a lead of their community and organize events, conduct AI research, build projects, write articles on related topics. • Likewise, in #SocialGoodSummit 2018, UNDP Nepal has collaborated with Artificial Intelligence for Development (AID) to explore ways to make tech work for the Sustainable Development Goals (#SDGs) at the Institute of Engineering in Pulchowk. 49
  50. 50. Challenges of AI in Nepal • Unavailable digitization of patients’ records (EHRs) • Pre-operative planning, • High costs • New concepts • Lack of internet facility at all conditions • Lack of Governmental strategies • Safety concerns • Who will be responsible for harm caused by AI mistakes – the computer programmer, the tech company, the regulator or the clinician? • Fear of losing jobs 50
  51. 51. Conclusion Technology is changing fast, and the world is changing with it. Concepts that were mere science fiction only a couple of decades ago -- like artificial intelligence (AI) -- are quickly becoming commonplace. Advancements of AI in healthcare can assist the human thoughts, human power, human resources effectively and efficiently. We know every advancements have both pros and cons. AI could mean a lot of power will be in the hands of a few who are controlling it. Also AI dehumanizes warfare as AI technology can kill humans without involving an actual human to pull the trigger. In addition, AI does not have the ability to make a judgement call, so the accountability of their work remains questionable. But as we accepted computers, digitalization and dependency upon internet through time, eventually AI will be employed to bring about another revolution in health sector. 51
  52. 52. • Kim D, You S, So S, Lee J, Yook S, Jang DP, et al. A data-driven artificial intelligence model for remote triage in the prehospital environment. Mumtaz W, editor. PLOS ONE. 2018 Oct 23;13(10):e0206006. • Rumoro D, Shah S, Hallock MM, Gibbs GS, Trenholme G, Waddell M. A Syndrome Definition Validation Approach for Zika Virus. Online J Public Health Inform [Internet]. 2017 May 2 [cited 2019 Jun 9];9(1). Available from: • AI and big data healthcare in Korea [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jun 3]. Available from: AS_FocalPointAI190328&utm_content=NatureSpringerSciam • AI in India.pdf. • Wahl B, Cossy-Gantner A, Germann S, Schwalbe NR. Artificial intelligence (AI) and global health: how can AI contribute to health in resource-poor settings? BMJ Glob Health. 2018 Aug;3(4):e000798. • Wong ZSY, Zhou J, Zhang Q. Artificial Intelligence for infectious disease Big Data Analytics. Infect Dis Health. 2019 Feb;24(1):44–8. • Artificial intelligence in healthcare. 2018;27. • Sinčak P, Ondo J, Kaposztasova D, Virčikova M, Vranayova Z, Sabol J. Artificial Intelligence in Public Health Prevention of Legionelosis in Drinking Water Systems. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Aug 21;11(8):8597–611. • Panch T, Pearson-Stuttard J, Greaves F, Atun R. Artificial intelligence: opportunities and risks for public health. Lancet Digit Health. 2019 May;1(1):e13–4. • Artificial_intelligence_in_healthcare_0119.pdf. • Artificial-Intelligence-AI-in-healthcare-and-research.pdf. • Esteva A, Kuprel B, Novoa RA, Ko J, Swetter SM, Blau HM, et al. Dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks. Nature. 2017 Feb;542(7639):115. • ESCAP_Artificial_Intelligence.pdf [Internet]. [cited 2019 Jun 5]. Available from: • First look at cloud-based medical records. [cited 2019 Jun 3]; Available from: • Gilad. How AI can solve Australia’s early detection skin cancer challenge; QODE Brisbane 2019 [Internet]. QODE. 2019 [cited 2019 Jun 3]. Available from: • Nadda JP. India’s leadership to end tuberculosis. The Lancet. 2019 Mar 30;393(10178):1270–2. • Loh E. Medicine and the rise of the robots: a qualitative review of recent advances of artificial intelligence in health. BMJ Lead. 2018 Jun;2(2):59–63. • Marchalik D. Physician burnout in the modern era. The Lancet. 2019 Mar 2;393(10174):868–9. • The future is bright for precision medicine in South Korea. [cited 2019 Jun 3]; Available from: • Mesko B. The role of artificial intelligence in precision medicine. Expert Rev Precis Med Drug Dev. 2017 Sep 3;2(5):239–41. • Murray SG, Yim JWL, Croci R, Rajkomar A, Schmajuk G, Khanna R, et al. Using Spatial and Temporal Mapping to Identify Nosocomial Disease Transmission of Clostridium difficile. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 Dec 1;177(12):1863. • Wiegand T, Krishnamurthy R, Kuglitsch M, Lee N, Pujari S, Salathé M, et al. WHO and ITU establish benchmarking process for artificial intelligence in health. The Lancet [Internet]. 2019 Mar 29 [cited 2019 Jun 3];0(0). Available from: • Gates B. With immense power to unleash improvements in cost, quality and access, AI is exploding in popularity. Growth in the AI health market is expected to reach $6.6 billion by 2021—that’s a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent (see Figure 1). :8. References 52
  53. 53. Thank You Recently, the President of the Russian Federation said "artificial intelligence is the future not only of Russia but of all of mankind. There are huge opportunities, but also threats that are difficult to foresee today. Whoever becomes the leader in this sphere will become the ruler of the world” 52